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Title 56 - Motor Vehicles


CHAPTER 5


Uniform Act Regulating Traffic on Highways


ARTICLE 1


General Provisions


SECTION 56-5-10.Short title.

This chapter may be cited as the "Uniform Act Regulating Traffic on Highways."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-681; 1952 Code Section 46-681; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-20.Applicability of chapter to vehicles operated upon highways; exceptions.

The provision of this chapter relating to the operation of vehicles refer exclusively to the operation of vehicles upon highways, except:

(1) When a different place is specifically referred to in a given section; and

(2) That the provisions of Articles 9 and 23 shall apply upon highways and elsewhere throughout the State.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-288; 1952 Code Section 46-288; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-30.Chapter applicable and uniform throughout State; local regulations.

The provisions of this chapter shall be applicable and uniform throughout this State and in all political subdivisions and municipalities therein, and no local authority shall enact or enforce any ordinance, rule or regulation in conflict with the provisions of this chapter unless expressly authorized herein. Local authorities may, however, subject to the limitations prescribed in Section 56-5-930, adopt additional traffic regulations which are not in conflict with the provisions of this chapter.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen 1952 Code Section 46-281; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-40.Applicability of chapter to roads on Atomic Energy Commission lands in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell counties.

All the provisions of this chapter, except Articles 27, 33, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, 37, and 39 and Section 56-5-910, apply to all roads within the confines of lands in Aiken, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Allendale, and Barnwell counties acquired or to be acquired by the United States Government for use of the Department of Energy.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-281.1; 1956 (49) 1581; 1990 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 598, Section 7.

SECTION 56-5-50.Applicability of chapter to operation of mopeds.

With the exception of Articles 35 and 37, the provisions of Chapter 5 of Title 56 govern the operation of mopeds on the public highways and streets of this State.

HISTORY: 1986 Act No. 528, Section 5; 1991 Act No. 94, Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-60.Requirements for envelope containing certain notices.

The envelope in which a notice required by law to be mailed by the Department of Motor Vehicles is mailed, other than by registered or certified mail, must have printed on it in bold letters "Please Forward".

HISTORY: 1988 Act No. 613; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1398; 1996 Act No. 459, Section 179.

SECTION 56-5-70.Certain vehicle requirements suspended during state of emergency; declarations of emergency triggering federal relief under 49 C.F.R. 390.23.

(A)(1) Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter or any other provision of law, during a state of emergency declared by the Governor and in the course of responding to the state of emergency:

(a) requirements relating to registration, permitting, length, width, weight, and load are suspended for commercial and utility vehicles traveling on noninterstate routes for up to one hundred twenty days, provided the vehicles do not exceed a gross weight of ninety thousand pounds and do not exceed a width of twelve feet;

(b) requirements relating to time of service suspensions for commercial and utility vehicles traveling on interstate and noninterstate routes are suspended for up to thirty days, unless extended for additional periods in accordance with 49 C.F.R. 390-399.

(2) All vehicles 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen upon the public highways of this State under the authority of this section must:

(a) be operated in a safe manner;

(b) maintain required limits of insurance; and

(c) be clearly identified as a utility vehicle or provide appropriate documentation indicating it is a commercial vehicle responding to the emergency.

(B) When an emergency is declared which triggers relief from regulations pursuant to 49 C.F.R. 390.23 in North 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen or Georgia, an emergency, as referenced in the regional emergency provision of 49 C.F.R. 390.23(a)(1)(A), must be declared in this State by the Governor.

(C) A declaration of emergency in this State, as described in subsection (B), must not be terminated prior to the termination of the declarations of emergencies in North Carolina and Georgia or the thirtieth day after the initial declaration of emergency in this State, whichever is less.

(D) A declaration of emergency in this State that triggers relief from regulations pursuant to 49 C.F.R. 390.23 must be effective for no less than fourteen days prior to its termination, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Unless the initial declaration of emergency contains a termination date, the order may not be terminated until the passage of seven days after notification of the date of termination is issued or the passage of thirty days after the initial declaration of the emergency, whichever is less, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. If termination of the declaration of emergency is to occur prior to the passage of thirty days after the initial declaration of emergency, the declaration of emergency must be terminated at 11:59 p.m. on a Friday.

(E) Citations for violating a local ordinance or the traffic laws relating to speeding or disregarding traffic control devices based in whole or in part on photographic evidence, whether gathered in conjunction with radar speed detection devices and whether the camera or other electronic device capturing the photographic evidence was attended or unattended at the time it captured the photographic evidence, only may be issued for violations that occur while relief from regulations pursuant to 49 C.F.R. 390.23 has been granted due to an emergency. A person who receives a citation for violating traffic laws relating to speeding or disregarding traffic control devices based in whole or in part on photographic evidence must be served in person with notice of the violation within one hour of the occurrence of the violation unless a collision occurred and fault cannot be determined immediately or the party who caused the collision is not immediately accessible due to medical treatment. The provisions of this subsection do not apply to toll collection enforcement.

HISTORY: 2001 Act No. 79, Section 1; 2010 Act No. 250, Section 1, eff June 11, 2010; 2011 Act No. 65, Section 3, eff June 17, 2011; 2015 Act No. 9 (S.358), Section 1, eff May 7, 2015.

SECTION 56-5-90.Driving limitations for intrastate motor carrier driver.

(A) For motor carriers subject to this title, an intrastate motor carrier driver may not drive:

(1) more than twelve hours following eight consecutive hours off duty;

(2) for any period after having been on duty sixteen hours following eight consecutive hours off duty;

(3) after having been on duty seventy hours in seven consecutive days;

(4) more than eighty hours in eight consecutive days.

(B) An intrastate driver is determined by his previous seven days of operation.

HISTORY: 1994 Act No. 417, Section 3; 1995 Act No. 36, Section 1.

ARTICLE 3


Definitions


In General

SECTION 56-5-110.Generally.

For the purposes of this chapter the words, phrases and terms defined in this article shall have the meanings thereby attributed to them.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-201; 1952 Code Section 46-201; 1949 (46) 466.

Subarticle I

Vehicles and Equipment

SECTIONS 56-5-120 to 56-5-140.Reserved.

HISTORY: Former Section 56-5-120, titled Vehicle defined, had the following history: 1962 Code Section 46-211; 1952 Code Section 46-211; 1949 (46) 466. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, Section 17, eff November 19, 2018.

HISTORY: Former Section 56-5-130, titled Motor vehicle defined, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, had the following history: 1962 Code Section 46-212; 1952 Code Section 46-212; 1949 (46) 466; 1986 Act No. 528, Section 6. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, Section 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, eff November 19, 2018.

HISTORY: Former Section 56-5-140, titled Motorcycle defined, had the following history: 1962 Code Section 46-213; 1952 Code Section 46-213; 1949 (46) 466; 1992 Act No. 486, Section 8; 2000 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 375, Section 7. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, Section 19, eff November 19, 2018.

SECTION 56-5-145.Repealed.

HISTORY: Former Section, titled Automotive three-wheel vehicle defined, had the following history: 1992 Act No. 486, Section 1; 2000 Act No. 375, Section 8. Repealed by 2017 Act No. 34, Section 8, eff November 10, 2017.

SECTION 56-5-150.Reserved.

HISTORY: Former Section, titled Motor-driven cycle defined, had the following history: 1962 Code Section 46-214; 1952 Code Section 46-214; 1949 (46) 466; 1986 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 528, Section 5. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, Section 20, eff November 19, 2018.

SECTION 56-5-155.Repealed.

HISTORY: Former Section, titled Motorcycle three-wheel vehicle defined, had the following history: 2000 Act No. 375, Section 9. Repealed by 2017 Act No. 34, Section 8, eff November 10, 2017.

SECTION 56-5-160.Bicycle defined.

A bicycle is a device propelled solely by pedals, operated by one or more persons, and having two or more wheels, except childrens' tricycles.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-215; 1952 Code Section 46-215; 1949 (46) 466; 1973 (58) 348; 1974 (58) 2117; 1986 Act No. 528, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Section 8; 2008 Act No. 317, Section 1, eff June 10, 2008.

SECTION 56-5-165.Reserved.

HISTORY: Former Section, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, titled Moped defined, had the following history: 1986 Act No. 528, Section 9; 1991 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 94, Section 3. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, Section 22, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, eff November 19, 2018.

SECTION 56-5-170.Authorized emergency vehicles defined.

(A) Authorized emergency vehicles for purposes of this section include the following:

(1) fire department vehicles;

(2) police vehicles;

(3) ambulances and rescue squad vehicles which are publicly owned;

(4) vehicles of coroners and deputy coroners of the forty-six counties as designated by the coroners;

(5) emergency vehicles designated by the fire department or the chief of police of a municipality;

(6) county government litter enforcement vehicles used by certified law enforcement Class 3 litter control officers;

(7) Department of Natural Resources vehicles, federal natural 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen vehicles, and forestry commission vehicles when being used in the performance of law enforcement duties;

(8) public and private vehicles while transporting individuals actually engaged in emergency activities because one or more occupants belong to a fire department, volunteer fire department, police department, sheriff's office, authorized county government litter enforcement office, rescue squad, or volunteer rescue squad;

(9) county or municipal government jail or corrections vehicles used by Max Internet Optimizer 1.0.0.007 crack serial keygen jail or corrections officers, and emergency vehicles designated by the Director of the South Carolina Department of Corrections;

(10) vehicles designated by the Commissioner of the Department of Health and Environmental Control when being used in the performance 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen law enforcement or emergency response duties.

(11) federal law enforcement, military, and emergency vehicles; and

(12) organ procurement organization vehicles, which means vehicles operated by organizations that perform or coordinate the procurement, preservation, and transport of organs and maintain systems for locating prospective recipients for available organs.

(B) Only authorized emergency vehicles and private security patrol vehicles regulated by the State Law Enforcement Division are allowed use or display of any blue lights or red lights. This includes light bars and smaller lights such as dash, deck, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or visor lights. To "display" means to be seen, whether activated or not.

(C) A vehicle shall not display the word 'police' unless it is an authorized emergency vehicle for use only by sworn police or other officers who are approved and certified by the South Carolina Criminal Justice Academy.

(D) The provisions of this section do not apply to automobile dealerships, to police equipment suppliers that sell, deliver, or equip police vehicles to or for a law enforcement agency, to vehicles owned solely as collector's items and used only for participation in club activities, exhibits, tours, parades, and similar uses, or to persons designated by an agency owning such a vehicle to drive the vehicle or drive an auxiliary vehicle transporting such a vehicle.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-216; 1952 Code Section 46-216; 1949 (46) 466; 1975 (59) 76; 1978 Act No. 461 Section 1; 2004 Act No. 285, Section 1; 2018 Act No. 196 (S.874), Section 1, eff May 17, 2018.

Effect of Amendment

2018 Act No. 196, Section 1, in (A), added (12), relating to organ procurement organization vehicles.

SECTION 56-5-180.Bus defined.

Every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than ten passengers and used for the transportation of persons and every motor vehicle, other than a taxicab, designed and used for the transportation of persons for compensation is a "bus."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-217; 1952 Code Section 46-217; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-190.School bus defined.

Every motor vehicle that complies with the color and identification requirements set forth in Section 59-67-30 and State Board of Education Regulations and Specifications Pertaining to School Buses which is used to transport children to or from public school or in connection with school activities, but not including buses operated by common carriers not 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen engaged in the transportation of school students and vehicles having school bus markings temporarily removed or covered, is a "school bus".

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-218; 1952 Code Section 46-218; 1949 (46) 466; 1978 Act No. 422 Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-195.School bus safety standards.

(A) Effective July 1, 2000, any entity transporting preprimary, primary, or secondary school students to or from school, school-related activities, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or child care, and utilizing a vehicle defined as a "school bus" under 49 U.S.C. Section 30125, as defined on April 5, 2000, must transport these students in DAW Archives vehicle meeting federal school bus safety standards, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, as contained in 49 U.S.C. Section 30101, et seq., or any successor statutes, and all applicable federal regulations. Nothing in this section prohibits the transportation of children to or from child care in nonconforming vehicles by a State of South Carolina human service provider or public transportation authority as long as each child is accompanied by a parent or legal guardian whose transportation is in connection with his work, education, or training.

(B) Notwithstanding subsection (A) of this section, any vehicle that is purchased before July 1, 2000, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and is utilized to transport preprimary, primary, or secondary students to or from school, school-related activities, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or child care is not subject to the requirements contained in subsection (A) of this section until July 1, 2006. A vehicle that is purchased on or after July 1, 2000, and is utilized to transport preprimary, primary, or secondary students to or from school, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, school-related activities, or child care is subject to the requirements contained in subsection (A) of this section once the vehicle is utilized for those purposes.

(C) Before July 1, 2006, nothing in this section may be construed to create a duty or other obligation to cease utilizing nonconforming vehicles purchased before the effective date of this act.

(D) To facilitate compliance with the provisions contained in this section, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, any entity contained in this section may purchase conforming vehicles under the State of South Carolina contracts for purchase of these vehicles.

(E) Nothing in the section prohibits the transportation of students by common carriers that are not exclusively engaged in the transportation of school students or by the entities subject to this section which own or operate these vehicles. However, the motor carriage used by the common carrier or entity to transport students must be designed to carry thirty or more passengers.

HISTORY: 2000 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 301, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-196.Designation of daycare center as origin or destination for school transportation.

The parents or legal guardians of a student who is eligible to receive public school bus transportation must have the option of designating a child daycare center or other before or after school program as the student's origin or destination for school transportation.

HISTORY: 2000 Act No. 301, Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-200.Truck defined.

Every motor vehicle designed, used or maintained primarily for the transportation of property is a "truck."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-219; 1952 Code Section 46-219; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-210.Truck tractor defined.

Every motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen and the load so drawn is a "truck tractor."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-220; 1952 Code Section 46-220; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-220.Farm tractor defined.

Every motor vehicle designed and used primarily as a farm implement for drawing plows, mowing machines and other implements of husbandry is a "farm tractor."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-221; 1952 Code Section 46-221; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-225.Farm truck defined.

"Farm truck" is defined as a truck used exclusively by the owner for agricultural, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, horticultural, dairying, livestock, and poultry operations and includes transporting farm processed horticultural products, including soil amendments and mulches owned by the truck's owner or another person, including first market. However, farm trucks with an empty weight of less than twenty-six thousand and one pounds may be used for ordinary domestic purposes and general transportation, but must not be used to transport persons or property for hire, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. No part of this definition may be interpreted to exempt any commercial motor vehicle less than 26,001 pounds GVW/GVWR/GCW/GCWR from all or part of state laws or regulations applicable to intrastate commerce if the vehicle:

(1) transports hazardous materials requiring a placard; or

(2) is designed or used to transport sixteen or more people, including the driver.

HISTORY: 2012 Act No. 180, Section 1, eff May 25, 2012.

SECTION 56-5-230.Road tractor defined.

Every motor vehicle designed and used for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry any load thereon either independently or any part of the weight of a vehicle or load so drawn is a "road tractor."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-222; 1952 Code Section 46-222; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-240.Trailer defined.

Every vehicle with or without motive power, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle is a "trailer."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-223; 1952 Code Section 46-223; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-250.Semitrailer defined.

Every vehicle, with or without motive power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests upon or is carried by another vehicle is a "semitrailer."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-224; 1952 Code Section 46-224; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-260.Pole trailer defined.

Every vehicle without motive power designed to be drawn by another vehicle and attached to the towing vehicle by means of a reach or pole or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing vehicle and ordinarily used for transporting long or irregularly shaped loads such as poles, pipes or structural members capable, generally, of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections is a "pole trailer."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-225; 1952 Code Section 46-225; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-270.Railroad defined.

A "railroad" is a carrier of persons or property upon cars, other than streetcars, operated upon stationary rails.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-226; 1952 Code Section 46-226; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-280.Railroad train defined.

A "railroad train" is a steam engine, electric or other motor, with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails, other than a streetcar.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-227; 1952 Code 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen 46-227; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-290.Streetcar defined.

A "streetcar" is a car other than a railroad train for transporting persons or property and operated upon rails principally within a municipality.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-228; 1952 Code Section 46-228; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-300.Pneumatic tire defined.

Every tire in which compressed air is designed to support the load is a "pneumatic tire."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-229; 1952 Code Section 46-229; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-310.Solid tire defined.

Every tire of rubber or other resilient material which does not depend upon compressed air for the support of the load is a "solid tire."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-230; 1952 Code Section 46-230; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-320.Metal tire defined.

Every tire the surface of which in contact with the highway is wholly or partly of metal or other hard, nonresilient material is a "metal tire."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-231; 1952 Code Section 46-231; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-330.Safety glass defined.

"Safety glass" shall mean any product composed of glass, so manufactured, fabricated or treated as substantially to prevent shattering and flying of the glass when struck or broken or such other or similar product as may be approved by the Department of Public Safety.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-232; 1952 Code Section 46-232; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-340.Explosive defined.

An "explosive" is any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion or by detonator of any part of the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructive effects on contiguous objects or of destroying life or limb.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-233; 1952 Code Section 46-233; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-350.Flammable liquid defined.

Any liquid which has a flash point of 70°F., or less, as determined by a Tagliabue or equivalent closed-cup test device, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, is a "flammable liquid."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-234; 1952 Code Section 46-234; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-360.Gross weight defined.

"Gross weight" is the weight of a vehicle without load plus the weight of any load thereon.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-235; 1952 Code Section 46-235; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-361.Passenger car defined.

Every motor vehicle except motorcycles and mopeds, designed for carrying ten passengers or less and used for the transportation of persons is a "passenger car".

HISTORY: 1978 Act No. 461 Section 2; 2017 Act No. 89 (H.3247), Section 23, eff November 19, 2018.

Effect of Amendment

2017 Act No. 89, Section 23, substituted "mopeds" for "motor-driven cycles".

SECTION 56-5-362.Truck-camper defined.

Any structure designed, used or maintained primarily to be loaded on or affixed to a motor vehicle to provide a mobile dwelling, sleeping place, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, office or commercial 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen is a "truck-camper".

HISTORY: 1978 Act no. 461 Section 3.

Subarticle II

Governmental Agencies, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Pedestrians, Police Officers and Other Persons

SECTION 56-5-380.Local authority defined.

Every county and municipality in this State and any other local board or body having authority to maintain any public highways or to regulate the traffic thereon, but not including the Department of Public Safety, is a "local authority."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-242; 1952 Code Section 46-242; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-390.Pedestrian defined.

Any person afoot is a "pedestrian."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-243; 1952 Code Section 46-243; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-400.Driver defined.

Every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle is a "driver."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-244; 1952 Code Section 46-244; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-410.Reserved.

HISTORY: Former Section, titled Owner defined, had the following history: 1962 Code Section 46-245; 1952 Code Section 46-245; 1949 (46) 466; 1978 Act No. 461 Section 4. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Section 24, eff November 19, 2018.

SECTION 56-5-420.Police officer defined.

Every officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of vehicular and traffic laws is a "police officer."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-246; 1952 Code Section 46-246; 1949 (46) 466.

Subarticle III

Highways, Districts, Signals and the Like

SECTION 56-5-430.Street defined; highway defined.

The entire width between boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel is a "street" or "highway."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-251; 1952 Code Section 46-251; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-440.Through highway defined.

Every highway or portion thereof on which vehicular traffic is given preferential right-of-way, and at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to yield the right-of-way to vehicles on such through highway in obedience to a stop sign, yield sign or other official traffic-control device, when such signs or devices are erected as provided in this chapter is a "through highway".

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-252; 152 Code Section 46-252; 1949 (46) 466; 1978 Act No. 461 Section 5.

SECTION 56-5-450.Private road defined; driveway defined.

Every way or place in private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner but not by other persons is a "private road" or "driveway."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-253; 1952 Code Section 46-253; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-460.Roadway defined.

A "roadway" is that portion of a highway improved, designed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the shoulder or berm. In the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term "roadway" as used in this chapter shall refer to any such roadway separately but not to all such roadways collectively.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-254; 1952 Code Section 46-254; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-470.Laned roadway defined.

A "laned roadway" is a roadway 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-255; 1952 Code Section 46-255; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-480.Sidewalk defined.

A "sidewalk" is that portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines, of a roadway and the adjacent property lines, intended for the use of pedestrians.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-256; 1952 Code Section 46-256; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-490.Intersection defined.

An "intersection" is the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, right angles or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in contact.

When a highway includes two roadways thirty feet or more apart, every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection. In the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways thirty feet or more apart, every crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-257; 1952 Code Section 46-257; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-500.Crosswalk defined.

A "crosswalk" is:

(1) That part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or in the absence of curbs from the edges of the traversable roadway; or

(2) Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-258; 1952 Code Section 46-258; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-510.Safety zone defined.

A "safety zone" is an area or space officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which is protected or is so marked or indicated by adequate signs as to be plainly visible at all times while set apart as a safety zone.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-259; 1952 Code Section 46-259; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-520.Business district defined.

A "business district" is the territory contiguous to and including a roadway when within any six hundred feet along such roadway there are buildings in use for business or industrial purposes, including but not limited to hotels, banks, office buildings, railroad stations and public buildings, which occupy at least three hundred feet of frontage on one side or three hundred feet collectively on both sides of the roadway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-260; 1952 Code Section 46-260; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-530.Residence district defined.

A "residence district" is the territory contiguous Dungeon Siege 2 - Broken World crack serial keygen and including a highway not comprising a business district when the property on such highway for a distance of three hundred feet or more is in the main improved with residences or residences and buildings in use for business.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-261; 1952 Code Section 46-261; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-540.Official traffic-control devices defined.

All signs, signals, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, markings and devices, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, not inconsistent with this chapter, placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic are "official traffic-control devices."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-262; 1952 Code Section 46-262; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-550.Traffic-control signal defined.

Any device, whether manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and to proceed is a "traffic-control signal."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-263; 1952 Code Section 46-263; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-560.Railroad sign or signal defined.

Any sign, signal or device erected by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad and intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks or the approach of a railroad train is a "railroad sign or signal."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-264; 1952 Code Section 46-264; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-570.Traffic defined.

Pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, streetcars and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel are "traffic."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-265; 1952 Code Section 46-265; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-580.Right-of-way defined.

"Right-of-way" is the right of one vehicle or pedestrian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle or pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of direction, speed and proximity as to give rise to danger of collision unless one grants precedence to the other.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-266; 1952 Code Section 46-266; 1949 (46) 466; 1978 Act No. 461 Section 6.

SECTION 56-5-590.Stop defined.

"Stop," when required, means complete cessation from movement.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-267; 1952 Code Section 46-267; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-600.Stop, stopping, or standing defined.

"Stop," "stopping" or "standing," when prohibited, means any stopping or standing of a vehicle whether occupied or not, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a police officer or traffic-control sign or signal.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-268; 1952 Code Section 46-268; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-610.Park defined.

To "park," when prohibited, means the standing of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-269; 1952 Code Section 46-269; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-611.Alley defined.

A 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen or highway intended to provide access to the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban districts and not intended for the purpose of through vehicular traffic is an "alley".

HISTORY: 1978 Act No. 461 Section 7.

SECTION 56-5-612.Arterial street defined.

Any United States-or State-numbered route, controlled-access highway or other major radial or circumferential street or highway designated by local authorities within their respective jurisdictions as part of a major arterial system of streets or highways is an "arterial street".

HISTORY: 1978 Act No. 461 Section 8.

SECTION 56-5-613.Controlled-access highway defined.

Every highway, street or roadway to which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or from except at such points only and in such manner as may be determined by the public authority having jurisdiction over such highway, street or roadway is a "controlled-access highway".

HISTORY: 1978 Act No. 461 Section 9.

SECTION 56-5-614.Divided highway defined.

A highway divided into two or more roadways by leaving an intervening space or divided by a physical barrier or by a clearly indicated dividing section so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic is a "divided highway".

HISTORY: 1978 Act No. 461 Section 10.

SECTION 56-5-615.Freeway defined.

A "freeway" is a multilane divided highway with full control of access, and grade separated interchanges, of the type comprising the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, or other highways built essentially in conformance to the standards of them.

HISTORY: 1993 Act No. 98, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-616.Interstate system defined.

The interstate system consists of the segments of highways in South Carolina in the officially designated national system of interstate and defense highways.

HISTORY: 1999 Act No. 17, Section 4.

ARTICLE 5


Obedience to and Effect of Traffic Laws


SECTION 56-5-710.Powers of local authorities.

(A) Subject to the limitations prescribed in Section 56-5-930, the provisions of this chapter shall not be deemed to prevent local authorities with respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction and within the reasonable exercise of the police power from:

(1) regulating the standing or parking of vehicles;

(2) regulating traffic by means of police officers or traffic control signals;

(3) regulating or prohibiting processions or assemblages on the highways;

(4) designating particular highways as one-way highways and requiring that all vehicles thereon be moved in one specific direction;

(5) regulating the speed of vehicles in public parks;

(6) designating any highway as a through highway and requiring that all vehicles stop before entering or crossing it or designating any 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen as a stop intersection and requiring all vehicles to stop at one or more entrances at such intersection;

(7) restricting the use of highways as authorized in Sections 56-5-4210 and 56-5-4220;

(8) regulating the operation of bicycles and requiring the registration and licensing of them, including the requirement of a registration fee;

(9) regulating or prohibiting the turning of vehicles or specified types of vehicles at intersections;

(10) altering the prima facie speed limits as authorized herein; or

(11) adopting such other traffic regulations as are specifically authorized by this chapter.

(B) Nothing in subsection (A) may be construed to permit a local authority to issue a uniform traffic citation for violating a local ordinance or the traffic laws relating to speeding or disregarding traffic control devices based in whole or in part upon photographic evidence whether gathered in conjunction with radar speed detection devices and whether the camera or other electronic device capturing the photographic evidence was attended or unattended at the time it captured the photographic evidence.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-282; 1952 Code Section 46-282; 1949 (46) 466; 2011 Act No. 65, Section 2, eff June 17, 2011.

SECTION 56-5-715.Liability for municipal parking or traffic violations.

The registered owner of any motor vehicle leased or rented to another is not liable for any municipal traffic or parking violation occurring while the leased or rented vehicle was not in his possession or control, if upon notice of the violation the registered owner notifies the clerk, city recorder, or other appropriate municipal official of the court in which the case is pending of the name, address, and driver's license number of the lessee of the vehicle on the date the violation occurred. This notice must be notarized. If the registered owner fails to submit the notice within seven working days of receipt of the violation, the court in which the case is heard may take such action as the interest of justice requires, including finding the registered owner of the motor vehicle liable for the violation.

HISTORY: 1984 Act No. 371, Section 7.

SECTION 56-5-720.Notice of local regulations required.

No ordinances or regulations enacted under items (4), (5), (6), (7), (9) or (10) of Section 56-5-710 shall be effective until signs giving notice of such local traffic regulations are posted upon or at the entrances to the highway or part thereof affected as may be most appropriate.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-284; 1952 Code Section 46-284; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-730.Required obedience to traffic laws.

It is unlawful and, unless otherwise declared in this chapter with respect to particular offenses, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, it is a misdemeanor for any person to do any act forbidden or to fail to perform any act required in this chapter.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-286; 1952 Code Section 46-286; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-740.Obedience to authorized persons directing traffic.

