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Android 12 Compatibility Definition

1. Introduction

This document enumerates the requirements that must be met in order for devices to be compatible with Android 12.

The use of “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” is per the IETF standard defined in RFC2119.

As used in this document, a “device implementer” or “implementer” is a person or organization developing a hardware/software solution running Android 12. A “device implementation” or “implementation" is the hardware/software solution so developed.

To be considered compatible with Android 12, device implementations MUST meet the requirements presented in this Compatibility Definition, including any documents incorporated via reference.

Where this definition or the software tests described in section 10 is silent, ambiguous, or incomplete, it is the responsibility of the device implementer to ensure compatibility with existing implementations.

For this reason, the Android Open Source Project is both the reference and preferred implementation of Android. Device implementers are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to base their implementations to the greatest extent possible on the “upstream” source code available from the Android Open Source Project. While some components can hypothetically be replaced with alternate implementations, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to not follow this practice, as passing the software tests will become substantially more difficult. It is the implementer’s responsibility to ensure full behavioral compatibility with the standard Android implementation, including and beyond the Compatibility Test Suite. Finally, note that certain component substitutions and modifications are explicitly forbidden by this document.

Many of the resources linked to in this document are derived directly or indirectly from the Android SDK and will be functionally identical to the information in that SDK’s documentation. In any cases where this Compatibility Definition or the Compatibility Test Suite disagrees with the SDK documentation, the SDK documentation is considered authoritative. Any technical details provided in the linked resources throughout this document are considered by inclusion to be part of this Compatibility Definition.

1.1 Document Structure

1.1.1. Requirements by Device Type

Section 2 contains all of the requirements that apply to a specific device type. Each subsection of Section 2 is dedicated to a specific device type.

All the other requirements, that universally apply to any Android device implementations, are listed in the sections after Section 2. These requirements are referenced as "Core Requirements" in this document.

1.1.2. Requirement ID

Requirement ID is assigned for MUST requirements.

  • The ID is assigned for MUST requirements only.
  • STRONGLY RECOMMENDED requirements are marked as [SR] but ID is not assigned.
  • The ID consists of : Device Type ID - Condition ID - Requirement ID (e.g. C-0-1).

Each ID is defined as below:

  • Device Type ID (see more in 2. Device Types)
    • C: Core (Requirements that are applied to all Android device implementations)
    • H: Android Handheld device
    • T: Android Television device
    • A: Android Automotive implementation
    • W: Android Watch implementation
    • Tab: Android Tablet implementation
  • Condition ID
    • When the requirement is unconditional, this ID is set as 0.
    • When the requirement is conditional, 1 is assigned for the 1st condition and the number increments by 1 within the same section and the same device type.
  • Requirement ID
    • This ID starts from 1 and increments by 1 within the same section and the same condition.

1.1.3. Requirement ID in Section 2

The Requirement IDs in Section 2 have two parts. The first corresponds to a section ID as described above. The second part identifies the form factor and the form-factor specific requirement.

section ID that is followed by the Requirement ID described above.

  • The ID in Section 2 consists of : Section ID / Device Type ID - Condition ID - Requirement ID (e.g. 7.4.3/A-0-1).

2. Device Types

The Android Open Source Project provides a software stack that can be used for a variety of device types and form factors. To support security on devices, the software stack, including any replacement OS or an alternate kernel implementation, is expected to execute in a secure environment as described in section 9 and elsewhere within this CDD. There are a few device types that have a relatively better established application distribution ecosystem.

This section describes those device types, and additional requirements and recommendations applicable for each device type.

All Android device implementations that do not fit into any of the described device types MUST still meet all requirements in the other sections of this Compatibility Definition.

2.1 Device Configurations

For the major differences in hardware configuration by device type, see the device-specific requirements that follow in this section.

2.2. Handheld Requirements

An Android Handheld device refers to an Android device implementation that is typically used by holding it in the hand, such as an mp3 player, phone, or tablet.

Android device implementations are classified as a Handheld if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have a power source that provides mobility, such as a battery.
  • Have a physical diagonal screen size in the range of 3.3 inches (or 2.5 inches for devices which launched on an API level earlier than Android 11) to 8 inches.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Handheld device implementations.

Note: Requirements that do not apply to Android Tablet devices are marked with an *.