No person shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction of any police officer, fireman or uniformed adult school crossing guard invested by law with authority to direct, control or regulate traffic.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-287; 1952 Code Section 46-287; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 149 Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-750.Failure to stop motor vehicle when signaled by law-enforcement vehicle.

(A) In the absence of mitigating circumstances, it is unlawful for a motor vehicle driver, while driving on a road, street, or highway of the State, to fail to stop when signaled by a law enforcement vehicle by means of a siren or flashing light. An attempt to increase the speed of a vehicle or in other manner avoid the pursuing law enforcement vehicle when signaled by a siren or flashing light is prima facie evidence of a violation of this section. Failure to see the flashing light or hear the siren does not excuse a failure to stop when the distance between the vehicles and other road conditions are such that it would be reasonable for a driver to hear or see the signals from the law enforcement vehicle.

(B) A person who violates the provisions of subsection (A):

(1) for a first offense where no great bodily injury or death resulted from the violation, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, upon conviction, must 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen fined not less than five hundred dollars or imprisoned for not less than ninety days nor more than three years. The Department of Motor Vehicles must suspend the person's driver's license for at least thirty days; or

(2) for a second or subsequent offense where no great bodily injury or death resulted from the violation, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, must be imprisoned for not more than five years. The person's driver's license must be suspended by the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen for 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen period of one year from the date of the conviction.

(C) A person who violates the provisions of subsection (A) and when driving performs an act forbidden by law or neglects a duty imposed by law in the driving of the vehicle:

(1) where great bodily injury resulted, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, must be imprisoned for not more than ten years; or

(2) 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen death resulted, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, must be imprisoned for not more than twenty-five years.

(D) The department must revoke the driver's license of any person who is convicted pursuant to subsection (C)(1) or (C)(2) for a period to include any term of imprisonment, suspended sentence, parole, or probation, plus three years.

(E) "Great bodily injury" means bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious, permanent disfigurement, or protracted loss of or impairment of the function of a bodily member or organ.

(F) After a conviction pursuant to subsection (B)(1) for a first offense, the person may, after three years from the date of completion 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen all terms and conditions of his sentence for the first offense, apply, or cause someone acting on his behalf to apply, to the court for an order expunging the records of the arrest and conviction. This provision does not apply to any crime classified as a felony. If the person has had no other conviction during the three-year period following the completion of the terms and conditions of the sentence, the court shall issue an order expunging the records. No person has any rights under this section more than one time. After the expungement, the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division and the Department of Motor Vehicles are required to keep a nonpublic record of the offense and the date of its expungement to ensure that no person takes advantage of the rights permitted by this subsection more than once, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. This nonpublic record is not subject to release under the Freedom of Information Act or any other provision of law except to those authorized law or 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen officials who need to know this information in order to prevent the rights afforded by this subsection from being taken advantage of more than once.

(G)(1) If a person is employed or enrolled in a college or university at any time while his driver's license is suspended pursuant to subsection (B) of this section, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, he may apply for a special restricted driver's license permitting him to drive only to and from work or his place of education and in the course of his employment or education during the period of suspension. The department may issue the special restricted driver's license only upon a showing by the person that he is employed or enrolled 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen a college or university, and that he lives further than one mile from his place of employment or place of education.

(2) If the department issues a special restricted driver's license, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, it shall designate reasonable restrictions on the times during which and routes on which the person may operate a motor vehicle. A change in the employment hours, place of employment, status as a student, or residence must be reported immediately to the department by the licensee.

(3) The fee for each special restricted driver's license is one hundred dollars, but no additional fee is due because 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen changes in the place and hours of employment, education, or residence. Of this fee twenty dollars must be distributed to the general fund and eighty dollars must be placed by the Comptroller General into the State Highway Fund as established by Section 57-11-20, to be distributed as provided in Section 11-43-167.

(4) The operation of a motor vehicle outside the time limits and route imposed by a special restricted license by the person issued that license is a violation of Section 56-1-460.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-359; 1968 (55) 2497; 1988 Act No. 532, Section 14; 1993 Act No. 184, Section 251; 1995 Act No. 65, Section 1; 1996 Act No. 459, Section 180; 1999 Act No. 115, Section 6; 2001 Act No. 79, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Section 2.H; 2016 Act No. 275 (S.1258), Section 73, eff July 1, 2016.

SECTION 56-5-760.Operation of authorized emergency vehicles.

(A) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to an emergency call or when in the pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law or when responding to but not upon returning from a fire alarm, may exercise the privileges set forth in this section, FastStone Capture 9.7 Crack Full Version is Here [2021] | Tested subject to the conditions of this section.

(B) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle may:

(1) park or stand, notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter;

(2) 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen past a red or stop signal or stop sign but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation;

(3) exceed the maximum speed limit if he does not endanger life or property;

(4) disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specified directions.

(C) The exemptions in this section granted to an authorized emergency vehicle apply only when the vehicle is making use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4970 and visual signals meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4700 of this chapter, except that an authorized emergency vehicle operated as a police vehicle need not use an audible signal nor display a visual signal when the vehicle is being used to:

(1) obtain evidence of a speeding violation;

(2) respond to a suspected crime in progress when use of an audible or visual signal, or both, could reasonably result in the destruction of evidence or escape of a suspect; or

(3) surveil another vehicle or its occupants who are suspected of involvement in a crime.

(D) The provisions of this section do not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons.

(E) The Criminal Justice Academy shall promulgate regulations pursuant to the Administrative Procedures Act so as to provide uniform guidelines and training programs for law enforcement agencies which use emergency vehicles. Law enforcement agencies authorized to use emergency vehicles shall use the regulations developed by the Criminal Justice Academy to provide written guidelines and to provide training programs for its officers and employees regarding the operation of emergency vehicles.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-291; 1952 Code Section 46-291; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 149 Section 3; 1990 Act No. 580, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-765.Investigations of traffic collisions involving a motor vehicle or motorcycle of a law enforcement agency.

(A) When a motor vehicle or motorcycle of a law enforcement agency, except a motor vehicle or motorcycle of the Department of Public Safety, is involved in a traffic collision that: (1) results in an injury or a death, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or (2) involves a privately-owned motor vehicle or motorcycle, regardless of whether another motor vehicle or 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen is involved, the State Highway Patrol must investigate the collision and must file a report with findings on whether the agency motor vehicle or motorcycle was operated properly within the guidelines of appropriate statutes and regulations.

(B) When a motor vehicle or motorcycle of the Department of Public Safety is involved in a traffic collision that: (1) results in an injury or a death, or (2) involves a privately-owned motor vehicle or motorcycle, regardless of whether another motor vehicle or motorcycle is involved, the sheriff of the county in which the collision occurred must investigate the collision, regardless of whether the collision occurred within an incorporated jurisdiction, and must file a report with findings on whether the Department of Public Safety's motor vehicle or motorcycle was operated properly within the guidelines of appropriate statutes and regulations.

(C) A law enforcement department or agency must not investigate a traffic collision in which a motor vehicle, a motorcycle, or an employee of that department or agency is involved that: (1) results in an injury or a death, or (2) involves a privately-owned motor vehicle or motorcycle, regardless of whether another motor vehicle or motorcycle is involved.

(D) A law enforcement agency that has primary responsibility for an investigation involving a motor vehicle, a motorcycle, or an employee of another department or agency, but lacks the expertise to conduct a proper investigation, may request assistance from another agency that has the appropriate expertise, as long as the assisting agency or an employee of the assisting agency is not a subject of the investigation. A request made pursuant to this subsection shall result in a joint investigation conducted by both agencies.

(E) A person who knowingly and wilfully violates the provisions of subsection (C) is subject to punishment as provided for in Section 8-1-80, even if the person's authority extends beyond a single election or judicial district.

(F) An investigation of a traffic collision involving a motor vehicle, a motorcycle, or an employee of a law enforcement agency or department must include a field investigation to identify possible witnesses, including possible witnesses not involved in the traffic collision, but who may have witnessed the traffic collision from a vantage point other than the collision site.

(G) For purposes of this section, "involved in a traffic collision" includes a law enforcement motor vehicle or motorcycle engaged in a pursuit when a traffic collision occurs.

HISTORY: 1994 Act No. 439, Section 1; 1995 Act No. 138, Section 5; 1996 Act No. 425, Section 3; 1996 Act No. 459, Section 181; 2002 Act No. 277, Section 1; 2004 Act No. 269, Section 1; 2004 Act No. 286, Section 5.

SECTION 56-5-790.Application to persons riding animals, driving animal-drawn vehicles or pushing pushcarts.

Every person riding an animal or driving any animal-drawn vehicle or pushing a pushcart upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this chapter, except those provisions of this chapter which by their very nature can have no application.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-289; 1952 Code Section 46-289; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-800.Persons working on highways; exceptions.

Unless specifically made applicable, the provisions of this chapter except those contained in Articles 3, 9 and 23 and Sections 56-5-1590 to 56-5-1620 shall not apply to persons, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, motor vehicles and other equipment while actually engaged in work upon a highway but shall apply to such persons and vehicles when traveling to or from such work.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-290; 1952 Code Section 46-290; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 149 Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-810.Rights of owner who permits traffic on his property.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent the owner of real property used by the public for purposes of vehicular travel by permission of the owner and not as matter of right from prohibiting such use, from requiring other or different or additional conditions than those specified in this chapter or from otherwise regulating such use as may seem best to such owner.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-294; 1952 Code Section 46-294; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-820.Violations of low speed vehicle laws; penalty.

(A) A person operating a low speed vehicle on a highway must comply with all statutes regarding low speed vehicles in this title.

(B) Each violation of low speed vehicle laws constitutes a separate offense.

(C) The penalty for a violation of this section is contained in Section 56-5-6190.

HISTORY: 2005 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 170, Section 4, eff 6 months after approval by the Governor (approved June 7, 2005).

ARTICLE 7


Traffic Signs, Signals, and Markings


SECTION 56-5-910.Approval by Department of Transportation of stop signs or traffic-control signals placed by local authorities.

No local authority shall erect or maintain any stop sign or traffic-control signal at any location so as to require the traffic on any state highway to stop before entering or crossing any intersecting highway unless approval in writing has first been obtained from the Department of Transportation.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-283; 1952 Code Section 46-283; 1949 (46) 466; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1400.

SECTION 56-5-920.Adoption of uniform 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen of traffic-control devices.

The Department of Transportation may adopt a manual of standards and specifications for a uniform system of traffic-control devices, consistent with the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen of this chapter, for use upon highways and streets within this State.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-301; 1952 Code Section 46-301; 1949 (46) 466; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1401.

SECTION 56-5-930.Placing and maintaining traffic-control devices on state highways.

The Department of Transportation may place and maintain such traffic-control devices, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, conforming to its manual and specifications, upon all state highways as it shall deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the provisions of this chapter or to regulate, warn or guide traffic. No local authority shall place or maintain any traffic-control devices upon any state highway without having first obtained the written approval of the Department of Transportation.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-302; 1952 Code Section 46-302; 1949 (46) 466; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1402.

SECTION 56-5-935.Traffic control devices in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell counties on 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen land; control by U.S. Department of Energy.

The United States Department of Energy 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen authorized to place and maintain traffic control devices upon roads within the confines of the lands in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell counties acquired or to be acquired by the United States Government, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. The Department of Energy is not required to obtain written approval of the Department of Transportation as provided in Sections 56-5-910 and 56-5-930.

The driver of a vehicle must obey the instruction of any traffic 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen device or sign placed as provided in this section unless otherwise directed by a traffic or police officer, subject to the exceptions granted the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle in this chapter.

HISTORY: 1990 Act No. 598, Section 4; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1403.

SECTION 56-5-940.Local traffic-control devices.

Subject to the limitations prescribed in Section 56-5-930, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, local authorities in their respective jurisdictions shall place and maintain such traffic-control devices upon highways under their jurisdiction as they may deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the provisions of this chapter or local traffic ordinances or to regulate, warn or guide traffic. All such traffic-control devices so erected by such local authorities shall conform to the State manual and 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen 1962 Code Section 46-303; 1952 Code Section 46-303; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-950.Obedience to and required traffic-control devices.

(a) The driver of any vehicle shall obey the instructions of any official traffic-control device, applicable thereto placed or held in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, unless otherwise directed by a police officer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, subject to the exceptions granted the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle in this chapter.

(b) No provision of this chapter for which official traffic-control devices are required shall be enforced against an alleged violator if at the time and place of the alleged violation an official device is not in proper position and sufficiently legible to be seen by an ordinarily observant person. Whenever a particular section does not state that official traffic-control devices are required, such section shall be effective even though no devices are erected or in place.

(c) Whenever official traffic-control devices are placed or held in position approximately conforming to the requirements of this chapter, such devices shall be presumed to have been so placed or held by the official act or direction of lawful authority unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.

(d) Any official traffic-control device placed or held pursuant to the provisions of this chapter and purporting to conform to the lawful requirements pertaining to such devices shall be presumed to comply with the requirement of this chapter, unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-304; 1952 Code Section 46-304; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 147 Section 4.

SECTION 56-5-970.Traffic-control signal legend.

Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibiting different colored lights or colored lighted arrows, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors, green, red, and yellow, shall be used except for special pedestrian signals carrying a word legend. Such lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows:

(A) Green indication:

(1) Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. But vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited.

(2) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such arrow or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

(3) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal, as provided in Section 56-5-990, pedestrians facing any green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk.

(B) Steady yellow indication:

(1) Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal is thereby warned that the related green movement is being terminated or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter.

(2) Pedestrians facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in Section 56-5-990, are advised that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway before a red indication is shown and no pedestrian shall then start to cross the roadway.

(C) Steady red indication:

(1) Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular red signal alone shall stop at a clearly marked stop line but, if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then before entering the intersection and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is shown except as provided in item (3).

(2) Vehicular traffic facing a steady red arrow signal shall not enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow, and unless entering the intersection to make a movement permitted by another signal, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line but, if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then before entering the intersection and shall remain standing until an indication permitting the movement indicated by such arrow is shown except as provided in items (3) and (5).

(3) Except when a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, vehicular traffic facing any steady red signal may cautiously enter the intersection to turn right or to turn left from a one-way street into a one-way street after stopping as required by item (1) or (2). Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

(4) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in Section 56-5-3110, pedestrians facing a steady circular red or red arrow signal alone shall not enter the roadway.

(5) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if a driver of a motorcycle or moped, or a bicycle rider, approaches an intersection that is controlled by a traffic-control device, the driver may proceed through the intersection on a steady red light only if the driver or rider, as the case may be:

(a) comes to a full and complete stop at the intersection for one hundred twenty seconds; and

(b) exercises due care as provided by law, otherwise treats the traffic control device as a stop sign, and determines it is safe to proceed.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-306; 1952 Code Section 46-306; 1949 (46) 466; 1975 (59) 76; 1977 Act No. 11; 1977 Act No. 149 Section 5; 2008 Act No. 240, Section 1, eff May 27, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, 2008.

SECTION 56-5-990.Pedestrian "walk" and "wait" signals.

Whenever special pedestrian control signals exhibiting the words "Walk" or "Wait" are in place such signals shall indicate as follows:

(1) "Walk" indicates that a pedestrian facing such signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the right of way by the drivers of all vehicles; and

(2) "Wait" indicates that no pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the direction of such signal, but any pedestrian who has partially completed his crossing on the walk signal shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety island while the wait signal is showing.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-308; 1952 Code Section 46-308; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1000.Flashing signals.

(a) Whenever an illuminated flashing red or yellow light is used in a traffic sign or signal it shall require obedience by vehicular traffic as follows:

1. Flashing red (stop signal). When a red lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles shall stop at a clearly marked stop line but, if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection and the right to proceed shall be subject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.

2. Flashing yellow (caution signal). When a yellow lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles may proceed through the intersection or past such signal only with caution.

(b) This section shall not apply at railroad grade crossings. Conduct of drivers approaching grade crossings shall be governed by the rules set forth in Section 56-5-2710 of this chapter.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-309; 1952 Code Section 46-309; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 149 Section 6.

SECTION 56-5-1010.Railroad signs at grade crossings.

All railroad companies operating railroads in the State shall place and maintain at every crossing of a highway and railroad at grade standard cross-buck signs in accordance with the requirements of the manual of standards and specifications for uniform traffic-control devices referred to in Section 56-5-920.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-310; 1952 Code Section 46-310; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1015.Lane use control signals.

When lane use control signals are placed over individual lanes the signals shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles as follows:

(a) Green indication. Vehicular traffic may travel in any lane over which a green signal is shown.

(b) Steady yellow indication. Vehicular traffic is thereby warned that a lane control change is being made.

(c) Steady red indication. Vehicular traffic shall not enter or travel in any lane over which a red signal is shown.

(d) Flashing yellow indication. Vehicular traffic may use the lane only for the purpose of approaching and making a left turn.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-310.1; 1977 Act No. 149 Section 7.

SECTION 56-5-1020.Unauthorized signs, signals, or devices prohibited; exception; removal.

No person shall place, maintain or display upon or in view of any highway any unauthorized sign, signal, marking or device which (a) purports to be or is an imitation of or resembles an official traffic-control device or railroad sign or signal, (b) attempts to direct the movement of traffic or (c) hides from view or interferes with the effectiveness of any official traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and no person shall place or maintain nor shall any public authority permit upon any highway any traffic sign, signal or control device bearing thereon any commercial advertisement. This provision shall not be deemed to prohibit the erection upon 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen property adjacent to highways of signs giving useful directional information and of a type that cannot be mistaken for official signs. Every such prohibited sign, signal or marking is hereby declared to be a public nuisance, and the authority having jurisdiction over the highway may remove it or cause it to be removed without notice.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-311; 1952 Code Section 46-311; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1030.Interference with traffic-control devices or railroad signs or signals prohibited.

(A) No person shall wilfully without lawful authority attempt to or in fact alter, deface, injure, knock down, or remove an 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen traffic-control device or a railroad sign or signal or its inscriptions, shields, or insignia.

(B) A person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, must be:

(1) fined not less than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. The driver's license of a person convicted under this section must be revoked for not less than five years. In any case where a license has not been issued, the person is not eligible to obtain a license for five years from the date of conviction;

(2) fined not less than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than ten years if injury results;

(3) imprisoned not more than thirty years if death results.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-312; 1952 Code Section 46-312; 1949 (46) 466; 1969 (56) 698; 1993 Act No. 184, Section 82.

ARTICLE 9


Accidents and Reports


SECTION 56-5-1210.Duties of drivers involved in accident resulting in death or personal injury; moving or removing vehicles.

(A) The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting in injury to or the death of a person immediately shall stop the vehicle at the scene of the accident or as close to it as possible. He then shall return to and in every event shall remain at the scene of the accident until he has fulfilled the requirements of Section 56-5-1230, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. However, he may temporarily leave the scene to report the accident to the proper authorities. The stop must be made without obstructing traffic more than is necessary. A person who fails to stop or to comply with the requirements of this section is guilty of:

(1) a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, must be imprisoned not less than thirty days nor more than one year or fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or both, when injury results but great bodily injury or death does not result;

(2) a felony and, upon conviction, must be imprisoned not less than thirty days nor more than ten years and fined not less than five thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars when great bodily injury results; or

(3) a felony and, upon conviction, must be imprisoned not less than one year nor more than twenty-five years and fined not less than ten thousand dollars nor more than twenty-five thousand dollars when death results.

(B) Law enforcement officers or authorized employees of the Department of Transportation may move or have removed from the traveled way all disabled vehicles and vehicles involved in an accident and any debris caused by motor vehicle traffic collisions where it can be accomplished safely and may result in the improved safety or traffic flow upon the road; however, where a vehicle has been involved in an accident resulting in great bodily injury or death to a person, the vehicle shall not be moved until it is authorized by the investigating law enforcement officer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. The State, its political subdivisions, and its officers and employees are not liable for any damages to vehicles that result from the removal unless the removal was carried out in a reckless or grossly negligent manner. The vehicle owner and any driver, or the owner's, driver's, or the at-fault party's insurance company, of a vehicle removed under this subsection, or the owner's, driver's, or the at-fault party's insurance company, shall bear all reasonable costs of removal.

Nothing in this section shall bar recovery from an at-fault party when the accident was caused by the actions of that party.

(C) As used in this section, "great bodily injury" means bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious, permanent disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member or organ.

(D) The Department of Motor Vehicles shall revoke the driver's license of the person convicted pursuant to this section.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-321; 1952 Code Section 46-321; 1949 (46) 466; 1996 Act No. 398, Section 1; 2004 Act No. 286, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-1220.Duties of driver involved in accident resulting in damage to attended vehicles.

(A) The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting only in damage to a vehicle which is driven or attended by a person immediately shall stop the vehicle at the scene of the accident or as close to it as possible, but shall return to and in every event shall remain at the scene of the accident until he has fulfilled the requirements of Section 56-5-1230. However, he may 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen leave the scene to report the accident to the proper authorities. A person who fails to stop or comply with the requirements of this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, must be imprisoned not more than one year or fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(B) If a disabled vehicle or a vehicle involved in an accident resulting only in damage to a vehicle is obstructing traffic, the driver of the vehicle shall make every reasonable effort to move any vehicle that is capable of being driven safely off the roadway as defined by Section 56-5-460 so as not to block the flow of traffic. The driver or any other person who has moved a motor vehicle to facilitate the flow of traffic as provided in this subsection before the arrival of a law enforcement officer shall not be considered liable or at fault regarding the cause of the accident solely by reason of moving the vehicle pursuant to this section.

(C) State and local authorities may erect signs along highways and streets that instruct the public that the driver of a disabled vehicle or a vehicle involved in an accident resulting only in damage to vehicles shall make every reasonable effort to move any vehicle that is capable of being driven off the roadway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-322; 1952 Code Section 46-322; 1949 (46) 466; 1996 Act No. 398, Section 2; 2004 Act No. 286, Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-1230.Duty to give information and render aid.

The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident resulting in injury to or death of any person or damage to any vehicle which is driven or attended by any person shall give his name, address and the registration number of the vehicle he is driving and shall upon request and if available exhibit his driver's license to the person struck or the driver or occupant of or person attending any vehicle collided with and shall render to any person injured in such accident reasonable assistance, including the carrying or making arrangements for the carrying of such person to a physician, surgeon or hospital for medical or surgical treatment if it is apparent that such treatment is necessary or if such carrying is requested by the injured person.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-323; 1952 Code Section 46-323; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1240.Duties of driver involved in accident involving unattended vehicle.

The driver of any vehicle which collides with any vehicle which is unattended shall immediately stop and shall then and there either locate and notify the operator or owner of such vehicle of the name and address of the driver and owner of the vehicle striking the unattended vehicle or shall leave in a conspicuous place in the vehicle struck a written notice giving the name and address of the driver and of the owner of the vehicle doing the striking and a statement of the circumstances thereof.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-324; 1952 Code Section 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1250.Duties of driver striking fixtures upon or adjacent to highway.

The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident resulting only in damage to fixtures legally upon or adjacent to a highway shall take reasonable steps to locate and notify the owner or person in charge of such property of such fact and of his name and address and of the registration number of the vehicle he is driving and shall upon request and if available exhibit his driver's license and shall make report of such accident when and as required in Section 56-5-1270.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-325; 1952 Code Section 46-325; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1260.Immediate report of accidents resulting in personal injury or death.

The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting in injury to or death of any person shall immediately by the quickest means of communication, whether oral or written, give notice of such accident to the local police department if such accident occurs within a municipality, otherwise to the office of the county sheriff or the nearest office of the South Carolina Highway Patrol.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-326; 1952 Code Section 46-326; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1270.Operators, owners, and law enforcement officers shall make written reports of certain accidents and investigations.

The operator or owner of a motor vehicle involved in an accident 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen in injury to or death of any person or total property damage to an apparent extent of one thousand dollars or more which was not investigated by a law enforcement officer, within fifteen days after the accident, shall forward a written report and verification of liability insurance coverage of the accident to the Department of Motor Vehicles, the proof and report to be in a manner prescribed by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Department of Public Safety. The completed and verified form must be returned by the operator or owner to the Department of Motor Vehicles within fifteen days from the accident date. Failure to forward the accident report verified in the proper manner in respect to liability insurance coverage for the operation of the vehicle involved in the accident is prima facie evidence that the vehicle was uninsured.

Every law enforcement officer who, in the regular course of duty, investigates a motor vehicle accident that results in injury to or death of any person or total property damage to an apparent extent of one thousand dollars or more either at the time of and at the scene of the accident or after 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen accident by interviewing participants or witnesses, within twenty-four hours after completing the investigation, must forward a written report of the accident to the Department of Motor Vehicles including the names of interviewed participants and witnesses. If a two-wheeled motorized vehicle is involved in the accident and the operator or a passenger of the vehicle suffers a head injury, the injury must be indicated on the report.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-327; 1952 Code Section 46-327; 1949 (46) 466; 1968 (55) Enscape3D 2.7.1 license key Archives 1971 (57) 297; 1977 Act No. 195 Section 1; 1988 Act No. 665, Section 1; 1996 Act No. 459, Section 182.

SECTION 56-5-1275.Requests for accident investigation reports; dissemination of reports.

With respect to a motor vehicle accident, no employee of any law enforcement agency shall allow any person to examine or obtain a copy of any accident report or related investigative report when the employee knows or should reasonably know that the request for access to the report is for commercial solicitation purposes. No person shall request any law enforcement agency to permit examination or to furnish a copy of any such report for commercial solicitation purposes. All persons, except law enforcement personnel and persons named in the report, shall be required to submit a separate written request to the law enforcement agency for each report. A written request under this section must state the requestor's name, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, address, and the intended use of the report in sufficient detail that the law enforcement agency may ascertain that the intended use is not for commercial solicitation purposes. A person who knowingly makes any false statement in any written request under this section shall be subject to the provisions of Section 56-3-2520.

HISTORY: 1991 Act No. 155, Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-1280.When driver unable to report, other occupant or owner shall report.

Whenever the driver of a vehicle is physically incapable of making an immediate or a written report of an accident as required in Section 56-5-1260 and there was another occupant 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the vehicle at the time of the accident capable of making a report, such occupant shall make or cause to be made such report not made by the driver. Whenever the driver is so physically incapable of making a written report as required in Section 56-5-1270 and such driver is not the owner of the vehicle, then the owner of the vehicle involved in such accident shall within five days after learning of the accident make such report not made by the driver.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-328; 1952 Code Section 46-328; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1290.Evidentiary use of reports.

None of the reports required by Sections 56-5-1260 to 56-5-1280 may be evidence of the negligence or due care of either party at the trial of any action at 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen to recover damages. However, law enforcement officers may refer to these reports when testifying in order to refresh their recollection of events.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-328.1; 1952 (47) 1853; 1998 Act No. 350, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-1300.Accident report forms.

The Department of Public Safety shall prepare and upon request supply to police departments, coroners, sheriffs, garages and other suitable agencies or individuals forms for accident reports required hereunder, appropriate with respect to the persons required to make such reports and the purposes to be served. The written reports to be made by persons involved in accidents and by investigating officers shall call for sufficiently detailed information to disclose with reference to a traffic accident the cause, conditions then existing and the persons and vehicles involved. Every accident report required to be made in writing shall be made on the appropriate form approved by the Department and shall contain all of the information required therein unless not available.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-329; 1952 Code Section 46-329; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1320.Coroners shall report traffic deaths.

Every coroner or other official performing like functions shall on or before the tenth day of each month report in writing to the Department of Public Safety the death of any person within his jurisdiction during the preceding calendar month as the result of a traffic accident, giving the time and place of the accident and the circumstances relating thereto.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-331; 1952 Code Section 46-331; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1330.Garages or repair shops shall report accidents or bullet damages.

The person in charge of any garage or repair shop to which is brought any motor vehicle which shows evidence of having been involved in an accident of which report must be made as provided in Section 56-5-1270 or struck by any bullet shall report to the Department of Public Safety within twenty-four hours after such motor vehicle is received, giving the engine number, registration number and the name and address of the owner or operator of such vehicle.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-332; 1952 Code Section 46-332; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1340.Accident reports without prejudice and confidential; use; permissible disclosures.

All accident reports made by persons involved in accidents shall be without prejudice to the individual so reporting and shall be for the confidential use of the Department of Motor Vehicles, Department of Public Safety, or other State agencies having use for the records for accident prevention purposes. The Department of Motor Vehicles may disclose the identity of a person involved in an accident when such identity is not otherwise known or when such person denies his presence at such accident and may upon request disclose to any person who has suffered injury to his person or property any information contained on any report regarding the existence of insurance. No such report shall be used as evidence in any trial, civil or criminal, arising out of an accident, except that the Department of Motor Vehicles shall furnish, upon demand of any person who has, or claims to have, made such a report or upon demand of any court, a certificate showing that a specified accident report has or has not been made to the Department of Motor Vehicles solely to prove a compliance or a failure to comply with the requirement that such a report be made to the Department of Motor Vehicles.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-333; 1952 Code Section 46-333; 1949 (46) 466; 1959 (51) 567; 1977 Act No. 195 Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-1350.Tabulation and analysis of reports; publication of statistical information.

The Department of Public Safety must tabulate and may analyze all accident reports as required in Section 56-5-1270 and shall publish annually or at more frequent intervals statistical information based thereon as to the number and circumstances of traffic accidents.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-334; 1952 Code Section 46-334; 1949 (46) 466; 1996 Act No. 459, Section 183.

SECTION 56-5-1360.Municipality may require accident reports; use.

Any incorporated city or town may by ordinance require that the driver of a vehicle involved in an accident shall also file with a designated city department a report of such accident or a copy of any report herein required to be filed with the Department of Motor Vehicles. All such reports shall be for the confidential use of the city department and subject to the provisions of Section 56-5-1340.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-335; 1952 Code Section 46-335; 1949 (46) 466.

ARTICLE 11


Restrictions on 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen Racing


SECTION 56-5-1520.General rules as to maximum speed limits; lower speeds may be required.

(A) A person shall 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the actual and potential hazards then existing. Speed must be so controlled to avoid colliding with a person, vehicle, or other conveyance on or entering the highway in compliance with legal requirements and the duty of a person to use care.

(B) Except when a special hazard exists that requires lower speed for compliance with subsection (A), the limits specified in this section or established as hereinafter authorized are maximum lawful speeds, and a person shall not drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed in excess of these maximum limits:

(1) seventy miles an hour on the interstate highway system and other freeways where official signs giving notice of this speed are posted;

(2) sixty miles an hour on multilane divided primary highways where official signs giving notice of this speed limit are posted;

(3) fifty-five miles an hour in other locations or on other sections of highways and unpaved roads are limited to the speed of forty miles an hour; and

(4) manufactured, modular, or mobile homes must not be transported at a speed in excess of ten miles below the maximum posted speed limit when the maximum posted speed limit is in excess of forty-five miles an hour, and never in excess of fifty-five miles an hour.

(C) Thirty miles an hour is the maximum speed in an urban district. "Urban district" means the territory contiguous to and including any street which is built 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen with structures devoted to business, industry, or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than one hundred feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more.

(D) A local authority on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation may determine that the maximum speed limit permitted under this article is less than thirty miles an hour in an urban district. If this determination is made, the maximum speed limit for the urban district is enforceable by all law enforcement officers authorized to enforce the traffic laws in the urban district. However, this subsection does not apply to highways within the state highway system contained in Section 56-5-1530.

(E) The maximum speed limits set forth in this section may be altered pursuant to Sections 56-5-1530 and 56-5-1540.

(F) The driver of a vehicle 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen drive, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, consistent with the requirements of subsection (A), at an appropriate reduced speed when approaching and crossing an intersection or railway grade crossing, when approaching and going around a curve, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, approaching a hillcrest, when traveling upon any narrow bridge, narrow or winding roadway, and when special hazard exists with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason of weather or highway conditions.

(G) A person violating the speed limits established by this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction for a first offense, must be fined or imprisoned as follows:

(1) in excess of the above posted limit but not in excess of ten miles an hour by a fine of not less than fifteen dollars nor more than twenty-five dollars;

(2) in excess of ten miles an hour but less than fifteen miles an hour above the posted limit by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars;

(3) in excess of fifteen miles an hour but less than twenty-five miles an hour above the posted limit by a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more than seventy-five dollars; and

(4) in excess of twenty-five miles an hour above the posted limit by a fine of not less than seventy-five dollars nor more than two hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than thirty days.

(H) A 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen for violating the speed limits issued by any authorized officer must note on it the rate of speed for which the citation is issued.

(I) In expending the funds credited to the state general fund from fines generated under subsection (G), the Department of Public Safety first shall consider the need for additional highway patrolmen.

HISTORY: 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1404; 1994 Act No. 497, Part II, Section 36R; 1999 Act No. 17, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-1530.Alteration of speed limits on state highway system by Department of Transportation; signs.

(a) Establishing speed zones. Whenever the Department of Transportation shall determine upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that any maximum speed hereinbefore set forth is greater or less than is reasonable or safe under the conditions found to exist at any intersection or other place or upon any part of the state highway system, the Department of Transportation may 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen and declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereat, which shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected. Such maximum speed limit may be declared to be effective at all times or at such times as are indicated 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen such signs; and differing limits may be established for different times of day, different types of vehicles, varying weather conditions, and other factors bearing on safe speeds, which shall be effective when posted upon appropriate fixed or variable signs.

(b) Setting maximum limits in state highway extensions in urban districts. The Department of Transportation shall determine the proper maximum speed for all state primary highway extensions into and through urban districts and shall declare a reasonable and safe maximum speed limit thereon which may be greater or less than the maximum speed otherwise permitted under this article for an urban district and such maximum speed limits shall be effective at all times during hours of darkness and at other times as may be determined when appropriate official signs giving notice thereof are erected upon such street or highway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-362; 1952 Code Sections 46-367, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, 46-369; 1949 (46) 466; 1966 (54) 2244; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1405.

SECTION 56-5-1535.Endangerment of a highway worker; penalties; definitions.

(A) A person commits endangerment of a highway worker if the person is operating a motor vehicle within a highway work zone at anytime one or more highway workers are in the highway work zone and in proximity to the area where the act or omission occurs and the person:

(1) drives through or around a work zone in any lane not clearly designated for use by motor vehicles traveling through or around a work zone; or

(2) fails to obey traffic control devices erected for the purpose of controlling the flow of motor vehicles through the work zone for any reason other than:

(a) an emergency;

(b) the avoidance of an obstacle; or

(c) the protection of the health and safety of another person.

(B)(1) A person who violates the endangerment of a highway worker provision where the highway worker suffers no physical injury must be fined not more than one thousand dollars and not less than five hundred dollars.

(2) A person who violates the endangerment of a highway worker provision where the highway worker suffers physical injury and the violation was the sole proximate cause of the injury must be fined not more than two thousand dollars and not less than one thousand dollars.

(3) A person who violates the endangerment of a highway worker provision where the highway worker suffers great bodily injury, as defined in Section 56-5-2945(B), and the violation was the sole proximate cause of the injury must be fined not more than five thousand dollars and not less than two thousand dollars.

(C) A person who violates Section 56-5-1535(A) must have two points assessed against his motor vehicle operating record or four points assessed against his motor vehicle operating record if an injury to the highway worker occurred at the time of the incident and the violation is the sole proximate cause of the injury.

(D) Any fine imposed pursuant to this section is mandatory and may not be waived or reduced below the minimum as provided in subsection (B). Sixty-five percent of the fine must be remitted to the Treasurer and deposited in a special account, separate and apart from the general fund, designated for use by the Department of Public Safety to be used for work zone enforcement. Twenty-five percent of the fine must be deposited in the State Highway Fund and designated for use by the Department of Transportation to hire off-duty state, county, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or municipal police officers to monitor construction or maintenance zones. Ten percent of the fine must be remitted to the county governing body in which the charge was disposed, or the municipality if the charge was disposed in municipal court.

(E) No person shall be cited for endangerment of a highway worker for any act or omission otherwise constituting a violation under this section if the act or omission results, in whole or in part, from mechanical failure of the person's motor vehicle or from the negligence of a highway worker or another person.

(F) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Highway work zone" means an area of a roadway, bridge, shoulder, median, or associated right of way, where construction, maintenance, utility work, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, accident response, or other incident response is being performed. The work zone must be marked by signs, channeling devices, barriers, pavement markings, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or work vehicles, and extends from the first traffic control device erected for purposes of controlling the flow of motor vehicles through the work zone, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, including signs reducing the normal speed limit, to the "END ROAD WORK" sign or the last temporary traffic control device. The signs, channeling devices, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, barriers, pavement markings, or work vehicles must meet state Department of Transportation standards, the provisions of Section 56-5-4700, or National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards, and must be installed properly.

(2) "Highway worker" means a person who is required to perform work in highway work zones, including:

(a) a person who performs maintenance, repair, or construction;

(b) a person who operates a truck, loader, or other 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen a person who performs any other related maintenance work, as required;

(d) a public safety officer who enforces work zone-related transportation management or traffic control;

(e) a law enforcement officer who conducts traffic control or enforcement operations; and

(f) an officer or firefighter, an emergency medical services provider, or any other authorized person who removes hazards or who responds to accidents and other incidents.

(G) Magistrates and municipal court judges have exclusive jurisdiction pursuant to this section.

HISTORY: 1994 Act No. 409, Section 1; 1999 Act No. 17, Section 2; 2017 Act No. 81 (H.4033), Section 1, eff May 19, 2017.

Effect of Amendment

2017 Act No. 81, Section 1, rewrote the section, deleting the provision relating to speeding in work zones, creating the offense of "endangerment of a highway worker", and providing a penalty for this offense.

SECTION 56-5-1536.Repealed.

HISTORY: Former Section, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, titled Driving in a temporary work zone; penalty, had the following history: 2004 Act No. 286, Section 4; 2011 Act No. 49, Section 1, eff June 14, 2011. Repealed by 2017 Act No. 81, Section 3, eff May 19, 2017.

SECTION 56-5-1538.Emergency scene management; definitions

(A) An emergency scene is a location designated by the potential need to provide emergency medical care and is identified by emergency vehicles with flashing lights, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, rescue equipment, or emergency personnel on the scene.

(B) An emergency scene is a special hazard.

(C) An emergency scene is under the authority of the first arriving emergency personnel, which includes emergency medical services personnel, until the arrival of the fire or law enforcement officials having jurisdiction. All motor vehicles passing through an emergency scene and pedestrians observing an emergency scene must obey and not interfere with the duties of emergency personnel. Motor vehicles and bystanders may not block access to or exit from an emergency scene.

(D) The management authority of emergency medical services is limited to managing patient care and preventing further injury to the patients and on-scene personnel. This authority may be delegated by emergency personnel to provide an adequate level of safety.

(E) A paid or volunteer worker at an emergency scene has proper authority to be at and 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the scene in a manner consistent with his training.

(F) The driver of a vehicle shall ensure that the vehicle is kept under control when approaching or passing an emergency scene or authorized emergency vehicle stopped on or near the right-of-way of a street or highway with emergency lights flashing. The exercise of control required for a driver to comply with this section is that control possible and necessary by the driver to prevent a collision, to prevent injury to persons or property, and to avoid interference with the performance of emergency duties by emergency personnel.

(G) A person driving a vehicle approaching a stationary authorized emergency vehicle that is giving a signal by displaying alternately flashing red, red and white, blue, or red and blue lights, or amber or yellow warning lights shall proceed with due caution, significantly reduce the speed of the vehicle, and:

(1) yield the right-of-way by making a lane change into a lane not adjacent to that of the authorized emergency vehicle, if possible with due regard to safety and traffic conditions, if on a highway having at least four lanes with not less than two lanes proceeding in the same direction as the approaching vehicle; or

(2) maintain a safe speed for road conditions, if changing lanes is impossible or unsafe.

(H) A person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of the misdemeanor of endangering emergency services personnel and, upon conviction, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen be fined not less than three hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

(I) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Authorized emergency vehicle" means any ambulance, police, fire, rescue, recovery, or towing vehicle authorized by this State, county, or municipality to respond to a traffic incident.

(2) "Emergency services personnel" means fire, police, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or emergency medical services personnel (EMS) responding to an emergency incident.

HISTORY: 1996 Act No. 256, Section 1; 2002 Act No. 348, Section 8.

SECTION 56-5-1540.Alteration of speed limits by local authorities; signs; approval by Department of Transportation.

(a) Establishing speed zones. Whenever local authorities in their respective jurisdictions determine on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that the maximum speed permitted under this article is greater or less than is reasonable and safe under the conditions found to exist upon a highway or part of a highway, the local authority may determine and declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which:

(1) decreases the limit at intersections; or

(2) increases the limit within an urban district but not to more than seventy miles an hour; or

(3) decreases the limit outside an urban district, but not to less than thirty-five miles an hour.

(b) Setting maximum limits on arterial streets. Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions shall determine by an engineering and traffic investigation the proper maximum speed for all arterial streets and shall declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which may be greater or less than the maximum speed permitted under this article for an urban district.

(c) Signs. Any altered limit established as hereinabove authorized is effective at all times or during hours of darkness or at other times as may be determined when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected upon the street or highway.

(d) Approval of altered limits by Department of Transportation. Any alteration of maximum limits on state highways or extensions thereof in a municipality by local authorities is not effective until the alteration has been approved by the Department of Transportation.

(e) Limitations on alterations. Not more than six such alterations as authorized above may be made for each mile along a street or highway, except in the case of reduced limits at intersections, and the difference between adjacent limits Internet Download Manager 6.18 crack serial keygen not be more than ten miles an hour.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-363; 1952 Code Sections 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, 46-370, 46-371; 1949 (46) 466; 1966 (54) 2244; 1987 Act No. 189 Section 3; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1406; 1999 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 17, Section 3.

SECTIONS 56-5-1550 to 56-5-1555.Reserved.

HISTORY: Former Section 56-5-1550, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, titled Speed limitation on motor-driven cycles, had the following history: 1962 Code Section 46-364; 1952 Code Section 46-364; 1949 (46) 466; 1966 (54) 2244. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, Section 25, eff November 19, 2018.

HISTORY: Former Section 56-5-1555, titled Speed limitation on mopeds, had the following history: 1986 Act No. 528, Section 10; 1991 Act No. 94, Section 4. Reserved by 2017 Act No. 89, Section 26, eff November 19, 2018.

SECTION 56-5-1560.Minimum speed limits.

(a) Impeding traffic by slow speed prohibited. -No person shall drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed Redshift Render 3.0.52 Crack For C4D/3ds Max [MAYA + Torrent] to impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law.

(b) Establishing minimum speed zones; signs. Whenever the Department of Transportation or local authorities within their respective jurisdictions determine on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that slow speeds on any part of a highway consistently impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic, the Department of Transportation or local authority may determine and declare a minimum speed limit below which no person shall drive a vehicle except when necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law, when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected along the part of the highway for which a minimum speed limit is established. Also any minimum speed limit adopted by a municipality for a section of the state highway within the municipality shall not be effective until such minimum speed has been approved by the Department of Transportation.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-365; 1952 Code Section 46-372; 1949 (46) 466; 1956 (49) 1648; 1966 (54) 2244; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1407.

SECTION 56-5-1570.Special speed limitations for certain vehicles and places.

(a) Vehicles towing house trailers. -No person shall drive a vehicle which is towing a house trailer at a speed greater than a maximum of forty-five miles per hour.

(b) Vehicles with solid rubber or cushion tires. -No person shall drive any vehicle equipped with solid rubber or cushion tires at a speed greater than a maximum of ten miles per hour.

(c) On elevated structures; safe speed not to be exceeded. -No person shall drive a vehicle over any bridge or other elevated structure constituting a part of a highway at a speed which is greater than the maximum speed which can be maintained with safety to such bridge or structure, when such structure is signposted as provided in this section.

(d) Same; establishing safe maximum limit. The Department of Transportation upon request from any local authority shall, or upon its own initiative may, conduct an investigation of any bridge or other elevated structure constituting a part of a highway, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and if it finds that such structure cannot with safety to itself withstand vehicles traveling at the speed otherwise permissible under this chapter, the Department of Transportation shall determine and declare the maximum speed of vehicles which such structure can safely withstand, and shall cause or permit suitable signs stating such maximum speed to be erected and maintained before each end of such structure.

(e) Same; proof of limit and signs conclusive evidence of safe speed. Upon the trial of any person charged with a violation of this section, proof of determination of the maximum speed by the Department of Transportation and the existence of such signs shall constitute conclusive evidence of the maximum speed which can be maintained with safety to such bridge or structure.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-366; 1952 Code Sections 46-365, 46-366; 1949 (46) 466; 1966 (54) 2244; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1408.

SECTION 56-5-1580.Contents of complaint and summons or notice to appear charging speeding.

In every charge of violation of any speed regulation in this article, the complaint and summons or notice to appear shall specify the speed at which the defendant is alleged to have driven and the maximum speed applicable within the district or at the location.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-367; 1966 (54) 2244.

SECTION 56-5-1590.Unlawful to race or assist in racing on public roads.

It shall be unlawful to engage in a motor vehicle race or contest for speed on any public road, street or highway in this State or to aid, abet or assist in any manner whatsoever in any such race or contest. Altering, changing, tampering with or "souping up" a motor vehicle for the purpose of racing or speeding on any public road, street or highway in this State shall be considered as aiding, abetting or assisting for the purposes of Sections 56-5-1590 to 56-5-1620.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-356; 1957 (50) 133.

SECTION 56-5-1600.Unlawful to acquiesce in or permit use of car in race.

It shall also 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen unlawful for any owner of a motor vehicle to acquiesce in or permit his car to be used by another in any motor vehicle race or contest for speed on any public road, street or highway in this State.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-357; 1957 (50) 133.

SECTION 56-5-1610."Acquiescence" defined.

For the purpose of Sections 56-5-1590 to 56-5-1620, the word "acquiescence" shall mean actual knowledge that the car was to be used for the purpose of racing on a public road, street or highway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-355; 1957 (50) 133.

SECTION 56-5-1620.Penalties for racing; revocation or suspension of drivers' licenses and registrations.

Any person violating the provisions of Sections 56-5-1590 to 56-5-1620 by driving a motor vehicle shall, upon conviction, be fined not less than two hundred dollars nor more than six hundred dollars or imprisoned 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen not less than two months nor more than six months, or both, in the discretion of the trial judge, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. In addition to such penalty the driver of any vehicle who violates the provisions of 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen 56-5-1590 to 56-5-1620 shall upon conviction, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, entry of a plea of guilty or forfeiture of bail have his driver's license revoked for a period of one year. Any person violating the provisions of Sections 56-5-1590 to 56-5-1620 by acquiescing in or permitting the driving of his car shall, upon conviction, be fined not to exceed one hundred dollars or imprisoned for a period not to exceed thirty days, or both, in the discretion of the court and, in addition thereto, shall have his driver's license and the registration of his vehicle suspended for a period of three months.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-358; 1957 (50) 133.

ARTICLE 13


Driving on Right Side of Roadway; Overtaking and Passing; Following


SECTION 56-5-1810.Drive on the right side of roadways; exceptions.

(a) Upon all roadways of sufficient width a vehicle shall be driven upon the right half of the roadway except as follows:

1. When overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction under the rules governing such movement.

2. When an obstruction exists making it necessary to drive to the left of the center of the highway. Any person so doing shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles traveling in the proper direction upon the unobstructed portion of the highway within such distance so as not to constitute an immediate hazard.

3. Upon a roadway divided into three marked lanes for traffic under the rules applicable thereon.

4. Upon a roadway restricted to one-way traffic.

(b) Upon all roadways any vehicle proceeding at less than the normal speed of traffic at the time and place and under the conditions then existing shall be driven in the right-hand lane then available for traffic or as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway.

(c) Upon any roadway having four or more lanes for moving traffic and providing for two-way movement of traffic, no vehicle shall be driven to the left of the center line of the roadway, except when authorized by official traffic-control devices designating certain lanes to the left side of the center of the roadway for use by traffic not otherwise permitted to use such lanes, or except as permitted under item 2 of subsection (a). This subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting the crossing of the center line in making a left turn into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-381; 1952 Code Section 46-381; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-1830.Passing vehicles proceeding in opposite directions.

Drivers of vehicles proceeding in opposite directions shall pass each other to the right, and upon roadways Windows KMS Activator Ultimate 2021 Key width for not more than one line of traffic in each direction each driver shall give to the other at least one half of the main-traveled portion of the roadway, as nearly as possible.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-383; 1952 Code Section 46-383; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1840.Overtaking and passing vehicles proceeding in same direction.

The following rules shall govern the overtaking and passing of vehicles proceeding in the same direction, subject to those limitations, exceptions and special rules hereinafter stated:

(1) The driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle; and

(2) Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, the driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the right in favor of the overtaking vehicle on audible signal and shall not increase the speed of his vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-384; 1952 Code Section 46-384; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-1850.When passing on the right is permitted.

(a) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass upon the right of another vehicle only under the following conditions:

1. When the vehicle overtaken is making or about to make a left turn.

2. Upon a roadway with unobstructed pavement of sufficient width for two or more lines of vehicles moving lawfully in the direction being travelled by the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen vehicle.

(b) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass another vehicle upon the right only under conditions permitting such movement in safety. Such movement shall not be made by driving off the roadway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-385; 1952 Code Section 46-385; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-1860.Limitations on overtaking on the left.

No vehicle shall be driven to the left side of the center of the roadway in overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction unless the left side is clearly visible and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance ahead to permit such overtaking Resharper Ultimate 2019.3.4 Crack Archives passing to be completely made without interfering with the operation of any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction or any vehicle overtaken. In every event the overtaking vehicle must return to an authorized lane of travel as soon as practicable and in the event the passing movement involves the use of a lane authorized for vehicles approaching from the opposite direction, before coming within two hundred feet of any approaching vehicle.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-386; 1952 Code Section 46-386; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 3.

SECTION 56-5-1880.Further limitations on driving to left of center of roadway.

(a) No vehicle shall be driven on the left side of the roadway under the following conditions:

1. When approaching sonar reference 4 Archives upon the crest of a grade or a curve in the highway where the driver's view is obstructed within such distance as to create a hazard in the event another vehicle might approach from the opposite direction.

2. When approaching within one hundred feet of or traversing any intersection.

3. When the view is obstructed upon approaching within one hundred feet of any bridge, viaduct or tunnel.

(b) The foregoing limitations shall not apply upon a one-way roadway, nor under the conditions described in item 2, subsection (a) of Section 56-5-1810 nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-388; 1952 Code Section 46-388; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 4; 1992 Act No. 399, Section 6.

SECTION 56-5-1885.Overtaking and passing another vehicle in the farthest left-hand lane.

(A) A vehicle may not be driven in the farthest left-hand lane of a controlled access highway except when overtaking and passing another vehicle.

(B) Subsection (A) of this section does not apply:

(1) when no other vehicle is directly behind the vehicle in the left lane;

(2) when traffic conditions and congestion make it impractical to drive in the right lane;

(3) Sketch Crack Archives snow and other inclement weather conditions make it safer to drive in the left lane;

(4) when obstructions or hazards exist in the right lane;

(5) when, because of highway design, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, a vehicle must be driven in the left lane when preparing to exit;

(6) to law enforcement vehicles, ambulances, or other emergency vehicles engaged in official duties and vehicles engaged in highway maintenance and construction operations;

(7) when a driver of a tractor-trailer commercial motor vehicle combination is unable to move into the right 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen safely due to another vehicle overtaking or passing his vehicle to the right; or

(8) when a driver of a vehicle requiring a commercial motor vehicle license to operate is unable to move into the right lane safely due to a highway grade or another vehicle overtaking or passing his vehicle on the right.

(C) Nothing in this section shall limit the Department of Transportation's ability to establish and delineate lane restrictions for certain types of vehicles.

(D) The Department of Transportation must place signs along interstate highways directing slower traffic to move to the right. The signs must be placed at intervals of no more than thirty-five miles.

(E)(1) A person who is adjudicated to be in violation of the provisions of this section must be fined not more than twenty-five dollars, no part of which may be suspended. No court costs, assessments, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or surcharges may be assessed against a person who violates a provision of this section. A custodial arrest for a violation of this section must not be made, except upon a warrant issued for a failure to appear in court when summoned or for a failure to pay an imposed fine. A violation of this section does not constitute a criminal offense. Notwithstanding Section 56-1-640, a violation of this section must not be:

(a) included in the offender's motor vehicle records maintained by the Department of Motor Vehicles;

(b) included in the criminal records maintained by SLED; or

(c) reported to the offender's motor vehicle insurer.

(2) A violation of this section is not negligence per se, or contributory negligence, and is not admissible as evidence in a civil action.

(3) A law enforcement officer must not search, and may not request consent to search, a vehicle, or the driver or occupant of the vehicle, solely because of a violation of this section.

(4) A person charged with a violation of this section may admit or deny the violation, enter a plea of nolo contendere, or be tried before either a judge or a jury. If the trier of fact is convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that the person violated the provisions of this section, then the penalty is a civil fine pursuant to item (1) of this subsection, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. If the trier of fact determines that the State has failed to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the person violated the provisions of this section, then no penalty shall be assessed.

(5) A person found to be in violation of this section may bring an appeal to the court of common pleas.

HISTORY: 2021 Act No. 64 (H.3011), Section 1, eff August 15, 2021.

Editor's Note

2021 Act No. 64, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Section 2, provides as follows:

"SECTION 2. This act takes effect ninety days after approval by the Governor. For a period of ninety days after the effective date of this act, only warning tickets may be issued for a violation of the provisions of this act."

SECTION 56-5-1890.No-passing zones.

(a) The Department of Transportation and local authorities may determine those portions of any highway under their respective jurisdictions where overtaking and passing or driving on the left of the roadway would be especially hazardous and may by appropriate signs or markings on the roadway indicate the beginning and end of such zones and when such signs or markings are in place and clearly visible to an ordinarily observant person every driver of a vehicle shall obey the directions thereof.

(b) Where signs or markings are in place to define a no-passing zone as set forth in subsection (a) no driver shall at any time drive on the left side of the roadway within such or on the left side of any pavement striping designed to mark such no-passing zone throughout its length.

(c) This section shall not apply under the conditions described in item 2, subsection (a) of Section 56-5-1810 nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

HISTORY: 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen Code Section 46-389; 1952 Code Section 46-389; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 143 Section 5; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1409.

SECTION 56-5-1895.Passing prohibited in highway work zones; penalties.