2.2.1. Hardware

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-0-1] MUST have at least one Android-compatible display that meets all requirements described on this document.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide users an affordance to change the display size (screen density).

  • [7.1.1.1/H-0-2] MUST support GPU composition of graphic buffers at least as large as the highest resolution of any built-in display.

If Handheld device implementations support software screen rotation, they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-1-1]* MUST make the logical screen that is made available for third party applications be at least 2 inches on the short edge(s) and 2.7 inches on the long edge(s). Devices which launched on an API level earlier than that of this document are exempted from this requirement.

If Handheld device implementations do not support software screen rotation, they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-2-1]* MUST make the logical screen that is made available for third party applications be at least 2.7 inches on the short edge(s). Devices which launched on an API level earlier than that of this document are exempted from this requirement.

If Handheld device implementations claim support for high dynamic range displays through , they:

  • [7.1.4.5/H-1-1] MUST advertise support for the , , , , and extensions.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.4.6/H-0-1] MUST report whether the device supports the GPU profiling capability via a system property .

If Handheld device implementations declare support via a system property , they:

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.5/H-0-1] MUST include support for legacy application compatibility mode as implemented by the upstream Android open source code. That is, device implementations MUST NOT alter the triggers or thresholds at which compatibility mode is activated, and MUST NOT alter the behavior of the compatibility mode itself.
  • [7.2.1/H-0-1] MUST include support for third-party Input Method Editor (IME) applications.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-3] MUST provide the Home function on all the Android-compatible displays that provide the home screen.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-4] MUST provide the Back function on all the Android-compatible displays and the Recents function on at least one of the Android-compatible displays.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application. These events MUST NOT be consumed by the system and CAN be triggered by outside of the Android device (e.g. external hardware keyboard connected to the Android device).
  • [7.2.4/H-0-1] MUST support touchscreen input.
  • [7.2.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements VoiceInteractionService, or an activity handling the on long-press of or if the foreground activity does not handle those long-press events.
  • [7.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a 3-axis accelerometer.

If Handheld device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

  • [7.3.1/H-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.

If Handheld device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver and report the capability to applications through the feature flag, they:

  • [7.3.3/H-2-1] MUST report GNSS measurements, as soon as they are found, even if a location calculated from GPS/GNSS is not yet reported.
  • [7.3.3/H-2-2] MUST report GNSS pseudoranges and pseudorange rates, that, in open-sky conditions after determining the location, while stationary or moving with less than 0.2 meter per second squared of acceleration, are sufficient to calculate position within 20 meters, and speed within 0.2 meters per second, at least 95% of the time.

If Handheld device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/H-3-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/H-3-2] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Handheld device implementations that can make a voice call and indicate any value other than in :

  • [7.3.8/H] SHOULD include a proximity sensor.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.3.11/H-SR] Are RECOMMENDED to support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom.
  • [7.4.3/H] SHOULD include support for Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE.

If Handheld device implementations include a metered connection, they:

  • [7.4.7/H-1-1] MUST provide the data saver mode.

If Handheld device implementations include a logical camera device that lists capabilities using , they:

  • [7.5.4/H-1-1] MUST have normal field of view (FOV) by default and it MUST be between 50 and 90 degrees.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.6.1/H-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).
  • [7.6.1/H-0-2] MUST return “true” for when there is less than 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace.

If Handheld device implementations declare support of only a 32-bit ABI:

  • [7.6.1/H-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 416MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to qHD (e.g. FWVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 592MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to HD+ (e.g. HD, WSVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-3-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to FHD (e.g. WSXGA+).

  • [7.6.1/H-4-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1344MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to QHD (e.g. QWXGA).

If Handheld device implementations declare support of 32-bit and 64-bit ABIs:

  • [7.6.1/H-5-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 816MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to qHD (e.g. FWVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-6-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 944MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to HD+ (e.g. HD, WSVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-7-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to FHD (e.g. WSXGA+).

  • [7.6.1/H-8-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1824MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to QHD (e.g. QWXGA).

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

If Handheld device implementations include less than or equal to 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [7.6.1/H-9-1] MUST declare the feature flag .
  • [7.6.1/H-9-2] MUST have at least 1.1 GB of non-volatile storage for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

If Handheld device implementations include more than 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [7.6.1/H-10-1] MUST have at least 4GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).
  • SHOULD declare the feature flag .