No vehicle may be driven so as to overtake and pass another vehicle in a highway work zone where road maintenance or construction work is underway and passing would be hazardous to the highway worker. A person who violates the provisions of this section must be punished as provided in Section 56-5-6190.

HISTORY: 1994 Act No. 409, Section 2, eff May 25, 1994.

SECTION 56-5-1900.Driving on roadways laned for traffic.

Whenever any roadway has been divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for traffic the following rules in addition to all others consistent herewith shall apply:

(a) A vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practicable entirely within a single lane and shall not be moved from the lane until the driver has first ascertained that such movement can be made with safety.

(b) Upon a roadway which is divided into three lanes and provides for two-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall not be driven in the center lane except when overtaking and passing another vehicle traveling in the same direction when the center lane is clear of traffic within a safe distance or in preparation for making a left turn or where the center lane is at the time allocated exclusively to traffic moving in the same direction that the vehicle is proceeding and such allocation is designated by official traffic-control devices.

(c) Official traffic-control devices may be erected directing specified traffic to use a designated lane or designating those lanes to be used by traffic moving in a particular direction regardless of the center of the roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device.

(d) Official traffic-control devices may be installed prohibiting the changing of lanes on sections of roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of such devices.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-390; 1952 Code Section 46-390; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 6.

SECTION 56-5-1910.One-way roadways and rotary traffic islands.

(a) The Department of Transportation and local authorities with respect to highways under their respective jurisdictions may designate any highway, roadway, part of a roadway or specific lanes upon which vehicular traffic shall proceed in one direction at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic-control devices.

(b) Upon a roadway so designated for one-way traffic, a vehicle shall be driven only in the direction designated at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic-control devices.

(c) A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island shall be driven only to the right of such island.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-391; 1952 Code Section 46-391; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 7; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1410.

SECTION 56-5-1920.Driving on divided highways.

Whenever any highway has been divided into two or more roadways by leaving an intervening space or by a physical barrier or clearly indicated dividing section so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic, every vehicle shall be driven only upon the right-hand roadway unless directed or permitted to use another roadway 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen official traffic-control devices or police officers, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. No vehicle shall be driven over, across or within any such dividing space, barrier or section except through an opening in such physical barrier or dividing section or space or at a crossover or intersection as established, unless specifically prohibited by public authority. For clarification, a left turn across a painted median is authorized unless prohibited by an official traffic-control device.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-392; 1952 Code Section 46-392; 1949 (46) 466; 1956 (49) 1594; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 8.

SECTION 56-5-1930.Following too closely.

(A) The operator of a motor vehicle shall not follow another vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having due regard for the speed of such vehicles and the traffic upon and the condition of the highway.

(B) The operator of any truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle when traveling upon a roadway outside of a business or residence district and which is following another truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle shall, whenever conditions permit, leave sufficient space so that an overtaking vehicle may enter and occupy such space without danger, except that this shall not prevent a truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle from overtaking and passing any vehicle or combination of vehicles.

(C) Motor vehicles being operated upon any roadway outside of a business or residence district in a caravan or motorcade whether or not towing other vehicles shall be so operated as to allow sufficient space between each such vehicle or combination of vehicles so as to enable any other vehicle to enter and occupy such space without danger. This provision shall not apply to funeral processions.

(D) This section does not apply to the operator of any nonleading commercial motor vehicle subject to Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations and traveling in a series of commercial vehicles using cooperative adaptive cruise control or any other automated driving technology.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-393; 1952 Code Section 46-393; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 143 Section 9; 2017 Act No. 66 (H.3289), Section 1, eff May 19, 2017.

Effect of Amendment

2017 Act No. 66, Section 1, in (A) and (B), 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, substituted "The operator" for "The driver"; in (C), 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, substituted "being operated" for "being driven"; added (D), relating to the applicability of the section; and made nonsubstantive changes.

SECTION 56-5-1960.Following fire apparatus prohibited.

The driver of any vehicle other than one on official business shall not follow any fire apparatus traveling in response to an emergency closer than five hundred feet or stop such vehicle within five hundred feet of any fire apparatus stopped in answer to an emergency.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-496; 1952 Code Section 46-496; 1949 (46) 466; 1976 Act No. 534; 1978 Act No. 451 Section 5; 1998 Act No. 392, Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-1970.Restricted access.

No person shall drive a vehicle onto or from any controlled-access roadway except at such entrances and exits as are established by public authority.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-397; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 10.

SECTION 56-5-1980.Restrictions on use of controlled-access roadway.

(a) The Commission of the Department of Transportation by resolution or order entered in its minutes, and local authorities by ordinance, may regulate or prohibit the use of any controlled-access roadway or highway within their respective jurisdictions by any class or kind of traffic which is found to be incompatible with the normal and safe movement of traffic.

(b) The commission or local authority adopting any such prohibition shall erect and maintain official traffic-control devices on the controlled-access highway on which such prohibitions are applicable and when in place no person shall disobey the restrictions stated on such devices.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-398; 1977 Act No. 143 Section 11; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1411.

ARTICLE 15


Starting and Turning; Signaling


SECTION 56-5-2110.Starting of a vehicle.

No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing or parked unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-401; 1952 Code Section 46-401; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-2120.Required position and method of turning.

The driver of a vehicle intending to turn shall do so as follows:

(a) Right turns. Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.

(b) Left turns. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn left shall approach the turn in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the direction of travel of such vehicle, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Whenever practicable the left turn shall be made to the left of the center of the intersection so as to leave the intersection or other location in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the same direction as the vehicle on the roadway being entered.

(c) The Department of Transportation and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may cause official traffic-control devices to be placed and thereby require and direct that a different course from that specified in this section be traveled by turning vehicles and when such devices are so placed no driver shall turn a vehicle other than as directed and required by such devices.

(d) Two-way left turn lanes. Where a special lane for making left turns by drivers proceeding in the opposite directions has been indicated by official traffic-control devices:

1. A left turn shall not be made from any other lane.

2. A vehicle shall not be driven in the lane except when preparing for or making a left turn from or into the roadway or when preparing for or making a U turn when otherwise permitted by law.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-402; 1952 Code Section 46-402; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 1; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1412.

SECTION 56-5-2140.Limitations on turning around.

(a) The driver of any vehicle shall not turn such vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction unless such movement can be made in safety and without interfering with other traffic.

(b) No vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite direction upon any curve or upon the approach to or near the crest of a grade where such vehicle cannot be seen 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the driver of any other vehicle approaching from either direction within five hundred feet.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-404; 1952 Code Section 46-404; 1949 (46) 466; 1953 (48) 313; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-2150.Turning movements and required signals.

(A) No person shall turn a vehicle or move right or left upon a roadway unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety nor without giving an appropriate signal as provided for in this section.

(B) A signal of intention to turn or move right or left when required shall be given continuously during not less than the last one hundred feet traveled by the vehicle before turning.

(C) No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle without first 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen an appropriate signal in the manner provided herein to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when there is opportunity to give such signal.

(D) The signals required on vehicles by subsection (B) of Section 56-5-2180, shall not be flashed on one side only on a disabled vehicle, flashed as a courtesy or 'do pass' signal to operators of other vehicles approaching from the rear, nor be flashed on one side only of a parked vehicle except as may be necessary for 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen with this section.

(E) A person who violates the provisions of this section must be fined twenty-five dollars, all or part of which may not be suspended. In addition no court costs, assessments, surcharges, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or points may be assessed against the person or his driving record."

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-405; 1952 Code Section 46-405; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 3; 2017 Act No. 81 (H.4033), Section 5.B, eff May 19, 2017.

Effect of Amendment

2017 Act No. 81, Section 5.B, added (E), providing a penalty for a violation of the section, and made nonsubstantive changes.

SECTION 56-5-2170.Method of giving hand and arm signals.

All signals herein required given by hand and arm shall be given from the left side of the vehicle in the following manner, and such signals shall indicate as follows:

(1) Left turn, hand and arm extended horizontally;

(2) Right turn, hand and arm extended upward; and

(3) Stop or decrease speed, hand and arm extended downward.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-407; 1952 Code Section 46-407; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-2180.Signals given by hand and arm or signal lamps.

(a) Any stop or turn signal when required herein shall be given either by means of the hand and arm or 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen signal lamps except as otherwise provided in subsection (b).

(b) Any motor vehicle in use on a highway shall be equipped with, and required signal shall be given by, signal lamps when the distance from the center of the top of the steering post to the left 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen limit of the body, cab or load of such motor vehicle exceeds twenty-four inches or when the distance from the center of the top of the steering post to the rear limit of the body or load thereof exceeds fourteen feet. The latter measurement shall apply to any single vehicle or to any combination of vehicles.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-408; 1952 Code Section 46-408; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 4.

ARTICLE 17


Right-of-Way


SECTION 56-5-2310.Vehicles approaching or entering intersection.

(a) When two vehicles approach or enter an intersection from different highways at approximately the same time, the driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on the right.

(b) The right-of-way rule in subsection (a) is modified at through highways and as otherwise provided in this chapter.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-421; 1952 Code Section 46-421; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 5.

SECTION 56-5-2320.Vehicle turning left.

The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an intersection or into an alley, private road or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction which is within the intersection or so close thereto as to constitute an immediate hazard.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-422; 1952 Code Section 46-422; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 6.

SECTION 56-5-2330.Stop signs and yield signs.

(a) Preferential right-of-way may be indicated by stop signs or yield signs as authorized by the Department of Transportation or local authorities.

(b) Except when directed to proceed by a police officer, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line but, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways.

(c) The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall in obedience to such sign slow down to a speed reasonable for the existing conditions and, if required for safety to stop, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line but, if none, before entering the cross-walk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on where download accelerator plus premium 10 intersecting road before entering it. After slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time the driver is moving across or within 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen intersection or junction of roadways. If such driver is involved in a collision with a vehicle in the intersection or junction of roadways, after driving past a yield sign without stopping, the collision shall be deemed prima facie evidence of his failure to yield right-of-way.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-423; 1952 Code Section 46-423; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 7; 1993 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 181, Section 1413.

SECTION 56-5-2350.Vehicle entering roadway.

The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a roadway from any place other than another roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on the roadway to be entered or crossed.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-424; 1952 Code Section 46-424; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 8.

SECTION 56-5-2360.Operation of vehicles on approach of authorized emergency vehicles.

(a) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4970 and visual signals meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4700, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or of a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible signal or visual signal, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, the driver of every other vehicle traveling along a two-lane roadway shall yield the right-of-way and shall immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as close as possible, to the right hand edge or curb of the roadway clear of any intersection and shall stop and remain in that position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, except when otherwise directed by a police officer. A driver of a vehicle traveling along a multilane roadway shall yield the right-of-way and shall remain in, or move to a location that allows the emergency vehicle or police vehicle to pass safely, except as otherwise directed by a police officer.

(b) This section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-425; 1952 Code Section 46-425; 1949 (46) 466; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 9; 2002 Act No. 348, Section 5.

SECTION 56-5-2370.Highway construction and maintenance.

(a) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any authorized vehicle or pedestrian actually engaged in work upon a highway within any highway traffic construction or maintenance area indicated by official traffic-control devices.

(b) 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any authorized vehicle obviously and actually engaged in work upon a highway whenever such vehicle displays flashing lights meeting the PC HelpSoft Driver Updater serial number of Section 56-5-4650.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-426; 1977 Act No. 144 Section 10.

ARTICLE 19


Stopping, Standing and Parking

SECTION 56-5-2510.Stopping, standing, or parking outside of business or residential district.

(A) No person shall stop, park, or leave standing a vehicle, whether attended or unattended, upon the roadway outside a business or residential district when it is practicable to stop, park, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or leave the vehicle off the roadway. An unobstructed width of the highway opposite a standing vehicle must be left for the free passage of other vehicles and a clear view of the stopped vehicle must be available from a distance of two hundred feet in each direction upon Category: VPN highway.

(B) This section and Sections 56-5-2530 and 56-5-2560 do not apply to the driver of a vehicle which is disabled making it impossible to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving the vehicle in the roadway.

(C) Notwithstanding another provision of law, a vehicle used solely for the purpose of collecting municipal solid waste as defined in Section 44-96-40(46) or recovered materials as defined in Section 44-96-40(34) may stop or stand on the road, street, or highway for the purpose of collecting solid waste or recovered materials. The vehicle shall maintain flashing hazard lights when engaged in stopping or standing to collect solid waste or recovered materials.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-481; 1952 Code Section 46-481; 1949 (46) 466; 1979 Act No. 105 Section 1; 1996 Act No. 298, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-2520.Officers authorized to remove vehicles.

(a) Whenever any police officer finds a vehicle in violation of any of the provisions of Section 56-5-2510 he may move the vehicle or require the driver or other person in charge of the vehicle to move it to a position off the roadway.

(b) Any police officer may remove or cause to be removed to a place of safety any unattended vehicle illegally left standing upon any highway, bridge, causeway or in any tunnel in such position or under such circumstances as to obstruct the normal movement of traffic.

(c) Any police officer may remove or cause to be removed to the nearest garage or other place of safety any vehicle found upon a highway when:

(1) A report has been made that the vehicle has been stolen or taken without the consent of its owner.

(2) The person in charge of the vehicle is unable to provide for its custody or removal.

(3) The person driving or in control of the vehicle is arrested for an alleged offense for which the officer is required by law to take such person before a magistrate or other judicial official without unnecessary delay.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-482; 1952 Code Section 46-482; 1949 (46) 466; 1979 Act No. 105 Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-2525.Notice to authorities of towing and storing of motor vehicle without person's knowledge; exceptions; return of vehicle.

(A) For purposes of this section, " vehicle" means a motor vehicle, trailer, mobile home, watercraft, or any other item that is subject to towing and storage, and applies to any vehicle in custody at the time of the enactment of this section. "Vehicle" includes:


(1) items that are towed and left in the possession of a towing, storage, garage, or repair facility;

(2) contents contained in the vehicle; and

(3) personal property affixed to the vehicle.

(B) A towing company which tows and stores a person's vehicle without the person's knowledge must immediately notify the police department of the municipality where the vehicle PdfInspektor 2 Gold for Adobe Acrobat v1.0.022 crack serial keygen parked, or the sheriff of the county, if the vehicle was parked outside the limits of a municipality, of the location from which the vehicle was towed, the name of the company which towed the vehicle and the place where the vehicle is stored.

(C) A towing company failing to give this notice within one hour of the time the vehicle was towed is not entitled to any compensation for the towing and storing operations. The provisions of this section must be posted in a conspicuous place in all public areas on the premises of the towing company. The law enforcement agency that receives this notice must draft a towing report and furnish the towing company with the report's document number within a reasonable time, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Notification to the law enforcement agency is not required when the towing is performed at the direction of a law enforcement officer.

(D) A towing company that tows away a person's vehicle without his knowledge and stores it is not required to return the vehicle to the person after the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen normal business hours.

HISTORY: 1981 Act No. 73, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Section 1; 2004 Act No. 269, Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-2530.Stopping, standing, or parking prohibited in specified places; exceptions.

(A) Except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic, or in compliance with law or the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen of a police officer or official traffic-control device, no person shall:

(1) Stop, stand or park a vehicle:

(a) On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a street.

(b) On a sidewalk.

(c) Within an intersection.

(d) On a crosswalk.

(e) Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within thirty feet of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone, unless a different length is indicated by signs or markings.

(f) Alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruction when stopping, standing or parking would obstruct traffic.

(g) Upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a highway or within a highway tunnel.

(h) On any railroad tracks.

(i) On any controlled-access highway.

(j) In the area between roadways of a divided highway, including crossovers.

(k) At any place where official traffic-control devices prohibit stopping.

(2) Stand or park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily to pick up or discharge passengers:

(a) In front of a public or private driveway.

(b) Within fifteen feet of a fire hydrant.

(c) Within twenty feet of a crosswalk at an intersection.

(d) Within thirty feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, stop sign, yield sign or traffic-control signal located at the side of a roadway.

(e) Within twenty feet of the driveway entrance to any fire station and on the side of a street opposite to any fire station within seventy-five feet of the entrance when properly signposted.

(f) At any place where official traffic-control devices prohibit standing.

(3) Park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, except temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading property or passengers:

(a) Within fifty feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing.

(b) At any place where official traffic-control devices prohibit parking.

(B) No person shall move a vehicle not lawfully under his control into any such prohibited area or away from a curb such a distance as is unlawful.

(C) This section does not prohibit a federal postal service carrier from stopping, standing, or parking along 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen rural roadway for frequent short intervals during delivery of mail, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, parcels, or packages. As used in this section, "rural" means an area outside the incorporated areas of the county.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-483; 1952 Code Section 46-483; 1949 (46) 466; 1979 Act No. 105 Section 3; 1994 Act No. 511, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-2540.Stopping, standing, or parking may be prohibited on state highways.

The Department of Transportation with respect to state highways may place signs prohibiting or restricting the stopping, standing or parking of vehicles on any highway where, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, in its judgment, such stopping, standing or parking is deemed by the Department of Transportation to be hazardous to those using the highway or where the stopping, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, standing or parking of vehicles would unduly interfere with the free movement of traffic thereon. Such signs shall be official signs and no person shall stop, stand or park any vehicle in violation of the restrictions stated on such signs.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-486; 1952 Code Section 46-486; 1949 (46) 466; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1414.

SECTION 56-5-2550.Left curb and angle parking may be permitted.

The Department of Transportation with respect to state highways and local authorities with respect to highways under their jurisdiction may permit parking of vehicles with the left-hand wheels adjacent to and within eighteen inches of the left-hand curb on one-way roadways and may permit angle parking on any roadway of sufficient width to permit angle parking without interfering with the free movement of traffic. But local authorities shall not permit such left-hand parking on one-way roadways nor angle parking on state highways except upon written approval of the Department of Transportation.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-485; 1952 Code Section 46-485; 1949 (46) 466; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1415.

SECTION 56-5-2560.Parking at right-hand curb not more than 18 inches from curb.

Except as otherwise provided in Sections 56-5-2540 and 56-5-2550, every vehicle stopped or parked upon a roadway where there are adjacent curbs shall be so 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen or parked with the right-hand wheels of such vehicle parallel to and within eighteen inches of the right-hand curb.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-484; 1952 Code Section 46-484; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-2570.Parking of unattended motor vehicle.

No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall permit it to stand unattended without first stopping the engine, locking the ignition, removing the key and effectively setting the brake thereon and, when standing upon any grade, turning the front wheels to the curb or side of the highway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-491; 1952 Code Section 46-491; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-2580.Certain jurors exempt from municipal parking meters and time regulations; exceptions.

Jurors subpoenaed and in attendance at federal court or subpoenaed and in attendance at circuit or county court in this State in a municipality which has parking meters or parking regulations 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the standpoint of continuous time of parking are allowed to use parking spaces without depositing coins in the meters and are not subject to these parking regulations; however, if parking is provided otherwise 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen jurors, this exemption does not apply.

In order to avail himself of the privilege conferred by this section, the juror shall place in or about his vehicle, so that it can be easily seen and read, the subpoena requiring his attendance or some statement in writing signed by the officer issuing it, or some agent of his thereunto authorized, to the effect that the juror has been subpoenaed and is attendant upon such court.

The privilege granted shall be effective only during the particular week in which the court is being held, unless for some reason the attendance of the juror under special circumstances is continued into the succeeding week, and only during the days on which the court is in session and at which the attendance of the juror is required. In determining the duration of the privilege conferred by this section, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, a part of a day shall be construed as a whole day.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-487; 1956 (49) 1812; 1992 Act No. 341, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-2585.Disabled veterans and Purple Heart recipients exempt from parking meter fees.

Disabled veterans and recipients of the Purple Heart are exempt from the payment of municipal parking meter fees when their vehicles bear a disabled veteran's or Purple Heart license plate issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

HISTORY: 1976 Act No. 564; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1416; 1996 Act No. 459, Section 184; 2000 Act No. 242, Section 1.

SECTION 56-5-2590.Unlawful for certain cities to place meters or time limit on streets abutting county property.

It shall be unlawful for any municipality of this State, having a population of between six thousand three hundred and fifty and six thousand eight hundred inhabitants according to the last official United States census, to require any person to pay a fee of any kind for parking an automobile or other vehicle on the abutting side of any street abutting and adjacent to property owned by the county in which such municipality is situate or located and used in connection with the county courthouse or county office building or on the abutting side of any street abutting or adjacent to any sidewalk which is adjacent to or abutting on such property owned by such county by the use of any device known as a parking meter or otherwise Delphi car 2015 R1 crack serial keygen to place a time limit on parking in such areas except such as may be authorized by the governing body of the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen 1962 Code Section 46-488; 1955 (49) 598.

SECTION 56-5-2600.Parking violations; grace period.

A local governing authority that has issued a citation to a person who violates a provision that regulates the parking of vehicles shall allow the person thirty days to pay the original fine assessed before the local governing authority may increase the fine by any amount.

HISTORY: 2008 Act No. 283, Section 4, eff June 11, 2008.

ARTICLE 21


Required Stops


SECTION 56-5-2710.Obedience to signal indicating approach of train.

(a) Whenever any person driving a vehicle approaches a railroad grade crossing under any of the circumstances stated in this section the driver of the vehicle shall stop within fifty feet, but not less than fifteen feet, from the nearest rail of the railroad and shall not proceed until he can do so safely. The foregoing requirements shall apply when:

(1) A clearly visible electric or mechanical signal device gives warning of the immediate approach of a railroad train.

(2) 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen crossing gate is lowered or when a flagman gives or continues to give a signal of the approach or passage of a railroad train.

(3) A railroad train approaching within approximately one thousand, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, five hundred feet of the highway crossing emits a signal audible from such distance and the train, by reason of its speed or nearness to the crossing, is an immediate hazard.

(4) An approaching railroad train is plainly visible and is in hazardous proximity to the crossing.

(b) No person shall drive any vehicle through, around or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad crossing while the gate or barrier is closed or is 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen opened or closed.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-471; 1952 Code Section 46-471; 1949 (46) 466; 1976 Act No. 579; 1979 Act No. 105 Section 4.

SECTION 56-5-2715.Stop required at designated railroad grade crossings.

The Department of Transportation, and local authorities with the approval of the Department of Transportation, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, may designate particularly dangerous highway grade crossings of railroads and erect stop signs thereat. When such signs are erected, the driver of any vehicle shall stop within fifty feet, but not less than fifteen 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, from the nearest rail of the railroad and shall proceed only upon exercising due care.

HISTORY: 1979 Act No. 105 Section 5; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1417.

SECTION 56-5-2720.Certain vehicles shall stop at all railroad grade crossings; gears shall not be changed while crossing grade.

(A) Except as provided in subsection (B), the driver of a school bus or a motor vehicle with a capacity of sixteen or more persons, a vehicle permitted by the Department of Health and Environmental Control to carry hazardous waste and a vehicle described in regulations issued pursuant to subsection (C), before crossing at grade any tracks of a railroad, shall stop the vehicle within fifty feet, but not less than fifteen feet, from the nearest rail of the railroad and while stopped shall listen and look in both directions along the track for an approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train and shall not proceed until he can do so safely. After stopping and upon proceeding when it is safe to do so, the driver of the vehicle shall cross only in the gear of the vehicle that there is no necessity for manually changing gears while traversing the crossing and the driver shall not manually shift gears while crossing the tracks.

(B) Except for school buses, the provisions of this section do not apply at:

(1) a railroad grade crossing where traffic is controlled by a police officer or human flagman;

(2) a railroad grade crossing where traffic is regulated by a traffic-control signal;

(3) a railroad grade crossing protected by crossing gates or an alternately flashing light signal intended to give warning of the approach of a railroad train when the gate or flashing signal does not indicate the approach of a train;

(4) a railroad grade crossing where an official traffic-control device gives notice that the stopping requirement imposed by this section does not apply.

HISTORY: 1962 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen Section 46-472; 1952 Code Section 46-472; 1949 (46) 466; 1979 Act No. 105 Section 6; 1981 Act No. 183; 1992 Act No. 399, Section 2.

SECTION 56-5-2725.Moving heavy equipment at railroad grade crossings.

(a) No person shall operate or move any crawler-type tractor, steam shovel, derrick, roller or any equipment or structure having a normal operating speed of ten or less miles per hour or a vertical body or load clearance of less than one-half inch per foot of the distance between any two adjacent axles or in any event of less than nine inches, measured above the level surface of a roadway, upon or across any tracks at a railroad grade crossing without first complying with this section.

(b) Notice of such intended crossing shall be given to a station agent of the railroad and a reasonable time shall be given to the railroad to provide proper protection at the crossing.

(c) Before making any such crossing, the person operating or moving the vehicle or equipment shall first stop not less than 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen feet nor more than fifty feet from the nearest rail of the railroad and while stopped shall listen and look in both directions along the track for any approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and shall not proceed until the crossing can be made safely.

(d) No such crossing shall be made when warning is given by automatic signal or crossing gates or a flagman or otherwise of the immediate approach of a railroad train or car. If a flagman is provided by the railroad, movement over the crossing shall be under his direction.

HISTORY: 1979 Act No. 105 Section 7.

SECTION 56-5-2730.Through highways; stop signs at entrances and at intersections.

The Department of Transportation with reference to state highways and local authorities with reference to other highways under their jurisdiction may designate through highways and erect stop signs at specified entrances thereto or may designate any intersection as a stop intersection and erect like signs at one or more entrances to such intersection. Every stop sign shall be erected as near as practicable to the nearest line of the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if there is no crosswalk, then as close as practicable to the nearest line of the roadway.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-473; 1952 Code Section 46-473; 1949 (46) 466; 1993 Act No. 181, Section 1418.

SECTION 56-5-2735.Obstructing intersection or grade crossing; passing near grade crossing; traffic lines when stopped at railroad crossing; vehicles in tow.

(A) Notwithstanding the indication of a traffic signal to proceed, no driver shall enter an intersection or a marked crosswalk or drive onto a railroad grade crossing unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection, crosswalk, or railroad grade crossing to accommodate the vehicle the driver is operating without obstructing the passage of other vehicles, pedestrians, or railroad trains.

(B) No vehicle shall be driven on the left side of the roadway while attempting to pass another vehicle within one hundred feet of a railroad grade crossing.

(C) When stopping as required at a railroad crossing, the driver shall keep as far to the right of the highway as possible and shall not form two lanes of traffic unless the roadway is marked for two or more lanes of traffic on the driver's side of the center line of the highway.

(D) A vehicle may not be driven or towed through or over a railroad grade crossing until its driver has determined that the vehicle has sufficient under carriage clearance to negotiate the railroad grade crossing.

HISTORY: 1992 Act No. 399, Section 1; 2005 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 42, Section 10, eff May 3, 2005.

SECTION 56-5-2740.Place where drivers shall stop for stop signs.

Every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, in the event there is no crosswalk, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line but, if none, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, then at the point nearest the intersecting 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting highway before entering the intersection except when directed to proceed by a police officer or traffic-control signal.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 43-474; 1952 Code Section 46-474; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-2745.Emerging from alley, driveway, or building.

The driver of a vehicle emerging from an alley, building, private road or driveway within a 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen or residential district shall stop the vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across the alley, building entrance, road or driveway or, in the FIFA 21 Crack Download Archives there is no sidewalk area, shall stop at the point nearest the street to be entered where the driver has a view of approaching traffic.

HISTORY: 1979 Act No. 105 Section 8.

SECTION 56-5-2760.Stops at drawbridges.

The driver of a vehicle approaching the draw or swing span of a bridge opening for water navigation shall stop as indicated by gates, barriers, semaphores, lights or bell and shall not proceed beyond the stop limit or gates, barriers or semaphores until the indication or signal to proceed is exhibited.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-476; 1952 Code Section 46-476; 1949 (46) 466.

SECTION 56-5-2770.Signals and markings on school buses; meeting, overtaking and passing school bus; loading passengers along multi-lane highways.

(A) The driver of a vehicle meeting or overtaking from either direction a school bus stopped on a highway or private road must stop before reaching the bus where there are in operation on the bus flashing red lights specified in State Department of Education Regulations and Specifications Pertaining to School Buses, and the driver must not proceed until the bus resumes motion or the flashing red lights are no longer actuated.

(B) The driver of a vehicle need not stop upon meeting a stopped school bus when traveling in the opposite direction on a multi-lane highway or multi-lane private road.

(C) The driver of a vehicle must not overtake a school bus which has amber visual signals actuated.

(D)(1) A school bus must be equipped with red and amber visual signals meeting the requirements of State Department of Education Regulations and Specifications 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen to School Buses, which must be actuated by the driver whenever the bus is stopped or preparing to stop on the highway for the purpose of receiving or discharging school children. A driver must not actuate the special visual signals when the bus is in designated school bus loading or off-loading areas if the bus is off the roadway entirely.

(2) A school bus may be equipped with a digital video recording device mounted on the school bus with a clear view of vehicles passing the bus on either side and showing the date and time the recording was made and an electronic symbol showing the activation of amber lights, flashing red lights, stop arms, and brakes. Digital video recording devices mounted on school buses must be procured in compliance with Chapter 11, Title 35 or a procurement code adopted by the political subdivision procuring the digital video recording device in compliance with Section 11-35-5320.

(E) A school bus must bear upon its front and rear plainly visible signs containing the words "SCHOOL BUS" in black letters not less than eight inches in height.

(F) A school bus route that requires passengers to be loaded or off-loaded along a multi-lane highway or multi-lane private road must be designed to ensure that a student is not required to cross a multi-lane highway or multi-lane private road.

(G) For the purposes of this section a multi-lane highway or multi-lane private road is a highway or private road that consists of four or more traffic lanes, having at least two traffic lanes traveling in each direction.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-477; 1952 Code Section 46-477; 1949 (46) 466; 1950 (46) 2379; 1978 Act No. 422 Section 2; 2003 Act No. 62, Section 1; 2014 Act No. 274 (H.5014), Section 2, eff June 9, 2014.

SECTION 56-5-2773.Violation of Section 56-5-2770; digital images admissible in evidence.

(A) A uniform traffic citation alleging the violation of Section 56-5-2770 may be issued based in whole or in part upon images obtained from a digital video recording device mounted on a school bus. A copy of the citation must be given directly to the alleged offender by the law enforcement officer issuing the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen Digital images obtained from a digital video recording device mounted on a school bus pursuant to Section 56-5-2770(D) may be used as evidence at any hearing related to a violation of Section 56-5-2770 to corroborate testimony by the school bus driver or any other person who witnessed the offense.

HISTORY: 2014 Act No. 274 (H.5014), Section 3, eff June 9, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, 2014.

SECTION 56-5-2775.Violation of Section 56-5-2735 as misdemeanor; penalty.

The driver of a vehicle violating the provisions of Section 56-5-2735 is guilty of a misdemeanor and, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, upon conviction, must be fined not less than one hundred dollars or more than two hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than thirty days.

HISTORY: 1988 Act No. 532, Section 25; 1992 Act No. 399, Section 4; 1995 The forest download crack Archives No. 138, Section 7.

SECTION 56-5-2780.Penalties for unlawfully passing a stopped school bus.

(A) A driver of a vehicle violating Section 56-5-2770 (A) or (C) is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, or forfeiture of bail for a first offense must be fined not less than five hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days. In lieu of imprisonment, the court may require that the individual complete an appropriate term of community service of not fewer than ten days upon terms and conditions the court considers proper. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a first offense for a violation of Section 56-5-2770 (A) or (C) may be tried in magistrate's court. Upon conviction, entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, or forfeiture of bail for a second or subsequent violation of Section 56-5-2770 (A) or (C), a person is guilty of a misdemeanor and must be fined not less than two thousand dollars or more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned for not fewer than thirty days and not more than sixty days.

(B) If a driver of a vehicle violates Section 56-5-2770 (A) or (C), and the violation proximately causes great bodily injury or death to a pedestrian, the person is guilty of a felony and, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, upon conviction, entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, or forfeiture of bond, the person must be:

(1) fined not less than five thousand dollars or more than ten thousand dollars and imprisoned for not less than sixty days or more than one year when great bodily injury results;

(2) fined not less than ten thousand dollars or more than twenty-five thousand dollars and imprisoned for not less than one year or more than five years when death results.

As used in this subsection, "great bodily injury" means bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious, permanent disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

The Department of Motor Vehicles shall suspend the driver's license of a person who is convicted or who receives a sentence upon a plea of guilty or nolo contendere pursuant to this subsection for the term of imprisonment plus one year.

HISTORY: 1995 Act No, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 138, Section 6; 2002 Act No. 296, Section 4; 2002 Act No. 348, Section 12; 2003 Act No. 62, Section 2.

ARTICLE 23


Reckless Homicide; Reckless Driving; Driving While Under the Influence of Intoxicating Liquor, Drugs or Narcotics


SECTION 56-5-2910.Reckless vehicular homicide; penalties; 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen of driver's license; reinstatement of license; conditions; consequences for subsequent violations.

(A) When the death of a person ensues within three years as a proximate result of injury received by the driving of a vehicle in reckless disregard of the safety of others, the person operating the vehicle is guilty of reckless vehicular homicide, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. A person who is convicted of, pleads guilty to, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or pleads nolo contendere to reckless vehicular homicide is guilty of a felony, and must be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than ten years, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen both. The Department of Motor Vehicles shall revoke for five years the driver's license of a person convicted of reckless vehicular homicide.

(B) After one year from the date of revocation, the person may MobaXterm 21.3 Key Full + Crack Free Download [2021 Version] the circuit court in the county of the person's residence for reinstatement of the person's driver's license. The person shall serve a copy of the petition upon the solicitor of the county. The solicitor shall notify the representative of the victim of the reckless vehicular homicide of the person's intent to seek reinstatement of the person's driver's license. The solicitor or his designee within thirty days may respond to the petition and demand a hearing on the merits of the petition, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. If the solicitor or his designee does not demand a hearing, the circuit court shall consider any affidavit submitted by the petitioner and the solicitor or his designee when determining whether the conditions required for driving privilege reinstatement have been met by the petitioner. The court may order the reinstatement of the person's driver's license upon the Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 Crack & Serial Key (100% working) conditions:

(1) intoxicating alcohol, beer, wine, drugs, or narcotics were not involved in the vehicular accident which resulted in the reckless homicide conviction or plea;

(2) the petitioner has served the term of imprisonment or paid the fine, assessment, and restitution in full, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or both; and

(3) the person's overall driving record, attitude, habits, character, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and driving ability would make it safe to reinstate the privilege of operating a motor vehicle.

The circuit court may order the reinstatement of the driver's license before the completion of the full five-year revocation period, or the judge may order the granting of a route restricted license for the remainder of the five-year period to allow the person to drive to and from employment or school, or the judge may place other restrictions on the driver's license reinstatement. The order of the judge must be transmitted to the Department of Motor Vehicles within ten days.

(C) If the person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle is reinstated, a subsequent violation of the motor vehicle laws for any moving violation requires the automatic cancellation of the person's driver's license and imposition of the full period of revocation for the reckless vehicular homicide violation.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-341; 1952 Code Section 46-341; 1949 (46) 466; 1994 Act No. 509, Section 1; 1998 Act No. 379, Section 2; 2001 Act No. 97, Section 3; 2012 Act No. 226, Section 1, eff December 18, 2012.

SECTION 56-5-2920.Reckless driving; penalties; suspension of driver's license for second or subsequent offense.

Any person who drives any vehicle in such a manner as to indicate either a wilful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reckless driving. The Department of Motor Vehicles, upon receiving satisfactory evidence of the conviction, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, of the entry of a plea of guilty or the forfeiture of bail of universal multi tools Archives person charged with a second and subsequent offense for the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen of this section shall forthwith suspend the driver's license of any such person for a period of three months. Only those offenses which occurred within a period of five years including and immediately preceding the date of the last offense shall constitute prior offenses within the meaning of this section. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall, upon conviction, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, entry of a plea of guilty or forfeiture of bail, be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than two hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days.

HISTORY: 1962 Code Section 46-342; 1952 Code Section 46-342; 1949 (46) 466; 1958 (50) 1686; 1981 Act No. 76, Section 9.

SECTION 56-5-2930.Operating motor vehicle while under influence of alcohol or drugs; penalties; enrollment in Alcohol and Drug Safety Action Program; prosecution.

(A) It is unlawful for a person to drive a motor vehicle within this State while under the influence of alcohol to the extent that the person's faculties to drive a motor vehicle are materially and appreciably impaired, under the influence of any other drug or a combination of other drugs or substances which cause impairment to the extent that the person's faculties to drive a motor vehicle are materially and appreciably impaired, or under the combined influence of alcohol and any other drug or drugs or substances which cause impairment to the extent that the person's faculties to drive a motor vehicle are materially and appreciably impaired. A person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of the offense of driving under the influence and, upon conviction, entry of a plea of guilty or of nolo contendere, or forfeiture of 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen must be punished as follows:

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Smart card

Pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits for identification or payment functions

A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC or IC card) is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card-sized card with an embedded integrated circuit (IC) chip.[1] Many smart cards include a pattern of metal contacts to electrically connect to the internal chip. Others are contactless, and some are both. Smart cards can provide personal identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing.[2] Applications include identification, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, financial, mobile phones (SIM), public transit, computer security, schools, and healthcare. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on (SSO) within organizations. Numerous nations have deployed smart cards throughout their populations.

The universal integrated circuit card, or SIM card, is also a type of smart card. As of 2015[update], 10.5 billion smart card IC chips are manufactured annually, including 5.44 billion SIM card IC chips.[3]

History[edit]

See also: Payment card

The basis for the smart card is the siliconintegrated circuit (IC) chip.[4] It was invented by Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1959, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and was made possible by Mohamed M. Atalla's silicon surface passivation process (1957) and Jean Hoerni's planar process (1959).[5][6][7] The invention of the silicon integrated circuit led to the idea of incorporating it onto a plastic card in the late 1960s.[4] Smart cards have since used MOS integrated circuit chips, along with MOS memory technologies such as flash memory and EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory).[8]

Invention[edit]

One of the first smart card prototypes, created by its inventor Roland Morenoaround 1975. The chip has not yet been miniaturized. On this prototype, one can see how each pin of the microchip (center) is connected to the exterior world by a copper connector.
First smart card manufactured by Giesecke & Devrientin 1979, already with the finally standardized dimension (ID-1) and a contact area with eight pads (initially on the upper left corner)

The idea of incorporating an integrated circuit chip onto a plastic card was first introduced by two German engineers in the late 1960s, Helmut Gröttrup and Jürgen Dethloff.[4] In February 1967, Gröttrup filed the patent DE1574074[9] in West Germany for a tamper-proof identification switch based on a semiconductor device. Its primary use was intended to provide individual copy-protected keys for releasing the tapping process at unmanned gas stations. In September 1968, Helmut Gröttrup, together with Dethloff as an investor, filed 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen patents for this identification switch, first in Austria[10] and in 1969 as subsequent applications in the United States,[11][12]Great Britain, West Germany and other countries.[13]

Independently, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Kunitaka Arimura of the Arimura Technology Institute in Japan developed a similar idea of incorporating an integrated free online plagiarism checker with percentage Archives - Patch Cracks onto a plastic card, and filed a smart card patent in March 1970.[4][14] The following year, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Paul Castrucci of IBM filed an American patent titled "Information Card" in May 1971.[14]

In 1974 Roland Moreno patented a secured memory card later dubbed the "smart card".[15][16] In 1976, Jürgen Dethloff introduced the known element (called "the secret") to identify gate user as of USP 4105156.[17]

In 1977, Michel Ugon from Honeywell Bull invented the first microprocessor smart card with two chips: one microprocessor and one memory, and 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen 1978, he patented the self-programmable one-chip microcomputer (SPOM) that defines the necessary architecture to program the chip. Three years later, Motorola used this patent in its "CP8". At that time, Bull had 1,200 patents related to smart cards. In 2001, Bull sold its CP8 division together with its patents to Schlumberger, who subsequently combined its own internal smart card department and CP8 to create Axalto. In 2006, Axalto and Gemplus, at the time the world's top two smart-card manufacturers, merged and became Gemalto. In 2008, Dexa Systems spun off from Schlumberger and acquired Enterprise Security Services business, which included the smart-card solutions division responsible for deploying the first large-scale smart-card management systems based on public key infrastructure (PKI).

The first mass use of the cards was as a telephone card for payment in French payphones, starting in 1983.[citation needed]

Carte bleue[edit]

After the Télécarte, microchips were integrated into all French Carte Bleuedebit cards in 1992. Customers inserted the card into the merchant's point-of-sale (POS) terminal, then typed the personal identification number (PIN), before the transaction was accepted. Only very limited transactions (such as paying small highway tolls) are processed without a PIN.

Smart-card-based "electronic purse" systems store funds on the card, so that readers do not need network connectivity. They entered European service in the mid-1990s. They have been common in Germany (Geldkarte), Austria (Quick Wertkarte), Belgium (Proton), France (Moneo[18]), the Netherlands (Chipknip Chipper (decommissioned in 2015)), Switzerland ("Cash"), Norway ("Mondex"), Spain ("Monedero 4B"), Sweden ("Cash", decommissioned in 2004), Finland ("Avant"), UK ("Mondex"), Denmark ("Danmønt") and Portugal ("Porta-moedas Multibanco"). Private electronic purse systems have also been deployed such as the Marines corps (USMC) at Parris Island allowing small amount payments at the cafeteria.

Since the 1990s, smart cards have been the subscriber identity modules (SIMs) used in GSM mobile-phone equipment. Mobile phones are widely used across the world, so smart cards have become very common.

EMV[edit]

Further information: EMV

Europay MasterCard Visa (EMV)-compliant cards and equipment are widespread with the deployment led by European countries. The United States started later deploying the EMV technology in 2014, with the deployment still in progress in 2019, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Typically, a country's national payment association, in coordination with MasterCard International, Visa International, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, American Express and Japan Credit Bureau (JCB), jointly plan and implement EMV systems.

Historically, in 1993 several international payment companies agreed to develop smart-card specifications for debit and credit cards. The original brands were MasterCard, Visa, and Europay. The first version of the EMV system was released in 1994. In 1998 the specifications became stable.

EMVCo maintains these specifications. EMVco's purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility with the 1998 version. EMVco upgraded the specifications in 2000 and 2004.[19]

EMV compliant cards were first accepted into Malaysia in 2005[20] and later into United States in 2014. MasterCard was the first company that was allowed to use the technology in the United States. The United States has felt pushed to use the technology because of the increase in identity theft. The credit card information stolen from Target in late 2013 was one of the largest indicators that American credit card information is not safe, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Target made the decision on April 30, 2014 that it would try to implement the smart chip technology in order to protect itself from future credit card identity theft.

Before 2014, the consensus in America was that there were enough security measures to avoid credit card theft and that the smart chip was not necessary. The cost of the smart chip technology was significant, which was why most of the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen did not want to pay for it in the United States. The debate finally ended when Target sent out a notice[21] stating unauthorized access to magnetic strips[22] costing Target over 300 million dollars[23] along with the increasing cost of online credit theft was enough for the United States to invest in the technology. The adaptation of EMV's increased significantly in 2015 when the liability shifts occurred in October by the credit card companies.

Development of contactless systems[edit]

See also: Contactless payment

Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact between a card and reader. They are becoming more popular for payment and ticketing. Typical uses include mass transit and motorway tolls. Visa and MasterCard implemented a version deployed in 2004–2006 in the U.S., with Visa's current offering called Visa Contactless. Most contactless fare collection systems are incompatible, though the MIFARE Standard card from NXP Semiconductors has a considerable market share in the US and Europe.

Use of "Contactless" smart cards in transport has also grown through the use of low cost chips NXP Mifare Ultralight and paper/card/PET rather than PVC. This has reduced media cost so it can be used for low cost tickets and short term transport passes (up to 1 year typically). The cost is typically 10% that of a PVC smart card with larger memory. They are distributed through vending machines, ticket offices and agents. Use of paper/PET is less harmful to the environment than traditional PVC cards. See also transport/transit/ID applications.

Smart cards are also being introduced for identification and entitlement by regional, national, and international organizations. These uses include citizen cards, drivers’ licenses, and patient cards. In Malaysia, the compulsory national ID MyKad enables eight applications and has 18 million users. Contactless smart cards are part of ICAObiometric passports to enhance security for international travel.

Complex smart cards[edit]

Complex Cards are smart cards that 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen to the ISO/IEC 7810 standard and include components in addition to those found in traditional single chip smart cards. Complex Cards were invented by Cyril Lalo and Philippe Guillaud in 1999 when they designed a chip smart card with additional components, building upon the initial concept consisting of using audio frequencies to transmit data patented by Alain Bernard.[24] The first Complex Card prototype was developed collaboratively by Cyril Lalo and Philippe Guillaudwho were working at AudioSmartCard[25] at the time, and Henri Boccia and Philippe Patrice, who were working at Gemplus. It was ISO 7810-compliant and included a battery, a piezoelectric buzzer, a button, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and delivered audio functions, all within a 0.84mm thickness card.

The Complex 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen pilot, developed by AudioSmartCard, was launched in 2002 by Crédit Lyonnais, a French financial institution. This pilot featured acoustic tones as a means of authentication. Although Complex Cards were developed since the inception of the smart card industry, they only reached maturity after 2010.

Complex Cards can accommodate various peripherals including:

  • One or more buttons,
  • A digital keyboard,
  • An alphabetic keyboard,
  • A touch keyboard,
  • A small display, for a dynamic Card Security Code (CSC) for instance,
  • A larger digital display, for OTP or balance, QR code
  • An alphanumeric display,
  • A fingerprint sensor,
  • A LED,
  • A buzzer or speaker.

While first generation Complex Cards were battery powered, the second generation is battery-free and receives power through the usual card connector and/or induction.

Sound, generated by a buzzer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, was the preferred means of communication iExplorer Registration Code 2022 With Crack Full Version [Latest] the first projects involving Complex Cards. Later, with the progress of displays, visual communication is now present in almost all Complex Cards.

Functionalities[edit]

Complex Cards support all communication protocols present on regular smart cards: contact, thanks to a contact pad as defined ISO/IEC 7816 standard, contactless following the ISO/IEC 14443 standard, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and magstripe.

Developers of Complex Cards target several needs when developing them:

  • One Time Password,
  • Provide account information,
  • Provide computation capabilities,
  • Provide a means of transaction security,
  • Provide a means of user authentication.
One time password[edit]

A Complex Card can be used to compute a cryptographic value, such as a One-time password. The One-Time Password is generated by a cryptoprocessor encapsulated in the card. In order to implement this function, the cryptoprocessor must be initialized with a seed value, which enables the identification of the OTPs respective of each card. The hash of seed value has to be stored securely within the card to prevent unauthorized prediction of the generated OTPs.

One-Time Passwords generation is based either on incremental values (event based) or on a real time clock (time based). Using clock-based One-Time Password generation requires the Complex Card to be equipped with a Real-time clock and a quartz.

Complex Cards used to generate One Time Password have been developed for:

Account information[edit]

A Complex Card with buttons can display the balance of one or multiple account(s) linked to the card. Typically, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, either one button is used to display the balance in the case of a single account card or, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, in the case of a card linked to multiple accounts, a combination of buttons is used to select a specific account's balance.

For additional security, features 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen as requiring the user to enter an identification or a security value such as a PIN can be added to a Complex Card.

Complex Cards used to provide account information have been developed for:

The latest generation of battery free, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, button free, Complex Cards can display a balance or other kind of information without requiring any input from the card holder. The information is updated during the use of the card. For instance, in a transit card, key information such as the monetary value balance, the number of remaining trips or the expiry date of a transit pass can be displayed.

Transaction security[edit]

A Complex Card being deployed as a payment card can be equipped with capability to provide transaction security. Typically, online payments are made secure thanks to the Card Security Code (CSC), also known as card verification code (CVC2), or card verification value (CVV2). The card security code (CSC) is a 3 or 4 digits number printed on a credit or debit card, used as a security feature for card-not-present (CNP) payment card transactions to reduce the incidence of fraud.

The Card Security Code (CSC) is to be given to the merchant by the cardholder in order to complete a card-not-present transaction. The CSC is transmitted along with other transaction data and verified by the card issuer. The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) prohibits the storage of the CSC by the merchant or any stakeholder in the payment chain. Although designed to be a security feature, the static CSC is susceptible to fraud as it can easily be memorized by a shop attendant, who could then use it for fraudulent online transactions or sale on the dark web.

This vulnerability has led the industry to develop a Dynamic Card Security Code (DCSC) that can be changed at certain time intervals, or after each contact or contactless EMV transaction. This Dynamic CSC brings significantly better security than a static CSC.

The first generation of Dynamic CSC cards, developed by NagraID Security required a battery, a quartz and Real Time Clock (RTC) embedded within the card to power the computation of a new Dynamic CSC, after expiration of the programmed period.

The second generation of Dynamic CSC cards, developed by Ellipse World, Inc.does not require any battery, quartz, or RTC to compute and display the new dynamic code. Instead, the card obtains its power either through the usual card connector or by induction during every EMV transaction from the Point of Sales (POS) terminal or Automated Teller Machine (ATM) to compute a new DCSC.

The Dynamic CSC, also called dynamic cryptogram, is marketed by several companies, under different brand names:

  • MotionCode, first developed by NagraID 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, a company later acquired by Idemia,
  • DCV, the solution offered by Thales,
  • EVC (Ellipse Verification Code) by Ellipse, a Los Angeles, USA based company.

The advantage of the Dynamic Card Security Code (DCSC) is that new information is transmitted with the payment transactions, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, thus making it useless for a potential fraudster to memorize or store it. A transaction with a Dynamic Card Security Code is carried out exactly the same way, with the same processes and use of parameters as a transaction with a static code in a card-not-present transaction. Upgrading to a DCSC allows cardholders and merchants to continue their payment habits and processes undisturbed.

User authentication[edit]

Complex Cards can be equipped with biometric sensors allowing for stronger user authentication. In the typical use case, fingerprint sensors are integrated into a payment card to bring a higher level of user authentication than a PIN.

In order to implement user authentication using a fingerprint enabled smart card, the user has to authenticate himself/herself to the card by means of the fingerprint before starting a payment transaction.

Several companies[31] offer cards with fingerprint sensors:

Components[edit]

Complex Cards can incorporate a wide variety of components. The choice of components drives functionality, influences cost, power supply needs, and manufacturing complexity, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

Buttons[edit]

Depending on Complex Card types, buttons have been added to allow an easy interaction between the user and the card. Typically, these buttons are used to:

  • Select one action, such as which account to obtain the balance, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, or the unit (e.g. currency or number of trips) in which the information is displayed,
  • Enter numeric data via the addition of a digital keypad,
  • Enter text data via the addition of an alphanumeric keyboard.

While separate keys have been used on prototypes in the early days, capacitive keyboards are the most popular solution now, thanks to technology developments by AudioSmartCard International SA.[32]

The interaction with a capacitive keyboard requires constant power, therefore a battery and a mechanical button are required to activate the card.

Buzzer[edit]

The first Complex Cards were equipped with a buzzer that made it possible to broadcast sound. 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen feature was generally used over the phone to send identification data such as an identifier and One-Time Passwords (OTPs). Technologies used for sound transmission include DTMF (Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling) or FSK (Frequency-shift keying).

Companies that offered cards with buzzers include:

  • AudioSmartCard,
  • nCryptone,[33]
  • Prosodie,
  • Société d'exploitation du jeton sécurisé – SEJS.
Display[edit]

Displaying data is an essential part of Complex Card functionalities, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Depending on the information that needs to be shown, displays can be digital or alphanumeric and of varying lengths. Displays can be located either on the front or back of the card. A front display is the most common solution for showing information such as a One-Time Password or an electronic purse balance. A rear display is more often used for showing a Dynamic Card Security Code (DCSC).

Displays can be made using two technologies:

  • Liquid-crystal display (LCD) : LCDs are easily available from a wide variety of suppliers, and they are able to display either digits or alphabetical data. However, to be fitted 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen a complex smart card, LCDs need to have a certain degree of flexibility. Also, LCDs need to be powered to keep information displayed.
  • Bistable displays, also known as Ferroelectric liquid crystal displays, are increasingly used as they only require power to refresh the displayed information. The displayed data remains visible, without the need for of any power supply. Bistable displays are also available in a variety of specifications, displaying digits or pixels. Bistable displays are available from E Ink Corporation[34] among others.
Cryptoprocessor[edit]

If a Complex smart Card is dedicated to making cryptographic computations such as generating a One-Time Password, it may require a secure cryptoprocessor.

Power supply[edit]

As Complex Cards contain more components than traditional smart cards, their power consumption must be carefully monitored.

First generation Complex Cards require a power supply even in standby mode. As such, product designers generally included a battery in their design. Incorporating a battery creates an additional burden in terms of complexity, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, cost, space and flexibility in an already dense design. Including a battery in a Complex Card increases the complexity of the manufacturing process as a battery cannot be hot laminated, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

Second generation Complex Cards feature a battery-free design. These cards harvest the necessary power from external sources; for example when the card interacts in a contact or contactless fashion with a payment system or an NFC-enabled smartphone. The use of a bistable display in the card design ensures that the screen remains legible even when the Complex Card is unconnected to the power source.

Manufacturing[edit]

Complex Card manufacturing methods are inherited from the smart card industry and from the electronics mounting industry. As Complex Cards incorporate several components while having to remain within 0.8 mm thickness and be flexible, and to comply with the ISO/IEC 7810, ISO/IEC 7811 and ISO/IEC 7816 standards, renders their manufacture more complex than standard smart cards.

One of the most popular manufacturing processes in the smart card industry is lamination. This process involves laminating an inlay between two card faces. The inlay contains the needed electronic components with an antenna printed on an inert support.

Typically battery-powered Complex Cards 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen a cold lamination manufacturing process. This process impacts the manufacturing lead time and the whole cost of such a Complex Card.

Second generation, battery-free Complex Cards can be manufactured by existing hot lamination process. This automated process, inherited from traditional smart card manufacturing, enables the production of Complex Cards in large quantities while keeping costs under control, a necessity for the evolution from a niche to a mass market.

Card life cycle[edit]

As with standard smart cards, Complex Cards go through a lifecycle comprising the following steps:

As Complex Cards bring more functionalities than standard smart cards and, due to their complexity, their personalization can take longer or require more inputs. Having Complex Cards that can be personalized by the same machines and the same processes as regular smart cards allows them to be integrated more easily in existing manufacturing chains and applications.