If Handheld device implementations include greater than or equal to 2GB and less than 4GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they: * [7.6.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support only 32-bit userspace (both apps and system code)

If Handheld device implementations include less than 2GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they: * [7.6.1/H-1-1] MUST support only 32-bit ABIs.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.6.2/H-0-1] MUST NOT provide an application shared storage smaller than 1 GiB.
  • [7.7.1/H] SHOULD include a USB port supporting peripheral mode.

If handheld device implementations include a USB port supporting peripheral mode, they:

  • [7.7.1/H-1-1] MUST implement the Android Open Accessory (AOA) API.

If Handheld device implementations include a USB port supporting host mode, they:

  • [7.7.2/H-1-1] MUST implement the USB audio class as documented in the Android SDK documentation.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/H-0-1] MUST include a microphone.
  • [7.8.2/H-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

If Handheld device implementations are capable of meeting all the performance requirements for supporting VR mode and include support for it, they:

  • [7.9.1/H-1-1] MUST declare the feature flag.
  • [7.9.1/H-1-2] MUST include an application implementing that can be enabled by VR applications via .

If Handheld device implementations include one or more USB-C port(s) in host mode and implement (USB audio class), in addition to requirements in section 7.7.2, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-1-1] MUST provide the following software mapping of HID codes:
FunctionMappingsContextBehavior
AHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0CD
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playbackInput: Short press
Output: Play or pause
Input: Long press
Output: Launch voice command
Sends: if the device is locked or its screen is off. Sends otherwise
Incoming callInput: Short press
Output: Accept call
Input: Long press
Output: Reject call
Ongoing callInput: Short press
Output: End call
Input: Long press
Output: Mute or unmute microphone
BHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0E9
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playback, Ongoing callInput: Short or long press
Output: Increases the system or headset volume
CHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0EA
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playback, Ongoing callInput: Short or long press
Output: Decreases the system or headset volume
DHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0CF
Kernel key:
Android key:
All. Can be triggered in any instance.Input: Short or long press
Output: Launch voice command
  • [7.8.2.2/H-1-2] MUST trigger ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG upon a plug insert, but only after the USB audio interfaces and endpoints have been properly enumerated in order to identify the type of terminal connected.

When the USB audio terminal types 0x0302 is detected, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-2-1] MUST broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG with "microphone" extra set to 0.

When the USB audio terminal types 0x0402 is detected, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-3-1] MUST broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG with "microphone" extra set to 1.

When API AudioManager.getDevices() is called while the USB peripheral is connected they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-1] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0302.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-2] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0402.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-3] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0402.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-4] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x603.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-5] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x604.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-6] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x400.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-7] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x400.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED upon connection of a USB-C audio peripheral, to perform enumeration of USB descriptors, identify terminal types and broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG in less than 1000 milliseconds.

If Handheld device implementations declare and , they:

  • [5.6(#5_6_audio-latency)/H-1-1] MUST have a Mean Continuous Round-Trip latency of 800 milliseconds or less over 5 measurements, with a Mean Absolute Deviation less than 100 ms, over at least one supported path.

If Handheld device implementations include at least one haptic actuator, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD NOT use an eccentric rotating mass (ERM) haptic actuator (vibrator).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD position the placement of the actuator near the location where the device is typically held or touched by hands.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.view.HapticFeedbackConstants namely (CLOCK_TICK, CONTEXT_CLICK, KEYBOARD_PRESS, KEYBOARD_RELEASE, KEYBOARD_TAP, LONG_PRESS, TEXT_HANDLE_MOVE, VIRTUAL_KEY, VIRTUAL_KEY_RELEASE, CONFIRM, REJECT, GESTURE_START and GESTURE_END).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect namely (EFFECT_TICK, EFFECT_CLICK, EFFECT_HEAVY_CLICK and EFFECT_DOUBLE_CLICK) and all public constants for rich haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect.Composition namely (PRIMITIVE_CLICK and PRIMITIVE_TICK).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD use these linked haptic constants mappings.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD follow quality assessment for [createOneShot()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/VibrationEffect#createOneShot(long,%20int)) and [createWaveform()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/VibrationEffect#createWaveform(long[],%20int)) API's.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD verify the capabilities for amplitude scalability by running [android.os.Vibrator.hasAmplitudeControl()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Vibrator#hasAmplitudeControl()).