First generation, battery-operated Complex Cards require specific recycling processes, mandated by different regulatory bodies. Additionally, keeping battery-operated Complex Cards in inventory for extended periods of time may reduce their performance due to battery ageing.

Second-generation battery-free technology ensures operation during the entire lifetime of the card and eliminates self-discharge, providing extended shelf life, and is more eco-friendly, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

History and major players[edit]

Since the inception of smart cards, innovators have been trying to add extra features. As technologies have matured and have been industrialized, several smart card industry players have been involved in Complex Cards.

The Complex Card concept began in 1999 when Cyril Lalo and Philippe Guillaud, its inventors, first designed a smart card with additional components. The first prototype was developed collaboratively by Cyril Lalo, who was the CEO of AudioSmartCard at the time, and Henri Boccia and Philippe Patrice, from Gemplus. The prototype included a button and audio functions on a 0.84mm thick ISO 7810-compliant card.

Since then, Complex Cards have been mass-deployed primarily by NagraID Security.

AudioSmartCard[edit]

AudioSmartCard International SA[35] was instrumental in developing the first Complex Card that included a battery, a piezoelectric buzzer, a button, and audio functions all on a 0.84mm thick, ISO 7810-compatible card.

AudioSmartCard was founded in 1993 and specialized in the development and marketing of acoustic tokens incorporating security features. These acoustic tokens exchanged data in the form of sounds transmitted over a phone line, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. In 1999, AudioSmartCard transitioned to a new leadership under Cyril Lalo and Philippe Guillaud, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, who also became major shareholders. They made AudioSmartCard evolve towards the smart card world. In 2003 Prosodie,[36] a subsidiary of Capgemini, joined the shareholders of AudioSmartCard.

AudioSmartCard was renamed nCryptone,[37] in 2004.

CardLab Innovation[edit]

CardLab Innovation,[38] incorporated in 2006 in Herlev, Denmark, specializes in Complex Cards that include a switch, a biometric reader, an RFID jammer, and one or more magstripes. The company works with manufacturing partners in China and Thailand and owns a card lamination factory in Thailand.

Coin[edit]

Coin was a US-based startup[39] founded in 2012 by Kanishk Parashar.[40] It developed a Complex Card capable of storing the data of several credit and debit cards. The card prototype was equipped with a display[41][full citation needed] and a button that enabled the user to switch between different cards. In 2015, the original Coin card concept evolved into Coin 2.0 adding contactless communication to its original magstripe emulation.[42]

Coin was acquired by Fitbit in May 2016[43] and all Coin activities were discontinued in February 2017.[44]

Ellipse World, Inc.[edit]

Ellipse World, Inc.[45] was founded in 2017 by Cyril Lalo and Sébastien Pochic, both recognized experts in Complex Card technology. Ellipse World, Inc. specializes in battery-free Complex Card technology.

The Ellipse patented technologies enable smart card manufacturers to use their existing dual interface payment card manufacturing process and supply chain to build battery-free, second generation Complex Cards with display capabilities. Thanks to this ease of integration, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, smart card vendors are able to address banking, transit and prepaid cards markets.

EMue Technologies[edit]

EMue[46] Technologies, headquartered in Melbourne, Australia, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, designed and developed authentication solutions for the financial services industry from 2009 to 2015.[47] The company’s flagship product, developed in collaboration with Cyril Lalo and Philippe Guillaud5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, was the eMue Card, a Visa CodeSure[48] credit card with an embedded keypad, a display and a microprocessor.

Feitian Technologies[edit]

Feitian Technologies, a China-based company created in 1998, provides cyber security products and solutions. The company offers security solutions based on smart cards as well as other 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen devices. These include Complex Cards, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, that incorporate a display,[49] a keypad[50] or a fingerprint sensor.[51]

Fingerprint Cards[edit]

Fingerprint Cards AB (or Fingerprints[52]) is a Swedish company specializing in biometric solutions. The company 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen biometric sensors and has recently introduced payment cards incorporating a fingerprint sensor[53] such as the Zwipe card,[54] a biometric dual-interface payment card using an integrated sensor from Fingerprints.

Giesecke+Devrient[edit]

Giesecke & Devrient, also known as G+D,[55] is a German company headquartered in Munich that provides banknotes, security printing, smart cards and cash handling systems. Its smart card portfolio includes display cards, OTP cards, as well as cards displaying a Dynamic CSC.

Gemalto[edit]

Gemalto, a division of Thales Group, is a major player in the secure transaction industry. The company’s Complex 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen portfolio includes cards with a display[56] 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen a fingerprint sensor.[57] These cards may display an OTP[58] or a Dynamic CSC.[59]

Idemia[edit]

Idemia is the product of the 2017[60] merger of Oberthur Technologies and Morpho. The combined company has positioned itself as a global provider of financial cards, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, SIM cards, biometric devices as well as public and private identity solutions. Due to Oberthur’s acquisition of NagraID Security in 2014, Idemia’s Complex Card offerings include the F.CODE[61] biometric payment card that includes a fingerprint sensor, and its battery-powered Motion Code[62] card that displays a Dynamic CSC.

Idex[edit]

Idex Biometrics ASA, incorporated in Norway, specializes in fingerprint identification technologies for personal authentication. The company offers fingerprint sensors[63] and modules[64] that are ready to be embedded into cards.[65]

Innovative Card Technologies[edit]

Founded in 2002, by Alan Finkelstein, Innovative Card Technologies developed and commercialized enhancements for the smart card market. The company acquired the display card assets of nCryptone[66] in 2006. Innovative Card Technologies has ceased its activities.

NagraID[edit]

Nagra ID, now known as NID,[67] was a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Kudelski Group until 2014. NID can trace its history with Complex Cards back to 2003 when it collaborated on development with nCryptone, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Nagra ID was instrumental in developing the cold lamination process for Complex Cards manufacturing.

Nagra ID manufactures Complex Cards[68] that can include a battery, buttons, displays or other electronic components, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

NagraID Security[edit]

Nagra ID Security began in 2008 as a spinoff of Nagra ID to focus on Complex Card development and manufacturing. The company was owned by Kudelski Group (50%), Cyril Lalo (25%) and Philippe Guillaud (25%).

NagraID Security quickly became a leading player in the adoption of Complex Cards due, in large part, to its development of MotionCode cards that featured a small display IsoBuster Pro 1.7.0.0 crack serial keygen enable a Card Security Code (CVV2).

NagraID Security was the first Complex Cards manufacturer to develop a mass market for payment display cards. Their customers included:

  • ABSA,[69] South Africa,
  • Banco Bicentenario, Venezuela,
  • Banco MontePaschi, Belgium,
  • Erste Bank, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Croatia,
  • Getin Bank, Poland,
  • Standard Chartered Bank, Singapore.

NagraID Security also delivered One-Time Password cards to companies including:

  • Bank of America,
  • HID Security,
  • Paypal,
  • RSA Security,
  • Verisign.

In 2014, NagraID Security was sold to Oberthur Technologies (now Idemia), 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

nCryptone[edit]

nCryptone emerged in 2004 from the renaming of AudioSmartCard. nCryptone was headed by Cyril Lalo and Philippe Guillaud[70] and developed technologies around authentication servers and devices.

nCryptone display card assets were acquired by Innovative Card Technologies in 2006.[71]

Oberthur Technologies, now Idemia[edit]

Oberthur Technologies, now Idemia, is one of the major players in the secure transactions industry. It acquired the business of NagraID Security in 2014. Oberthur then merged with Morpho and the combined entity was renamed Idemia in 2017.

Major references in the Complex Cards business include:

Plastc[edit]

Set up in 2009, Plastc announced a single card that could digitally hold the data of up to 20 credit or debit cards. The company succeeded in raising US$9 million through preorders but failed to deliver any product.[75][76] Plastc was then acquired[77] in 2017 by Edge Mobile Payments,[78] a Santa Cruz-based Fintech company, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. The Plastc project continues as the Edge card,[79] a dynamic payment card that consolidates several payment cards in one device. The card is equipped with a battery and an ePaper screen and can store data from up to 50 credit, debit, loyalty and gift cards.

Stratos[edit]

Stratos[80] was created in 2012 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. In 2015, Stratos developed the Stratos Bluetooth Connected Card,[81] which was designed to integrate up to three credit and debit card in a single card format and featured a smartphone 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen used to manage the card. Due to its Lithium ion thin film battery, the Stratos card was equipped with LEDs and communicated in contactless mode and in Bluetooth low Energy.

In 2017 Stratos was acquired[82] by CardLab Innovation, a company headquartered in Herlev, Denmark.

Swyp[edit]

SWYP[83] was the brand name of a card developed by Qvivr, a company incorporated in 2014 in Fremont, California. SWYP was introduced in 2015 and dubbed the world’s first smart wallet. SWYP was a metal card with the ability to combine over 25 credit, debit, gift and loyalty cards. The card worked in conjunction with a smartphone app used to manage the cards. The Swyp card included a battery, a button and a matrix display that showed which card was in use. The company registered users in its beta testing program, but the product never shipped on a commercial scale.

Qvivr raised US$5 million in January 2017[84] and went out of business in November 2017.

Businesses[edit]

Complex Cards have been adopted by numerous financial institutions worldwide, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. They may include different functionalities such as payment cards (credit, debit, prepaid), One-Time Password, mass-transit, and dynamic Card Security Code (CVV2).

Complex Card technology is used by numerous financial institutions including:

  • ABSA,[85] South Africa,
  • Banca MontePaschi Belgio,[86]
  • Bank of America,[87] USA,
  • BPCE Group,[88] France,
  • Carpatica Bank,[89] Romania,
  • Credit Europe Bank,[90] Romania,
  • Erste&Steiermärkische Ban,[91] Croatia
  • Getin Bank,[92] Poland,
  • Newcastle Banking Society,[93] UK,
  • Orange Bank, France,
  • Paypal,[94] USA,
  • Sinopac,[95] Taiwan,
  • Société Générale,[96] France,
  • Standard Chartered Bank,[97][98] Singapore,
  • Symantec,[99]
  • TEB,[100] Turkey.

Design[edit]

A smart card may have the following generic characteristics:

  • Dimensions similar to those of a credit card. ID-1 of the ISO/IEC 7810 standard defines cards as nominally 85.60 by 53.98 millimetres (3.37 in × 2.13 in). Another popular size is ID-000, which is nominally 25 by 15 millimetres (0.98 in × 0.59 in) (commonly used in SIM cards). Both are 0.76 millimetres (0.030 in) thick.
  • Contains a tamper-resistant security system (for example a secure cryptoprocessor and a secure file system) and provides security services (e.g., protects in-memory information).
  • Managed by an administration system, which securely interchanges information and configuration settings with the card, controlling card blacklisting and application-data updates.
  • Communicates with external services through card-reading devices, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, such as ticket readers, ATMs, DIP reader, etc.
  • Smart cards are typically made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes polyethylene-terephthalate-based polyesters, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polycarbonate.

Since April 2009, a Japanese company has manufactured reusable financial smart cards made from paper.[101]

Internal structure[edit]

Data structures[edit]

As mentioned above, data on a smart card may be stored in a file system (FS). In smart card file systems, the root directory is called the "master file" ("MF"), subdirectories are called "dedicated files" ("DF"), and ordinary files are called "elementary files" ("EF").[102]

Logical layout[edit]

The file system mentioned above is stored on an EEPROM (storage or memory) within the smartcard.[102] In addition to the EEPROM, other components may be present, depending upon the kind of smartcard. Most smartcards have one of three logical layouts:

  • EEPROM only.
  • EEPROM, ROM, RAM, and microprocessor.
  • EEPROM, ROM, RAM, microprocessor, and crypto-module.[102]

In cards with microprocessors, the microprocessor sits inline between the reader and the other components. The operating system that runs on the microprocessor mediates the reader's access to those components in order to prevent unauthorized access.[102]

Physical interfaces[edit]

Contact smart cards[edit]

Illustration of smart-card structure and packaging
4 by 4 mm silicon chip in a SIM card, which was peeled open. Note the thin gold bonding wires and the regular, rectangular digital-memory areas.
Smart-card reader on a laptop
A smart-card pinout. VCC: Power supply. RST: Reset signal, used to reset the card's communications. CLK: Provides the card with a clock signal, from which data communications timing is derived. GND: Ground(reference voltage). VPP: ISO/IEC 7816-3:1997 designated this as a programming voltage: an input for a higher voltage to program persistent memory (e.g., EEPROM). ISO/IEC 7816-3:2006 designates it 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, for either standard or proprietary use, as input and/or output. I/O: Serial input and output (half-duplex). C4, C8: The two remaining contacts are AUX1 and AUX2 respectively and are used for USBinterfaces and other uses.[103]However, the usage defined in ISO/IEC 7816-2:1999/Amd 1:2004 may have been superseded by ISO/IEC 7816-2:2007.[104]
Contact-type smart cards may have many different contact padlayouts, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, such as these SIMs.

Contact smart cards have a contact area of approximately 1 square centimetre (0.16 sq in), comprising several gold-plated contact pads. These pads provide electrical connectivity when inserted into a reader,[105] which is used as a communications medium between the smart card and a host (e.g., a computer, a point of sale terminal) or a mobile telephone. Cards do not contain batteries; power is supplied by the card reader.

The ISO/IEC 7810 and ISO/IEC 7816 series of standards define:

  • physical shape and characteristics,
  • electrical connector positions and shapes,
  • electrical characteristics,
  • communications protocols, including commands sent to and responses from the card,
  • basic functionality.

Because the chips in financial cards are the same as those used in subscriber identity modules (SIMs) in mobile phones, programmed differently and embedded in a different piece of PVC, chip manufacturers are building to the more demanding GSM/3G standards. So, for example, although the EMV standard allows a chip card to draw 50 mA from its terminal, cards are normally well below the telephone industry's 6 mA limit. This allows smaller and cheaper financial card terminals.

Communication protocols for contact smart cards include T=0 (character-level transmission protocol, defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3) and T=1 (block-level transmission protocol, defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3).

Contactless smart cards[edit]

Main article: Contactless smart card

Contactless smart cards communicate with readers under protocols defined in the ISO/IEC 14443 standard. They support data rates of 106–848 kbit/s. These cards require only proximity to an antenna to communicate. Like smart cards with contacts, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, contactless cards do not have an internal power source. Instead, they use a loop antenna coil to capture some of the incident radio-frequency interrogation signal, rectify it, and use it to power the card's electronics. Contactless smart media can be made with PVC, paper/card and PET finish to meet different performance, cost and durability requirements.

APDU transmission by a contactless interface is defined in ISO/IEC 14443-4.

Hybrids[edit]

A hybrid smart card, which clearly shows the antenna connected to the main chip

Hybrid cards implement contactless and contact interfaces on a single card with unconnected chips including dedicated modules/storage and processing.

Dual-interface

Dual-interface cards implement contactless and contact interfaces on a single chip with some shared storage and processing. An example is Porto's multi-application transport card, called Andante, which uses a chip with both contact and contactless (ISO/IEC 14443 Type B) interfaces. Numerous payment cards worldwide are based on hybrid card technology allowing them to communicate in contactless as wall as contact modes.

USB[edit]

The CCID (Chip Card Interface Device) is a USB protocol that allows a smart card to be interfaced to a computer using a card reader which has a standard USB interface. This allows the smart card to be used as a security token for authentication and data encryption such as Bitlocker. A typical CCID is a USB dongle and may contain a SIM.

Logical interfaces[edit]

[edit]

Different smart cards implement one or more reader-side protocols. Common protocols here include CT-API and PC/SC.[102]

[edit]

Smartcard operating systems may provide application programming interfaces (APIs) so that developers can write programs ("applications") to run on the smartcard. Some such APIs, such as Java Card, allow programs to be uploaded to the card without replacing the card's entire operating system.[102]

Applications[edit]

Financial[edit]

Smart cards serve as credit or ATM cards, fuel cards, mobile phone SIMs, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, authorization cards for pay television, household utility pre-payment cards, high-security identification and access badges, and public transport and public phone payment cards.

Smart cards may also be used as electronic wallets, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. The smart card chip can be "loaded" with funds to pay parking meters, vending machines or merchants. Cryptographic protocols protect the exchange of money between the smart card and the machine. No connection to a bank is needed. The holder of the card may use it even if not the owner. Examples are Proton, Geldkarte, Chipknip and Moneo. The German Geldkarte is also used to validate customer age at vending machines for cigarettes.

Main articles: Contactless smart card and Credit card

These are the best known payment cards (classic plastic card):

  • Visa: Visa Contactless, Quick VSDC, "qVSDC", Visa Wave, MSD, payWave
  • Mastercard: PayPass Magstripe, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, PayPass MChip
  • American Express: ExpressPay
  • Discover: Zip
  • Unionpay: QuickPass

Roll-outs started in 2005 in the U.S. Asia and Europe followed in 2006. Contactless (non-PIN) transactions cover a payment range of ~$5–50. There is an ISO/IEC 14443 PayPass implementation. Some, but not all, PayPass implementations conform to EMV.

Non-EMV cards work like magnetic stripe cards, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. This is common in the U.S, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. (PayPass Magstripe and Visa MSD). The cards do not hold or maintain the account balance, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. All payment passes without a PIN, usually in off-line mode. The security of such a transaction is no greater than with a magnetic stripe card transaction.[citation needed]

EMV cards can have either contact or contactless interfaces. They work as if they were a normal EMV card with a contact interface. Via the contactless interface they work somewhat differently, in that the card commands enabled improved features such as lower power and shorter transaction times, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. EMV standards include provisions for contact and contactless communications. Typically modern payment cards are based on hybrid card technology and support both contact and contactless communication modes, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

SIM[edit]

The subscriber identity modules used in mobile-phone systems are reduced-size smart cards, using otherwise identical technologies.

Identification[edit]

Smart-cards can authenticate identity. Sometimes they employ a public key infrastructure (PKI). The card stores an encrypted digital certificate issued from the PKI provider along with other relevant information, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Examples include the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Common Access Card (CAC), and other cards used by other governments for their citizens. If they include biometric identification data, cards can provide superior two- or three-factor authentication.

Smart cards are not always privacy-enhancing, because the subject may carry incriminating information on the card. Contactless smart cards that can be read from within a wallet or even a garment simplify authentication; however, criminals may access data from these cards.

Cryptographic smart cards are often used for single sign-on. Most advanced smart cards include specialized cryptographic hardware that uses algorithms such as RSA and Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA). Today's cryptographic smart cards generate key pairs on board, to avoid the risk from having more than one copy of the key (since by design there usually isn't a way to extract private keys from a smart card). Such smart cards are mainly used for digital signatures and secure identification.

The most common way to access cryptographic smart card functions on a computer is to use a vendor-provided PKCS#11 library.[citation needed] On Microsoft Windows the Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP) API is also supported, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

The most widely used cryptographic algorithms in smart cards (excluding the GSM so-called "crypto algorithm") are Triple DES and RSA, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. The key set is usually loaded (DES) or generated (RSA) on the card at the personalization stage.

Some of these smart cards are also made to support the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard for Personal Identity Verification, FIPS 201.

Turkey implemented the first smart card driver's license system internet download manager 6 1987. Turkey had a high level of road accidents and decided to develop and use digital tachograph devices on heavy vehicles, instead of the existing mechanical ones, to reduce speed violations. Since 1987, the professional driver's licenses in Turkey have been issued as smart cards. A professional driver is required to insert his driver's license into a digital tachograph before starting to drive. The tachograph unit records speed 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen for each driver and gives a printed report. The driving hours for each driver are also being monitored and reported. In 1990 the European Union conducted a feasibility study through BEVAC Consulting Engineers, titled "Feasibility study with respect to a European electronic drivers license (based on a smart-card) on behalf of Directorate General VII". In this study, chapter seven describes Turkey's experience.

Argentina's Mendoza province began using smart card driver's licenses in 1995. Mendoza also had a high level of road accidents, driving offenses, and a poor record of recovering fines.[citation needed] 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen licenses hold up-to-date records of driving offenses and unpaid fines. They also store personal information, license type and number, and a photograph. Emergency medical information such as blood type, allergies, and biometrics (fingerprints) can be stored on the chip if the card holder wishes. The Argentina government anticipates that this system will help to collect more than $10 million per year in fines.

In 1999 Gujarat was the first Indian state to introduce a smart card license system.[106] As of 2005, it has issued 5 million smart card driving licenses to its people.[107]

In 2002, the Estonian government started to issue smart cards named ID Kaart as primary identification for citizens to replace the usual passport in domestic and EU use. As of 2010 about 1 million smart cards have been issued (total population is about 1.3 million) and they are widely used in internet banking, buying public transport tickets, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, authorization on various websites etc.

By the start of 2009, the entire population of Belgium was issued eID cards that are used for identification. These cards contain two certificates: one for authentication and one for signature. This signature is legally enforceable, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. More and more services in Belgium use eID for authorization.[108]

Spain started issuing national ID cards (DNI) in the form of smart cards in 2006 and gradually replaced all the older ones with smart cards. The idea was that many or most bureaucratic acts could be done online but it was a failure because the Administration did not adapt and still mostly requires paper documents and personal presence.[109][110][111][112]

On August 14, 2012, the ID cards in Pakistan were replaced. The Smart Card is a third generation chip-based identity document that is 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen according to international standards and requirements. The card has over 36 physical security features 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen has the latest[clarification needed] encryption codes. This smart card replaced the NICOP (the ID card for overseas Pakistani).

Smart cards may identify emergency responders and their skills. Cards like these allow first responders to bypass organizational paperwork and focus more time on the emergency resolution. In 2004, The Smart Card Alliance expressed the needs: "to enhance security, increase government efficiency, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, reduce identity fraud, and protect personal privacy by establishing a mandatory, Government-wide standard for secure and reliable forms of identification".[113]emergency response personnel can carry these cards to be positively identified in emergency situations. WidePoint Corporation, a smart card provider to FEMA, produces cards that contain additional personal information, such as medical records and skill sets.

In 2007, the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) proposed a new standard defining V1.0 of the Smart Card Web Server (SCWS), an HTTP server embedded in a SIM card intended for a smartphone user.[114] The non-profit trade association SIMalliance has been promoting the development and adoption of SCWS. SIMalliance states that SCWS offers end-users a familiar, OS-independent, browser-based interface to secure, personal SIM data. As of mid-2010, SIMalliance had not reported widespread industry acceptance of SCWS.[115] The OMA has been maintaining the standard, approving V1.1 of the standard in May 2009, and V1.2 was expected to be approved in October 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen cards are also used to identify user accounts on arcade machines.[117]

Public transit[edit]

Main article: List of smart cards

SmartRider smart card (Transperth)

Smart cards, used as transit passes, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and integrated ticketing are used by many public transit operators. Card users may also make small purchases using the cards. Some operators offer points for usage, exchanged at retailers or for other benefits.[118] Examples include Singapore's CEPAS, Malaysia's Touch n Go, Ontario's Presto card, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Hong Kong's Octopus card, London's Oyster card, Ireland's Leap card, Brussels' MoBIB, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, Québec's OPUS card, San Francisco's Clipper card, Auckland's AT Hop, Brisbane's go card, Perth's SmartRider, Sydney's Opal card and Victoria's myki. However, these present a privacy risk because they allow the mass transit operator (and the government) to track an individual's movement. In Finland, for example, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, the Data Protection Ombudsman prohibited the transport operator Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV) from collecting such information, despite YTV's argument that the card owner has the right to a list of trips paid with the card. Earlier, such information was used in the investigation of the Myyrmanni bombing.[citation needed]

The UK's Department for Transport mandated smart cards to administer travel entitlements for elderly and disabled residents, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. These schemes let residents use the cards for more than just bus passes. They can also be used for taxi and other concessionary transport. One example is the "Smartcare go" scheme provided by Ecebs.[119] The UK systems use the ITSO Ltd specification. Other schemes in the UK include period travel passes, carnets of tickets or day passes and stored value which can be used to pay for journeys. Other concessions for school pupils, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, students and job seekers are also supported. These are mostly based on the ITSO Ltd specification.

Many smart transport schemes include the use of low cost smart tickets for simple journeys, day passes and visitor passes. Examples include Glasgow SPT subway. These smart tickets are made of paper or PET which is thinner than a PVC smart card e.g. Confidex smart media.[120] The smart tickets can be supplied pre-printed and over-printed or printed on demand.

In Sweden, as of 2018-2019, smart cards have started to be phased out and replaced by smart phone apps. The phone apps have less cost, at least for the transit operators who don't need any electronic equipment (the riders provide that). The riders are able buy tickets anywhere and don't need to load money onto smart cards. The smart cards are still in use for foreseeable future (as of 2019).

Video games[edit]

In Japanese amusement arcades, contactless smart cards (usually referred to as "IC cards") are used by game manufacturers as a method for players to access in-game features (both online like KonamiE-Amusement and SegaALL.Net and offline) and as a memory support to save game progress. Depending on a case by case scenario, the machines can utilize a game-specific card or a "universal" one usable on multiple machines from the same manufacturer/publisher. Amongst the most widely used there are Banapassport by Bandai Namco, E-Amusement by Konami, Aime by Sega and Nesica by Taito.

In 2018, in an effort to make arcade game IC cards more user friendly,[121] Konami, Bandai Namco and Sega have agreed on a unified system of cards named Amusement IC, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Thanks this agreement, the three companies are now using a unified card reader in their arcade cabinets, so that players are able to use their card, no matter if a Banapassport, an e-Amusement Pass or an Aime, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, with hardware and ID services of all three manufacturers, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. A common logo for Amusement IC cards has been created, and this is now displayed on compatible cards from all three companies. In January 2019, Taito announced[122] that his Nesica card was also joining the Amusement IC agreement with the other three companies.

Computer security[edit]

Smart cards can be used as a security token.

Mozilla'sFirefoxweb browser can use smart cards to store certificates for use in secure web browsing.[123]

Some disk encryption systems, such as VeraCrypt and Microsoft's BitLocker, can use smart cards to securely hold encryption keys, and also to add another layer of encryption to critical parts of the secured disk.

GnuPG, the well known encryption suite, also supports storing keys in a smart card.[124]

Smart cards are also used for single sign-on to log on to computers.

Schools[edit]

Smart cards are being provided to students at some schools and colleges.[125][126][127] Uses include:

  • Tracking student attendance
  • As an electronic purse, to pay for items at canteens, vending machines, laundry facilities, etc.
  • Tracking and monitoring food choices at the canteen, to help the student maintain a healthy diet
  • Tracking loans from the school library
  • Access control for admittance to restricted buildings, dormitories, and other facilities. This requirement may be enforced at all times (such as for a laboratory containing valuable equipment), or just during after-hours periods (such as for an academic building that is open during class times, but restricted to authorized personnel at night), 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, depending on security needs.
  • Access to transportation services

Healthcare[edit]

Further information: eHealth, health informatics, and electronic health record

Smart health cards can improve the security and privacy of patient information, provide a secure carrier for portable medical records, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, reduce health care fraud, support new processes for portable medical records, provide secure access to emergency medical information, enable compliance with government initiatives (e.g., organ donation) and mandates, and provide the platform to implement other applications as needed by the health care organization.[128][129]

Other uses[edit]

Smart cards are widely used to encrypt digital television streams. VideoGuard is a specific example of how smart card security worked.

Multiple-use systems[edit]

The Malaysian government promotes MyKad as a single system for all smart-card applications. MyKad started as identity cards carried by all citizens and resident non-citizens. Available applications now include identity, travel documents, drivers license, health information, an electronic wallet, ATM bank-card, public toll-road and transit payments, and public key encryption infrastructure. The personal information inside the MYKAD card can be read using special APDU commands.[130]

Security[edit]

Smart cards have been advertised as suitable for personal identification tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant. The chip usually implements some cryptographic algorithm. There are, however, several methods for recovering some of the algorithm's internal state.

Differential power analysis involves measuring the precise time and electric current required for certain encryption or decryption operations. This can deduce the on-chip private key used by public key algorithms such as RSA. Some implementations of symmetric ciphers can be vulnerable to timing or power attacks as well.

Smart cards can be physically disassembled by using acid, abrasives, solvents, or some other technique to obtain unrestricted access to the on-board microprocessor. Although such techniques may involve a risk of permanent damage to the chip, they permit much more detailed information (e.g., photomicrographs of encryption hardware) to be extracted.

Benefits[edit]

The benefits of smart cards are directly related to the volume of information and applications that are programmed for use on a card, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. A single contact/contactless smart card can be programmed with multiple banking credentials, medical entitlement, driver's license/public transport entitlement, loyalty programs and club memberships to name just a few. Multi-factor and proximity authentication can and has been embedded into smart cards to increase the security of all services on the card. For example, a smart card can be programmed to only allow a contactless transaction if it is also within range of another device like a uniquely paired mobile phone. This can significantly increase the security of the smart card.

Governments and regional authorities save money because of improved security, better data and reduced processing costs. These savings help reduce public budgets or enhance public services. There are many examples in the UK, many using a common open LASSeO specification.

Individuals have better security and more convenience with using smart cards that perform multiple services. For example, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, they only need to replace one card if their wallet is lost or stolen, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. The data storage on a card can reduce duplication, and even provide emergency medical information.

Advantages[edit]

The first main advantage of smart cards is their flexibility. Smart cards have multiple functions which simultaneously can be an ID, a credit card, a stored-value cash card, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and a repository of personal information such as telephone numbers or medical history. The card can be easily replaced if lost, and, the requirement for a PIN (or other form of security) provides additional security from unauthorised access to information by others. At the first attempt to use it illegally, the card would be deactivated by the card reader itself.

The second main advantage is security. Smart cards can be electronic key rings, giving the bearer ability to access information and physical places without need for online connections. They are encryption devices, so that the user can encrypt and decrypt information without relying on unknown, and therefore potentially untrustworthy, appliances such as ATMs. Smart cards are very flexible in providing authentication at different level of the bearer and the counterpart. Finally, with the information about the user that smart cards can provide to the other parties, they are useful devices for customizing products and services.

Other general benefits of smart cards are:

  • Portability
  • Increasing data storage capacity
  • Reliability that is virtually unaffected by electrical and magnetic fields.

Smart cards and electronic commerce[edit]

Smart cards can be used in electronic commerce, over the Internet, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, though the business model used in current electronic commerce applications still cannot use the full karthngnof the electronic medium. An advantage of smart cards for electronic commerce is their use customize services. For example, in order for the service supplier to deliver the customized service, the user may need to provide each supplier with their profile, a boring and time-consuming activity. A smart card can contain a non-encrypted profile of the bearer, so that the user can get customized services even without previous contacts with the supplier.

Disadvantages[edit]

A false smart card, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, with two 8-bit 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, used in the 1990s to decode the signals of Sky Television.

The plastic or paper card in which the chip is embedded is fairly flexible. The larger the chip, the higher the probability that normal use could damage it. Cards are often carried in wallets or pockets, a harsh environment for a chip and antenna in contactless cards. PVC cards can crack or break if bent/flexed excessively. However, for large banking systems, failure-management costs can be more than offset by fraud reduction.[citation needed]

The production, use and disposal of PVC plastic is known to be more harmful to the environment than other plastics.[131] Alternative materials including chlorine free plastics and paper are available for some smart applications.

If the account holder's computer hosts malware, the smart card security model may be broken. Malware can override the communication (both input via keyboard and output via application screen) between the user and the application. Man-in-the-browser malware (e.g., the Trojan Silentbanker) could modify a transaction, unnoticed by the user. Banks like Fortis and Belfius in Belgium and Rabobank ("random reader") in the Netherlands combine a smart card with an unconnected card reader to avoid this problem. The customer enters a challenge received from the bank's website, a PIN and the transaction amount into the reader. The reader returns an 8-digit signature. This signature is manually entered into the personal computer and verified by the bank, preventing point-of-sale-malware from changing the transaction amount.

Smart cards have also been the targets of security attacks. These attacks range from physical invasion of the card's electronics, to non-invasive 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen that exploit weaknesses in the card's software or hardware, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. The usual goal is to expose private encryption keys and then read and manipulate secure data such as funds. Once an attacker develops a non-invasive attack for a particular smart card model, he or she is typically able to perform the attack on other cards of that model in seconds, often using equipment that can be disguised as a normal smart card reader.[132] While manufacturers may develop new card models with additional information security, it may be costly or inconvenient for users to upgrade vulnerable systems. Tamper-evident and audit features in a smart card system help manage the risks of compromised cards.

Another problem is the lack of standards for functionality and security. To address this problem, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, the Berlin Group launched the ERIDANE Project to propose "a new functional and security framework for smart-card based Point of Interaction (POI) equipment".[133]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  56. ^"Payments", 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Thales Group - Gemalto. Thales Group - Gemalto. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  57. ^"EMV Biometric Card". Thales Group - Gemalto. Thales Group - Gemalto. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  58. ^"SafeNet OTP Display Card". Thales Group - SafeNet. Thales Group - SafeNet. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  59. ^"Dynamic Code 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. Thales Group - Gemalto. Thales Group - Gemalto. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Serial Number Pop Cap Games

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PopCap Alchemy Name: chATTeRceNTiL Key: 32WCY-M6MNN-KUM62-QU9N7 PopCap Big Money Deluxe Name: POPCAP Key: 7KX3Q-Y72ZE-LX7CK-UZT9M PopCap Seven Seas Deluxe Name: IMAGE ESCAPE Key: 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen PopCap Mummy Maze Deluxe Name: Keith Gray Key: 6LEEH-WVQTK-M9VQL-7HPJZ PopCap Bejeweled Deluxe Name: CAROLINE PIVEN Key: 49HWD-TGCW7-2KAXE-DQTLD vbLf & Note: Only for version 1.5 or older. V1.6 has no differences with 1.5, but the Key just dont work, who cares. is the same PopCap Atomica Deluxe Name: Keith Gray Key: 3DP62-QZ37Y-LHPZT-T2ZFA PopCap Typer Shark Deluxe Name: Free Version Key: 9GG74-AQAFF-VUY6D-M3HJY PopCap Rocket Mania Deluxe Name: chATTeRceNTiL Key: 9QPN4-422CP-TD6NE-46TTY PopCap BookWorm Deluxe Name: ReBeLaO Key: 2KGRF-E2JFN-QVGP2-PX2ZQ PopCap TipTop Deluxe Name: IMAGE ESCAPE Key: 6G9TD-67LL7-W24Z9-JJ4CA PopCap Dynomite Deluxe Name: Keith Gray Key: 7NYC4-D6YQM-WL7JH-2K2KF

PopCap Noah's Ark Deluxe Name: IMAGE ESCAPE Key: AG977-VV4GW-APVUY-EP9FE PopCap NingPo MahJong Deluxe Name: IMAGE ESCAPE Key: 3PRNE-Y22Y2-EZCK4-C6TTW Ricochet Xtreme License Name: chATTeR ceNTiL License Code: 15685558335 Adventure Pinball: Forgotten Island 0901-3066676-3327010-9227 Hexic Deluxe License Name: elite utopia Registration Key: FCDF-E308-DF12-3937 Lemonade Tycoon Deluxe License Name: MEHMET GUVEN GULDOGAN Registration Key: 5B65-1BCD-D2FD-175B vbLf & License Name: Jamila Flax Registration Key: 1BD0-64CB-71DA-CC9E Cubis Deluxe Name: 1ST Regards S/N: B479-CCB0-6335-44FE Collapse! Deluxe License Name: chATTeR ceNTiL License Code: 473447694F484A574773 Collapse! Deluxe 2 License Name: chATTeR ceNTiL License Code: 472F5662587468356A67 Jigsaw Maker Name: chATTeR ceNTiL Key Number: 6JY38B5PCMUPCWXNC7YB Jigsaw Volume I Name: chATTeR ceNTiL Key Number: MTSJA2W2VCAKEKQW7ZE3 Jigsaw Volume II

Name: chATTeR ceNTiL Key Number: 8V542V56BPS7A9YS3M7N Jigsaw Volume III Name: chATTeR ceNTiL Key Number: 7AKA2MBXBJAKC9VFCTY3 Jigsaw Volume IV Name: inYo LUMbaLUMba Key Number: CJYPFTXWGSJ75LL6C9DJ QBeez Name: chATTeR ceNTiL Key Number: HZXMM6P6MEV2LGDK2223 Sumber dari http://gionettekennel.blogspot.com/

MSN Keys BESPELLED DELUXE Name: i-VTEC FOR YOU S/n: 4FLK7-HTF2F-PHDXN-YEFPZ HEXIC 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen Name: elite utopia S/n: FCDF-E308-DF12-3937 CUBIS DELUXE Name: 1ST Regards S/n: B479-CCB0-6335-44FE MAH JONG TILE’S DELUXE Name: CHONG CHING BAK S/n: 4A57683742747746706F BEJEWELED DELUXE Name: CAROLINE PIVEN S/n: 49HWD-TGCW7-2KAXE-DQTLD LEMONADE TYCOON DELUXE Name: MEHMET GUVEN GULDOGAN S/n: 5B65-1BCD-D2FD-175B ALCHEMY DELUXE Name: NeRo//TSRh S/n: 7QDWE-N4UW2-GXJ37-W9AWP SUPER COLLAPSE 2 Name: Gerald Romano S/n: 58396664656E42624859 DYNOMITE DELUXE Name: NeRo//TSRh S/n: 3GVPW-4RKVU-UCT4E-6QLPK MUMMY MAZE Name: NeRo//TSRh S/n: 7ZRLU-PY4X3-TF7YQ-GNXWA ATOMICA DELUXE Name: joe shmoe S/n: 37L4E-EDDHJ-ZD2DM-9NDWY

BIG MONEY DELUXE Name: MARiO TWiNS S/n: 6M9NV-NP2VJ-FMQC7-HVAEE BLASTERBALL 2 DELUXE Name: Matt Max S/n: B8C5-8901-6CC2-8816 NOAH’S ARK DELUXE Name: IMAGE ESCAPE S/n: AG977-VV4GW-APVUY-EP9FE RUMBLECUBE Name: Jill wolff S/n: EBDF-D62F-CC20-6D9B SOLITARE DELUXE Name: 1ST Regards S/n: 725A504E5A47474E6D34 TEXT TWIST Name: CHONG CHING BAK S/n: 6F79656C614E704C3677 WHAT WORD Name: CHONG CHING BAK S/n: 367346364B4B65317A55 WORD MOJO GOLD Name: chATTeR ceNTiL S/n: FD99-9A66-BEFA-B1C9 WHEEL OF FORTUNE DELUXE name: Jonathan Zuckers/n: C2CD-B77F-6132-F786 JEOPARDY DELUXE License Name: Jonathan ZuckerLicense Code/Registration Key: AE3D-554C-BBFFF396 MOZAKI BLOCKS DELUXE name: james wolffs/n: CAA4-762B-0B22-2C49 KEWLBOX Codes Adventure Elf: 996154 California Political Circus: 31167 Carnival Jackpot: 214823 Fowl Words: 214972

Letter Rip: 758814 Santa Balls 2: 1839 Sketchy Extreme Snow Sledding: 1839 for "Flying Finns" 2001 for "Delbort" Spank the Frank: 330033 Ti-collide: more power Topsy Turvey: 030901 Da Numba: 193227 Harvey Wallbanger: 817469 BlackJack Elf: 976973

Gamehouse Games Keys Gutterball Bowling coca cola WERTTWOUUUVXSWZT --Nickelodeon Jigsaw Blue`s Clues Jonathan Zucker BLUE-34B4594F --Nickelodeon Jigsaw Dora the Explorer Jonathan Zucker DORA-34B45961 --Nickelodeon Jigsaw Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius Jonathan Zucker NEUTRON-A5A2CF44 --Nickelodeon Jigsaw Fairly OddParents Jonathan Zucker ODD-1A5A2C98 --Nickelodeon Jigsaw SpongeBob SquarePants™ Jonathan Zucker SPONGEBOB-968B4500 --Puzzle Inlay neil rudnitski DKAPH-8MEC6-MSDMB --Ricochet Nancy Heintz 12411650161 --Super 5-Line Slots John Keith Sullivan 5779346D525956775651 --Super Black Jack John Keith Sullivan 2B4C5278565A32774241 --Super Bounce Out! Marie Fader 644C643236616643786B --Super Candy Cruncher CHONG CHING BAK GQEWEGQMWE6BW8MK Registered QLFZU5LQLSRKEWUB --Super Collapse! CHONG CHING BAK 70674C78344664314441 DKM FMM 614A6C57783146506C63 --Super Collapse! II Sheila Predmore 314D4D45395942764738 Gerald Romano 58396664656E42624859 SERDAR UYAR 6D7543324B6D68557845

--Super Combo Chaos Terrie Van Oss ESNPS-CHXRA-MMMND --Super Fruit Frolic Ulysses Gaze NFBPP4PJKS4KZQNQ TEAM CAT 2003 VA8XH8V7UVG6KRXP SERDAR UYAR T1E6LEZ1LEL8PXAR --Super GameHouse Solitaire CHONG CHING BAK 366E506A6F4C53415A67 --Super GemDrop CHONG CHING BAK 6B6D66477A756C4D4473 --Super Glinx! CHONG CHING BAK 755758356C45556B4B4D --Super Jigsaw Anne Geddes`Down In The Garden ReanimatoR^LasH GeddesGarden-1538E0A8 --Super Jigsaw Landscapes John Keith Sullivan LANDSCAPES-59065BB5 ReanimatoR^LasH Landscapes-54E43B5 --Super Jigsaw Kinkade elite utopia KINKADE-A824C569 ReanimatoR^LasH Kinkade-20A9C8E9 --Super Jigsaw Kinkade Holyday ReanimatoR^LasH KinkadeHoliday-54E49953 --Super Jigsaw Medley John Keith Sullivan MEDLEY-559065A3 ReanimatoR^LasH Medley-1054E423 --Super Jigsaw Pets Kimberly Rice PETS-249438DF ReanimatoR^LasH Pets-C415390F --Super Jigsaw Starter Susan Hagyard STARTER-A0A94A0C ReanimatoR^LasH Starter-20A9CC0C --Super Jigsaw Variety Susan Hagyard VARIETY-A0A9491D

--Super Jigsaw Wyland SERDAR UYAR WYLAND-56506934 ReanimatoR^LasH Wyland-1054E6B4 --Super Jigsaw USA Starter SERDAR UYAR USASTARTER-65068D8C ReanimatoR^LasH USAStarter-54E658C --Super Letter Linker CHONG CHING BAK 6MT746M574QL9EYQ Registered A6N52E6A6JPC72KV --Super Mahjong Solitaire CHONG CHING BAK 4A57683742747746706F John Keith Sullivan 5779346D525956775651 John Keith Sullivan 4A57683742747746706F --Super Nisqually CHONG CHING BAK 576A4242497032577A59 --Super PileUp! John Keith Sullivan 532B4549312B61456C6B --Super Pool andrew collins 4A617142774C54744155 David Pressley 6F2F6D412B674A715677 --Super Pop & Drop Kimberly Rice 444D6538756141555251 --Super Rumble Cube Marion Niedringhaus 422F44394C36726A5955 --Super Solitaire Vol. 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen John Keith Sullivan 366E506A6F4C53415A67 --Super Solitaire Vol. 2 John Keith Sullivan 353574476C4C51576E30 --Super SpongeBob Squarepants Collapse Matthew Phiong RX9AF-TWF66-MDMSN --Tap a Jam Joanne Simons 7363614D585A50326C77 ---

Super TextTwist CHONG CHING BAK 6F79656C614E704C3677 Ramsey Bongky 444930373041632F5A63 Sherri Johnson 4C3941334651535A4238 --Super WhatWord CHONG CHING BAK 367346364B4B65317A55 --Super Wild Wild Words Melanie Reckingre 4A3855356D4E55373167 PR254kI458E556IOX589 Super 5-Line Slots v1.20 John Keith Sullivan 5779346D525956775651 :) Super Bounce Out! v2.30 Marie Fader 644C643236616643786B :( Super Black Jack v1.01 John Keith Sullivan 2B4C5278565A32774241 :) Super Candy Cruncher v1.52 CHONG CHING BAK GQEWEGQMWE6BW8MK :) Super Collapse! v2.71 SG 70674C78344664314441 :) 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen Collapse! II v1.33 Sheila Predmore 314D4D45395942764738 :( Combo Chaos! v1.1 Terrie Van Oss ESNPS-CHXRA-MMMND :) Super Fruit Frolic v1.00 Ulysses Gaze NFBPP4PJKS4KZQNQ :) Super GameHouse Solitaire Vol.1 v1.11 SG 366E506A6F4C53415A67 :) 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen GameHouse Solitaire Vol.2 v1.10 SG 353574476C4C51576E30 :) Super GameHouse Solitaire Vol.3 v1.30 heliotrope sky SES9X8TQFSFVACJ :) Super GemDrop v1.1.3 CHONG CHING BAK 6B6D66477A756C4D4473 :) Super Glinx! v1.01 CHONG CHING BAK 755758356C45556B4B4D :) Super Letter Linker v1.06.2 CHONG CHING BAK 6MT746M574QL9EYQ :) Super Mah Jong Solitaire v2.06 John Keith Sullivan 4A57683742747746706F :) Super Nisqually v1.02 CHONG CHING BAK 576A4242497032577A59 :) Super PileUp! v1.05 SG 532B4549312B61456C6B :) Super Pool v1.5 andrew collins 4A617142774C54744155 :) Super Pop & Drop! v1.10 Kimberly Rice 444D6538756141555251 :( Puzzle Inlay v1.00 neil rudnitski DKAPH-8MEC6-MSDMB :) Tap A Jam v1.00 Joanne Simons 7363614D585A50326C77 :) Super Rumble Cube v1.11 Marion Niedringhaus 422F44394C36726A5955 :) Super SpongeBob Squarepants Collapse! v1.10 Matthew Phiong RX9AF-TWF66MDMSN :) Super TextTwist v2.24 Sherri Johnson 4C3941334651535A4238 :) Super WhatWord v1.05 CHONG CHING BAK 367346364B4B65317A55 :) Super Wild Wild Words v1.00 Melanie Reckingre 4A3855356D4E55373167 :) Super Jigsaw Puzzle v1.2.1 Packs: Name Serial Anne Geddes "Down In The Garden" ReanimatoR^LasH GeddesGarden-1538E0A8 :) Great Art John Doe GreatArt-444F8E4C :) Kinkade Holyday ReanimatoR^LasH KinkadeHoliday-54E49953 :) Kinkade ReanimatoR^LasH Kinkade-20A9C8E9 :) Landscapes ReanimatoR^LasH Landscapes-54E43B5 :) Medley ReanimatoR^LasH Medley-1054E423 :)

Pets ReanimatoR^LasH Pets-C415390F :) Starter ReanimatoR^LasH Starter-20A9CC0C :) USA Starter ReanimatoR^LasH USAStarter-54E658C :) Variety ReanimatoR^LasH Variety-20A9CB1D :) Wyland ReanimatoR^LasH Wyland-1054E6B4 :) Nickelodeon Jigsaw! v1.1.8 Packs: Name Serial Blue`s Clues LUCiD Blue-5434986F :) Dora The Explorer LUCiD Dora-54349881 :) Fairly OddParents LUCiD Odd-AA1A4C28 :) Jimmy Neutron Boy Genius LUCiD Neutron-A1A4C844 :) SpongeBob SquarePants LUCiD SpongeBob-86932900 :)

Bobotniks Bean Game:11A309CF-1C5C-4A50-9218-D411F1122F5E Duke Nukem manhatten project: DEB97148-F6A7-4CDB-A978-31182CAF80EF



: 5AB0873A-7AF9-4CE3-8636-4C1F526522F2 Super Letter 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen C3152EF7-BA3C-4639-92E3-222C1B77C412 Super Mahjong: EBC7C7B5-C729-4A1C-8AE9-B2CB3C2313E9 Super Nisqually: C1A89EE5-68A9-4193-B678-299959637697 Super What Word: 77D44A35-2DD9-4505-B56D-D6B39ADA3934 Text-Twist: 1C2420FB-00C5-40A3-8A38-0545B51E132B TipTop: B8531831-193E-4A2D-88C4-C4791AA3DF97 ToeJam & Earl: 643F5EC6-8B60-4933-AA92-001843B9FDC7 Tower of the ancients: s/n:Y-HCZ7-WQZM-SZGY Name:Daniel Mount Triclops:DD0709FB-295D-483E-B04C-8D86E00A6A04 Vectorman: EDD8EBD7-8148-44CD-924D-FA38CAB4A6FC Virtual Table Tennis: B9143F27-0648-4F87-9F8F-1554C1C38E2C Vortiball: C0C00767-7D4E-4972-98A0-B655AE2D1344 widgets: 3EE7A695-4C09-478C-899B-77384B9C3507 Win Mummy Maze Delux: CF21EC5F-2C93-469B-86D8-CEC2B27E6ED9 Wordsense Challenge: 4597EF7F-39EB-4A5B-9649-02C55E5DE3DB WordUP: AAE1DB47-18A8-4D22-97E3-19F923B0C46A

Word Mojo Gold Beta: E4F85F9B-B0BB-4CB7-B479-29DA07191713 Word Wizard: 999D84A6-F9C7-4DF6-B578-7AFF67F351BD WordZap 6.10 peter cetera s/n: 17-2589-66 UniPong: 538AA59E-6A41-4D30-9509-3E6B33C2A64F Virtua Fighter 2: 406E2A58-A073-4329-9257-F11C0491BE6F absurd alantis deluxe v1.4 name: any s/n: jlcgvm99 break the bank v1.0 name: _ s/n: J9-J17-C57 Bursting Bubbles Deluxe v1.3 Serial: ELPVM bursting bubbles deluxe v3.0 name: any s/n: ELPVM critical Mass Deluxe Serial: ERTPP9812 Mahjongg Holidays v1.0 Name: Any Name Serial: PLEVM mahjongg holidays v1.4 name: any s/n: PLEVMWE Mahjongg Towers v2.5 Serial : PLEVM Word Wizard Deluxe Serial: TBLTP587 Mahjongg Valentines Serial: PLEVMMV big balloon blowout v1.0 name: TEAM CAT 2003 s/n: HFPHSF9D break the bank v1.0 name: _ s/n: J9-J17-C57 clickum v1.0 name : [8{^-^}8] s/n : HFPSGNG fruits v1.1 name: any s/n: TYMMPFWL9Y mahjongg easter v1.0 name : [8{^-^}8] s/n : 8ICDTVG scatoms name: any s/n: KJAS8YK The Walls Of Jericho v1.0 s/n : E2709EB7-8B1F-4c59-9796-6297B7CC3D2C top ten solitaire v1.8 name : TEAM CAT 2003 s/n : PTBDAY5967 word wizard deluxe v2.2 name: any s/n: TBLTP zen words name : [8{^-^}8] s/n: SW2NDGFBF RealOne Arcade® Serials and Instructions 3D Ultra Pinball Thrillride: 99BE3DED-CA8A-4C92-8EAD-8D38FEA9D72C 5 Card Dash: 9E12D21B-C4A4-4DC6-8CA9-288BB9476AC3 A Snake´s Life: 29981819-E1AF-4E18-B6C4-A3EC7955E52D Aargon Deluxe: 4DDA75A9-CB7C-4B4C-A76E-5D74806C31BE Abysma: 228E813F-C2DF-48FE-818A-8F35A9CB5FF4 Aironix: 46gC-LdqK-HcSe-2Wj2d Alchemy: C6A59810-6C78-4C7E-972A-5CD102AEDB46 Alonix: 01CE946A-5C67-4E03-95CA-60641191C597 Arcade Lines: Name: Norhashimah Hashim s/n:5-1-100-66718-34256-47223



B2B292F7-F2DF-4277-8454-40F47791AAEC Critical Mass: D2575D94-4C75-4DDC-AF77-4ABA999E5E92 Cubis Gold: E7C39149-228C-4A24-93BF-2344526CFCCA Cue Club: Need Full Program Download Cyclone: C843C12E-3B7F-4805-860E-DEF62D23C895 Daredevil Pinball: C724C90E-18B7-4CE0-A076-55C9DABD0964 Dealers Choice Collection: 051097 Demolition Derby and Figure 8 Racing: 3DF24774-C14C-4827-81EF-931EC2B222B3 Demonstar: Need Full Program Download Devil Island Pinball: 5F96CCC9-9E33-4DD8-AEA6-16C3C93F83FD Diamond Mine: 5AD36F9A-BABF-45B8-0691-63424A11B5EC Dicey: E846D9B4-52CD-42D4-A81F-81A22F801BDC Dr. Robotnik`s Bean Game: 11A309CF-1CDC-4A50-9218-D411F1122F5E Drop: 99FC5817-8E2A-4612-9D5D-7FCE9D92D59 Duke Nuken Manhatten Project: DEB97148-F6A7-4CDB-A978-31182CAF80EF Dweep: Name:EViL `99 s/n:IYRQYSABOMM Dynomite: 74F79C8D-41A8-45D5-856B-EBC5D3A7B5A6 Ecco the Dolphin: E1EBE4A6-5911-4527-973E-7D641B12DFB8 FitzNik: DFDB1B91-3F03-4185-A74B-5C785CC9E5B4 Five Card Frenzy: 94F94B65-80B9-4428-86D6-540471970F41 Flip Wit: FlipTrip: AFDC1A7A-C768-458C-878B-45B137E4E63A Flux: Need Full Program Download FlyorDie GemJam: AA48F855-60CA-4AC7-B19B-96B162CEBB48

A.D. Thermonuclear War Name: Sam Beckwith s/n: X-LCZG-GXN2-DFHG Mahjongg Towers: CEQDE8DF-4A73-43WE-A9E8-47E5C4C4RACT Master of The Skies - Red Ace: 18256C75-8625-439D-BF66-6B5E171486A2 or s/n: L-9LQY-2RR5-ZFFN name: Brian Loudenslager



FC468D51-3B48-4FEF-848A-9064C8DD9DEC Power Chips: A052EA52-D6DB-4F07-9972-40E82168C313 Pretty Good Solitaire Quest Ed: Name: Free Version s/n: 2DNNEKKK5ITJ Primal Prey: 816060A1-9172-4302-B1D5-FE2E49AA3054 Puzzix: 97D287BB-A7BE-45C3-BC92-EFA5C55A935A Puzzle Inlay: 5C45B7D9-87C6-4A9E-94A5-AEFACE93233C Puzzle Station: http://games-dl.real.com/gameconsole/games/ full/rgp/puzzlestation_full.rgp Qbeez: 7FC46482-3B2A-4657-931C-F54E8A9B141E Queue: 261E34CE-F3C2-4BEA-8630-75ED4C9C7DE9 Rain Drops: 98578821-39B8-4261-8173-67C343B323BA Rebound: 7F7893FA-3961-4342-82F1-5779FE101FA0 Red Ace Squadron: B1292168-EF12-43D3-B64A-3CEC766DF859 Return of the Incredible Machine - Contraptions: 3F99C18A-1228-482D-97D3-6FB51221566B RollerCoaster Tycoon: 612DCE92-F719-43A2-8ABE-9B312E896A4E Rooks Revenge: FDD52D7D-59AD-4472-BB5C-9128C3DCBB8F Scrabble: 26016395-BDE7-4B33-BF56-EAB385F0E0B2 Seven Seas: 7CEB6F8A-23EB-4586-8D20-1E8C17859EB2 Shape Maniac: CD681C5C-5EC9-4C43-980C-38C417A466EE Shinobi III - Return of Ninja Master: 0EEC209F-2DA0-4D69-A15A-4BBD70F865A9 Snood Shell: kWzoX770jfDPj6limwgd Sonic and Knuckles: 287697CB-2572-427D-94C0-6688AD761714 Sonic the Hedgehog: F99EC7D5-2DBE-4DED-87FF-DF5652C78500 Sonic the Hedgehog 2: 1E22527E-63D6-452D-9A99-C93124AF0DDE

Sonic the Hedgehog 3: B64E23C3-AD77-4D29-9689-C31DC035944C Space Haste: http://games-dl.real.com/gameconsole/games/full/rgp/spacehaste_full.rgp Space Invaders: 1AA86F9A-BBBF-45A0-8691-60424A1125EE Spell Bound: 0265FE7F-4D56-4B3A-8B90-78B64C45A-C08 Sportsball Challenge: F968AB92-A879-4B93-BBAC-0E8D2B6D172E Square Off Gold: 0402B81D-4682-4091-9E8D-29B937E06CBB Star Pop: 95C5D70C-F4E8-4C01-8129-529B82CEE965 Starlines, Inc: 1501D27F-504F-4B7D-AD44-95697D5D257F Strange Adventures in Infinite Space: 19A350E1-BB56-43DE-B1FB-0172371E6319 Super 5 Line Slots: 48E2C795-24E1-4535-A997-9F27F9ECF36D Super Bounceout: C295724A-D59B-4E22-89A0-0E208DAAE4E1 Super Bubble Pop: 95C5D70C-F4E8-4C01-8129-529B82CEE965 Super Candy Cruncher: 133CF1AC-D245-4F49-AC8B-26332E354DB8 Super Collapse: C4DEDB7E-98DA-4BC1-9686-313E9353FD22 Super Collapse II: 23541B3F-983D-4083-92FC-0B89F22DAE8A Super Gamehouse Solitare: 864EEA85-1390-4414-9F2E-A354A7EDEDD7 Super Gamehouse Solitare Volume 2: E0F9A2EA-626B-4DE5-BD75-0DAB101CD065 Super Gem Drop: 9B241CAD-DB04-40C0-9B2B-6F7E4D38949D Super Glinx!: 5AB0873A-7AF9-4CE3-8636-4C1F526522F2 Super Letter Linker: C3152EF7-BA3C-4639-92E3-222C1B77C412 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen Mahjong: EBC7C7B5-C729-4A1C-8AE9-B2CB3C2313E9 Super Nisqually: C1A89EE5-68A9-4193-B678-299959637697 Super Pop N Fish: 4B7AE8A5-845B-4235-AB33-49CB8CA63916

It will sound kind of hard but in reality it is super easy. First download a program called "ResHack" or any resource hacking program. It can be found on download.com or softseek. Next open "ResHack" and have it open the exe to the game you want to show the reg code. You will see a list that shows folders that go in this order:

EXEBitmapIconDialogString TableIcon Group Version Info Each program might not have all of those but if you got the right "exe" then they all will have the Dialog folder. 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen on the + by the dialog folder and you will see another folder with numbers in it. Click on it. Then click on the only thing under that folder. You should now have code in the main screen of reshack and a dialog box open to the side. On the code you will see several strings that say, CONTROL "", 1000, EDIT, ES_LEFT ES_UPPERCASE WS_CHILD WS_BORDER WS_TABSTOP, 87, 147, 162, 14 What you want to do after all of them that say, " WS_CHILD " you want to add " WS_ VISIBLE " so the above string will read, CONTROL "", 1000, EDIT, ES_LEFT ES_UPPERCASE WS_CHILD WS_VISIBLE WS_BORDER WS_TABSTOP, 87, 147, 162, 14 This will make the dialog boxes visible. YOU MUST DO THIS TO ALL THE CODE THAT DOES NOT HAVE THE " WS_VISIBLE "code in it. Next go to the open dialog box that shows the screen and click and drag the info box and the register now box to a place on the dialog screen that you can enter the code. DO NOT INCREASE THE SIZE OF THE INFO BOX OR THIS WILL NOT WORK. Then all that is left to do is hit the compile script button on Reshack and then save. Don`t worry about making a mistake. Resource Hacker always saves the original as a bak file.

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HP Desktop PCs - Computer Does Not Start and Emits an LED or Beep Code

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Actions

One of the first things a computer does when it turns on is run a hardware test to make sure everything is working correctly. If your desktop finds an error, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, it might not start and the light emitting diodes (LEDs) blink or the computer emits an audible beep.

Perform a power reset of your computer

Perform a power reset (or hard reset) to clear information from the computer's memory without erasing personal data.

Power reset your desktop computer

Perform a power reset on your desktop computer.

  1. Turn off the computer.

  2. Disconnect any peripheral 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and then unplug the power cord.

  3. With the power cord unplugged, press and hold the Power button for approximately 15 seconds.

  4. After you drain the capacitors, plug in the power cord. Leave peripheral devices disconnected.

  5. Turn on the computer.

Identify the desktop LED or beep code

Specific patterns of long and short light emitting diode (LED) blinks, or audible short beeps can help identify a variety of issues.

Note:

Diagnostic lights and audible beep codes are not available on all models.

Review the following to reference the LED blink or computer beep sequence.

  • The red LED blinks represent a major error category (long blinks).

  • The white LED blinks represent a minor error category (short blinks).

  • A one (1) second pause occurs after the last major blink.

  • A two (2) second pause occurs after the last minor blink.

  • Blink error code sequences continue until you unplug the computer or press the power button.

  • Beep error code sequences occur for the first five (5) iterations of the pattern, and then stop.

The red light blinks twice, and then two, short white light blinks

This condition indicates the main area (DXE) of the BIOS has become corrupted and no recovery binary image is available. It can also occur when updating the BIOS.

  1. Allow the system to complete its updates and any changes.

  2. Attempt Sure Start Recovery if the updates are not installing as expected.

The red light blinks twice, and then three, short white light blinks

This condition indicates the embedded controller policy requires you to type a key sequence.

  1. Follow any prompts.

  2. Attempt Sure Start Recovery if the issue persists.

The red light blinks twice, and then four, short white light blinks

This condition indicates the embedded controller is checking or recovering the boot QuickTime 7.5.5 Pro crack serial keygen block.

  1. Allow the system to attempt to recover the BIOS.

  2. Attempt Sure Start Recovery if the issue persists after waiting several minutes.

The red light blinks three times, and then two, short white light blinks

This condition indicates a potential memory failure.

Test computer memory

Use the BIOS Setup Utility to perform a memory self-test.

  1. Make sure the power cord is plugged in the computer.

  2. Turn off the computer, but leave the power cord plugged in.

  3. Turn on the computer, and then immediately press the F10 key repeatedly until the BIOS Setup menu opens.

  4. In the BIOS Setup Utility, use the arrow keys to select Diagnostics, and then select Memory Test.

  5. Press Enter, and then select Yes.

  6. Wait for the test to complete.

  7. After the test completes, note the results, and then press F10 to Save and Exit.

  8. Press Enter to Exit Saving Changes.

Reseat the memory module

Reseat the memory module from inside the computer.

CAUTION:

This product contains components that can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). HP recommends using an anti-static wrist strap and working over a non-carpeted floor with a conductive foam pad to reduce the to reduce the chance of electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage.

  1. Turn off the computer, and then disconnect the power cord and any cables.

  2. Remove the side access panel.

    Removing the side access panel on a desktop computer
  3. Locate the memory module.

    To find the location of the memory module, go to HP Customer Support, and then open the Maintenance and Service Guide for installed memory information for your computer.

  4. Ground yourself to discharge any static electricity by placing one hand on the case of the computer, and then touch the other hand to a metal surface or grounded object, such as the metal part of a lamp.

  5. Reseat the memory modules in the computer, aligning the notches on the modules with the tabs in the memory slot. Press down on the memory module to secure the it in place.

  6. Replace the side access panel, and then plug in power cord.

  7. Turn on the computer.

  8. Confirm that the computer can start up and run in the Windows operating system.

Replace the affected component

Replace the affected part or component if the issue persists after completing all the preceding steps.

Contact HP Customer Support to schedule a product repair or replacement. If you are in Asia Pacific, you are directed to a local service center in your area.

To confirm your warranty status, go to HP Product Warranty Check. Repair fees might apply for out-of-warranty products.

The red light blinks three times, and then three, short white light blinks

This condition indicates a potential graphic chip failure.

The red light blinks three times, and then four, short white light blinks

This condition indicates a potential power system failure.

  1. Reduce to minimum configuration (CPU, System board, PSU, 1 DIMM of memory), 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and then isolate the failed component.

  2. Reduce further if issue persists.

  3. Test your system with a known good PSU.

  4. Contact HP Customer Support for further assistance to replace the component, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, system board, processor (CPU), or PSU if the issue persists.

The red light blinks three times, and then five, short white light blinks

This condition indicates that computer does not detect the processor (CPU).

The red light blinks three times, and then six, short white light blinks

This condition indicates the processor does not support an enabled feature.

Find the product number on your desktop

Find your product name, number, and serial number on the computer or on the box it shipped in.

  • On the side of the case

    Locating the product label on the side of the case
  • On the top or rear of the case

    Locating the product label on the top and rear of the case
  • On the front or side of the case

    Locating the product label on the front and side of the case
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    Locating the product label

Reset the CMOS

Reset Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) data for your computer.

CAUTION:

This product contains components that can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen HP recommends using an anti-static wrist strap and working over a non-carpeted floor with a conductive foam pad to reduce the to reduce the chance of electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage.

  1. Turn off your computer, and then disconnect the power cord and any cables from the computer.

  2. Make sure you have the model number for your computer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, go to HP Customer Support, and then navigate to the product page for your computer.

  3. Open the specifications document or service guide for motherboard information, and then locate the steps for resetting the CMOS.

    The steps for resetting the CMOS might named Clearing CMOS or similar.

    • If the guide lists steps to reset the CMOS: Follow the instructions. 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen

    • If the guide does not list steps to reset the CMOS: Continue with these steps.

  4. With the computer turned off, press the Power button ten (10) times to fully discharge electricity form the system, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

  5. Ground yourself to discharge any static electricity by placing one hand on the case of the computer, and then touch the other hand to a metal surface or grounded object, such as the metal part of a lamp.

  6. Open the computer to access to the motherboard.

  7. Remove or disconnect the CMOS battery from the motherboard.

    Example of different CMOS battery types
  8. Confirm all sources of electricity are removed or disconnected from the computer, including the CMOS battery.

  9. Press the Power button for a minimum of 60 seconds to drain all power from the computer and reset 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the CMOS values on the motherboard.

  10. Reconnect or reinstall the CMOS battery, and then close the computer.

  11. Plug in the power cord to the desktop, and then turn on the computer.

    A message displays confirming the CMOS reset. The message varies by model.

    Example message that displays to indicate the CMOS reset
  12. Confirm the Time in BIOS is set to 00:00.

    If not, repeat the steps to reset the CMOS, but press and hold the Power button for 120 seconds when draining all the power from the computer.

Replace the affected component

Replace the affected part or component if the issue persists after completing all 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the preceding steps.

Contact HP Customer Support to schedule a product repair or replacement. If you are in Asia Pacific, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, you are 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen directed to a local service center in your area.

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The red light blinks four times, and then two, short white light blinks

This condition indicates the processor (CPU) might be overheating.

Confirm the fans work correctly

Inspect the fans inside the computer to make sure they are working as expected.

CAUTION:

If a fan is not working correctly, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, stop using the computer. Exposure to consistently high temperatures can damage internal parts.

  1. Turn on the computer.

  2. Locate the fans inside the case. Locations vary by computer model.

    CAUTION:

    You can use a flashlight to help you locate each fan, but avoid using the flashlight inside the computer to prevent damaging internal parts.

    Locating fans for HP Desktop and Slimline computers

    Fan Type

    1.

    Power supply fan

    2.

    Graphics card fan

    3.

    Processor fan

    4.

    Power supply fan vent

    5.

    Case fan vent

    6.

    Case fan

  3. Note any fans that might be not be working or are making loud, growling noises.

Clean the desktop air vents

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    To avoid damaging internal components, do not use the vacuum inside the computer.

    Locating the air vents on the rear of the computer
  • Remove the side panel back from the computer.

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  • Use canned 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen to clean the fans and components inside the computer.

  • Replace the side panel, reconnect the power cord, and then turn on the computer.

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    • On the side of the case

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      Locating the product label on the top and rear of the case
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      Locating the product label on <b>5 Card Dash crack serial keygen</b> front and side of the case
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    Reset the CMOS

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    CAUTION:

    This product contains components that can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). HP recommends 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen an anti-static wrist strap and working over a non-carpeted floor with a conductive foam pad to reduce the to reduce the chance of electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

    1. Turn off your computer, and then disconnect the power cord and any cables from the computer.

    2. Make sure you have the model number for your computer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, go to HP Customer Support, and then navigate to the product page for your computer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

    3. Open the specifications document or service guide for motherboard information, and then locate the steps for resetting the CMOS.

      The steps for resetting the CMOS might named Clearing CMOS or similar. 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen

      • If the guide lists steps to reset the CMOS: Follow the instructions.

      • If the guide does not list steps to reset the CMOS: Continue with these steps.

    4. With the computer turned off, press the Power button ten (10) times to fully discharge electricity form the system.

    5. Ground yourself to discharge any static electricity by placing one hand on the case of the computer, and then touch the other 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen hand to a metal surface or grounded object, such as the metal part of a lamp.

    6. Open the computer to access to the motherboard.

    7. Remove or disconnect the CMOS battery from the motherboard.

      Example of different CMOS battery types
    8. Confirm all sources of electricity are removed or disconnected from the computer, including the CMOS battery.

    9. Press the Power button for a minimum of 60 seconds to drain all power from the computer and reset 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the CMOS values on the motherboard.

    10. Reconnect or reinstall the CMOS battery, and then close the computer.

    11. Plug in the power cord to the desktop, and then turn on the computer.

      A message displays confirming the CMOS reset. The message varies by model.

      Example message that displays to indicate the CMOS reset
    12. Confirm the Time in BIOS 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen set to 00:00.

      If not, repeat the steps to reset the CMOS, but press and hold the Power button for 120 seconds when draining all the power from the computer.

    Prepare for replacing parts of the computer

    Prepare for replacing a part of the computer by making sure your computer, components, and workspace are ready.

    1. Turn off the computer, and then wait for components to cool.

    2. Disconnect the power cord and any cables from the computer, and then unplug the power cord from the wall outlet, surge protector, extension cable, or power strip.

    3. Transfer the computer to a clear, flat, stable work surface over a non-carpeted floor with a conductive foam pad to reduce the chance of electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage. HP recommends using anti-static wrist straps.

    4. Keep and parts or components in their protective packaging until you are ready to install them.

    5. Make sure you have a Phillips or Flathead screwdriver, depending on your computer model.

    Replace the thermal paste on the processor

    Thermal paste can dry out and crack over time, making the fans inside the computer 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen work harder and putting extra strain on the processor. Replace the thermal paste between the heat sink and processor to help the computer maintain an optimal internal temperature.

    1. Turn off the computer, disconnect the power cord and any cables, and then wait for components to cool.

    2. Gather the following materials:

      • Thermal paste

      • A flathead or TR15 screwdriver

      • Cotton swabs or microfiber cloth

      • An electrostatic discharge (ESD) wrist strap or conductive foam pad for proper grounding

      • Cleaning solution, such as Isopropyl alcohol or thermal compound cleaner

        CAUTION:

        Avoid using standard 70% rubbing alcohol as it can cause corrosion and damage internal parts.

    3. Disconnect the power cord and any cables from the computer

    4. Slide the side panel back and away from the computer, and then set the panel aside.

      Warning:

      The edges of metal panels can cut skin. Be careful not to slide skin along any interior metal edge of the computer.

    5. Carefully place the desktop on its side so the motherboard is parallel with the work surface.

    6. Ground yourself to remove any built-up electrostatic discharge (ESD) before reaching inside the computer.

      CAUTION:

      This product contains components that can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD), 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. HP recommends using an anti-static 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen wrist strap and working over a non-carpeted floor with a conductive foam pad to reduce 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen the to reduce the chance of electrostatic 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen discharge (ESD) damage.

    7. Disconnect the processor fan power cable from the motherboard.

      Disconnecting the processor fan power cable from the motherboard
    8. Remove the four screws around the Switch Audio File Converter 9.21 Crack & Serial Key Free Download 2021 fan in a star pattern, instead of clockwise, to avoid putting unnecessary 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen on the motherboard.

      Removing the four screws in a star pattern
    9. Pull the fan up and away from the motherboard, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and then set it with the fan facing down on a level surface.

    10. Lightly dampen a cotton swab or microfiber cloth with cleaning solution, such as isopropyl alcohol.

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    11. Locate the thermal paste on the processor.

      Locating the thermal paste on the processor

      1.

      Heat sink

      2.

      Processor

    12. Gently clean the surface of the processor until all thermal paste is removed.

      CAUTION:

      Do not remove the processor chip from its socket. There are delicate pins that can be damaged easily.

      Cleaning all the thermal paste from the processor
    13. Clean the surface of the heat sink until all of the thermal paste is removed.

      Cleaning all the thermal paste from the heat sink
    14. Check the heat sink and processor edges for thermal paste, and then clean off any paste found.

    15. Apply a pea-sized amount of thermal paste in the center of the processor.

      Applying a pea-sized amount of thermal paste
    16. Center the heat sink on top of the processor, and then align the screws with the matching holes on the motherboard.

      Centering the heat sink on top of the processor
    17. Secure the screws in a star pattern until there is resistance.

      CAUTION:

      Do not over-tighten the screws. The excess pressure can damage the processor socket and cause the motherboard to crack.

      Securing the heat sink in place
    18. Reconnect the fan power cable into its slot on the motherboard.

    19. Secure the side panel back onto the computer.

    20. Reconnect the power cord, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and then turn on 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen computer.

    Replace the affected component

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    Contact HP Customer Support to schedule a product repair or replacement. If you are in Asia Pacific, you are directed to a local service center in your crack vyprvpn Archives area.

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    The red light blinks four times, and then three, short white light blinks

    This condition indicates the computer temperature is too high.

    Confirm the fans work correctly

    Inspect the fans inside the computer to make sure they are working as expected.

    CAUTION:

    If a fan is not working correctly, stop using the computer. Exposure to consistently high temperatures can damage internal parts.

    1. Turn on the computer.

    2. Locate the fans inside the case. Locations vary by computer model.

      CAUTION:

      You can use a flashlight to help you locate each fan, but avoid using the flashlight inside the computer to prevent damaging internal parts.

      Locating fans for HP Desktop and Slimline computers

      Fan Type

      1.

      Power supply fan

      2.

      Graphics card fan

      3.

      Processor fan

      4.

      Power supply fan vent

      5.

      Case fan vent

      6.

      Case fan

    3. Note any fans that might be not be working or are making loud, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, growling noises.

    Clean the desktop air vents

    Clean the desktop air vents to remove any dust or debris that might have accumulated in and around the air vents over time, obstructing the airflow and causing the fans to work harder than normal to remove the heat, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen. 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen

    1. Turn off the computer, disconnect the power cord and cables, and then wait for the computer to cool down.

    2. Use a vacuum to clean all exterior vents, especially around the power supply vent.

      CAUTION:

      To avoid damaging internal components, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, do not use the vacuum inside the computer.

      Locating the air vents on the rear of the computer
    3. Remove the side panel back from the computer.

      Removing the side panel from a desktop computer
    4. Use canned air to clean the fans and components inside the computer.

    5. Replace the side panel, reconnect the power cord, and then turn on the computer.

    Find the product number on your desktop

    Find your product name, number, and serial number on the computer or on the box it shipped in.

    • On the side of the case

      Locating the product label on the side of the case
    • On the top or rear of the case

      Locating the product label on the top and rear of the case
    • On the front or side of the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen alt="Locating the product label on the front and side of the case" src="https://kaas.hpcloud.hp.com/PROD/v2/renderbinary/1997210/1590759/con-dt-p-computer-does-not-start-emits-light-or-beep-code/dt-locate-product-name-model-serial-number-front-side-of-case">

  • On the box the computer shipped in

    Locating the product label
  • Reset the CMOS

    Reset Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) data for your computer.

    CAUTION:

    This product contains components that can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). HP recommends using an anti-static wrist strap and working over a non-carpeted floor with a conductive foam pad to reduce the to reduce the chance of electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage.

    1. Turn off your computer, and then disconnect the power cord and any cables from the computer.

    2. Make sure you have the model number for your computer, go to HP Customer Support, and then navigate to the product page for your computer.

    3. Open the specifications document or service guide for motherboard information, and then locate the steps for resetting the CMOS.

      The steps for resetting the CMOS might named Clearing CMOS or similar.

      • If the guide lists steps to reset the CMOS: Follow the instructions.

      • If the guide does not list steps to reset the CMOS: Continue with these steps.

    4. With the computer turned off, press the Power button ten (10) times to fully discharge electricity form the system.

    5. Ground yourself to discharge any static electricity by placing one hand on the case of the computer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and then touch the other hand to a metal surface or grounded object, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, such as the metal part of a lamp.

    6. Open the computer to access to the motherboard.

    7. Remove or disconnect the CMOS battery from the motherboard.

      Example of different CMOS battery types
    8. Confirm all sources of electricity are removed or disconnected from the computer, including the CMOS battery.

    9. Press the Power button for a minimum of 60 seconds to drain all power from the computer and reset the CMOS values on the motherboard.

    10. Reconnect or reinstall the CMOS battery, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and then close the computer.

    11. Plug in the power cord to the desktop, and then turn on the computer.

      A message displays confirming the CMOS reset. The message varies by model.

      Example message that displays to indicate the CMOS reset
    12. Confirm the Time in BIOS is set to 00:00.

      If not, repeat the steps to reset the CMOS, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, but press and hold the Power button for 120 seconds when draining all the power from the computer.

    Replace the affected component

    Replace Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince crack serial keygen affected part or component if the issue persists after completing all the preceding steps.

    Contact HP Customer Support to schedule a product repair or replacement. If you are in Asia Pacific, you are directed to a local service center in your 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen area.

    To confirm your warranty status, go to HP Product Warranty Check. Repair fees might apply for out-of-warranty products.

    The red light blinks four times, and then four, short white light blinks

    This condition indicates the MXM graphics card temperature is too high.

    Confirm the fans work correctly

    Inspect the fans inside the computer to make sure they are working as expected.

    CAUTION:

    If a fan is not working correctly, stop using the computer. Exposure to consistently high temperatures can damage internal parts.

    1. Turn on the computer.

    2. Locate the fans inside the case. Locations vary by computer model.

      CAUTION:

      You can use a flashlight to help you locate each fan, but avoid using the flashlight inside the computer to prevent damaging internal parts.

      Locating fans for HP Desktop and Slimline computers

      Fan Type

      1.

      Power supply fan

      2.

      Graphics card fan

      3.

      Processor fan

      4.

      Power supply fan vent

      5.

      Case fan vent

      6.

      Case fan

    3. Note any fans that might be not be working or are making loud, growling noises.

    Clean the desktop air vents

    Clean the desktop air vents to remove any dust or debris that might have accumulated in and around the air vents over time, obstructing the airflow and causing the fans to work harder than normal to remove the heat.

    1. Turn off the computer, disconnect the power cord and cables, and then wait for the computer to cool down.

    2. Use a vacuum to clean all exterior vents, especially around the power supply vent.

      CAUTION:

      To avoid damaging internal components, do not use the vacuum inside the computer.

      Locating the air vents on the rear of the computer
    3. Remove the side panel back from the computer.

      Removing the side panel from a desktop computer
    4. Use canned air to clean the fans and components inside the computer.

    5. Replace the side panel, reconnect the power cord, and then turn on the computer.

    Find the product number on your desktop

    Find your product name, number, and serial number on the computer or on the box it shipped in.

    • On the side of the case

      Locating the product label on the side of the case
    • On the top or rear of the case

      Locating the product label on the top and rear of the case
    • On the front or side of the case

      Locating the product label on the front and side of the case
    • On the box the computer shipped in

      Locating the product label

    Reset the CMOS

    Reset Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) data for your computer.

    CAUTION:

    This product contains components that can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). HP recommends using an anti-static wrist strap and working over a non-carpeted floor with a conductive foam pad to reduce the to reduce the chance of electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage.

    1. Turn off your computer, and then disconnect the power cord and any cables from the computer.

    2. Make sure you have the model number for your computer, go to HP Customer Support, and then navigate to the product page for your computer.

    3. Open the specifications document or service guide for motherboard information, and then locate the steps for resetting the 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen CMOS.

      The steps for resetting the CMOS might named Clearing CMOS or similar.

      • If the guide lists steps to reset the CMOS: Follow the instructions.

      • If the guide does not list steps to reset the CMOS: Continue with these steps.

    4. With the computer turned off, press the Power button ten (10) times to fully discharge electricity form the system.

    5. Ground yourself to discharge any static electricity by placing one hand on the case of the computer, and then touch the other hand to a metal surface or grounded object, such as the metal part of a lamp.

    6. Open the computer to access to the motherboard.

    7. Remove or disconnect the CMOS battery from the motherboard.

      Example of different CMOS battery types
    8. Confirm all sources of electricity are removed or disconnected from the computer, including the CMOS battery.

    9. Press the Power button for a minimum of 60 seconds to drain all power from the computer and reset the CMOS values on the motherboard.

    10. Reconnect or reinstall the CMOS battery, and then close the computer.

    11. Plug in the power cord to the desktop, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen, and then turn on the computer.

      A message displays confirming the CMOS reset. The message varies by model.

      Example message that displays to indicate the CMOS reset
    12. Confirm the Time in BIOS is set to 00:00.

      If not, repeat the steps to reset the CMOS, but press and hold the Power button for 120 seconds when draining all the power from the computer, 5 Card Dash crack serial keygen.

    Replace the affected component

    Replace the affected part or component if the issue persists after completing all the preceding steps.

    Contact HP Customer Support to schedule a product repair or replacement. If you are in Asia Pacific, you are directed to a local service center in your area.

    To confirm your warranty status, go to HP Product Warranty Check. Repair fees might apply for out-of-warranty products.

    The red light blinks five times, and then two, short white light blinks

    This condition indicates the embedded controller is missing valid firmware.

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