A linear resonant actuator (LRA) is a single-mass spring system which has a dominant resonant frequency where the mass translates in the direction of desired motion.

If Handheld device implementations include at least one linear resonant actuator, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD move the haptic actuator in the X-axis of portrait orientation.

If Handheld device implementations have a haptic actuator which is X-axis linear resonant actuator (LRA), they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD have the resonant frequency of the X-axis LRA be under 200 Hz.

If handheld device implementations follow haptic constants mapping, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD verify the implementation status by running [android.os.Vibrator.areAllEffectsSupported()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Vibrator#areAllEffectsSupported(int...)) and android.os.Vibrator.arePrimitvesSupported() API's.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD perform a quality assessment for haptic constants.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD provide fallback support to mitigate the risk of failure as described here.

2.2.2. Multimedia

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/H-0-1] AMR-NB
  • [5.1/H-0-2] AMR-WB
  • [5.1/H-0-3] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/H-0-4] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/H-0-5] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/H-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.2/H-0-2] VP8

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.3/H-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.3/H-0-2] H.265 HEVC
  • [5.3/H-0-3] MPEG-4 SP
  • [5.3/H-0-4] VP8
  • [5.3/H-0-5] VP9

2.2.3. Software

Handheld device implementations:

  • [3.2.3.1/H-0-1] MUST have an application that handles the , , , and intents as described in the SDK documents, and provide the user affordance to access the document provider data by using API.
  • [3.2.3.1/H-0-2]* MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.
  • [3.2.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload an email application which can handle ACTION_SENDTO or ACTION_SEND or ACTION_SEND_MULTIPLE intents to send an email.
  • [3.4.1/H-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.
  • [3.4.2/H-0-1] MUST include a standalone Browser application for general user web browsing.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement a default launcher that supports in-app pinning of shortcuts, widgets and widgetFeatures.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement a default launcher that provides quick access to the additional shortcuts provided by third-party apps through the ShortcutManager API.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a default launcher app that shows badges for the app icons.
  • [3.8.2/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support third-party app widgets.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-1] MUST allow third-party apps to notify users of notable events through the and API classes.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-2] MUST support rich notifications.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-3] MUST support heads-up notifications.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-4] MUST include a notification shade, providing the user the ability to directly control (e.g. reply, snooze, dismiss, block) the notifications through user affordance such as action buttons or the control panel as implemented in the AOSP.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-5] MUST display the choices provided through in the notification shade.
  • [3.8.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display the first choice provided through in the notification shade without additional user interaction.
  • [3.8.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display all the choices provided through in the notification shade when the user expands all notifications in the notification shade.
  • [3.8.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display actions for which is set as in-line with the replies displayed by .
  • [3.8.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

If Handheld device implementations support Assist action, they:

  • [3.8.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to use long press on key as the designated interaction to launch the assist app as described in section 7.2.3. MUST launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements , or an activity handling the intent.

If Handheld device implementations support and group them into a separate section from alerting and silent non-conversation notifications, they:

  • [3.8.4/H-1-1]* MUST display conversation notifications ahead of non conversation notifications with the exception of ongoing foreground service notifications and importance:high notifications.

If Android Handheld device implementations support a lock screen, they:

  • [3.8.10/H-1-1] MUST display the Lock screen Notifications including the Media Notification Template.

If Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [3.9/H-1-1] MUST implement the full range of device administration policies defined in the Android SDK documentation.
  • [3.9/H-1-2] MUST declare the support of managed profiles via the feature flag, except when the device is configured so that it would report itself as a low RAM device or so that it allocates internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage.

If Handheld device implementations include support for and APIs and allow third-party applications to publish , then they:

  • [3.8.16/H-1-1] MUST declare the feature flag and set it to .
  • [3.8.16/H-1-2] MUST provide a user affordance with the ability to add, edit, select, and operate the user’s favorite device controls from the controls registered by the third-party applications through the and the APIs.
  • [3.8.16/H-1-3] MUST provide access to this user affordance within three interactions from a default Launcher.
  • [3.8.16/H-1-4] MUST accurately render in this user affordance the name and icon of each third-party app that provides controls via the API as well as any specified fields provided by the APIs.

Conversely, If Handheld device implementations do not implement such controls, they:

Handheld device implementations:

  • [3.10/H-0-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.
  • [3.11/H-0-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.
  • [3.11/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.
  • [3.13/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a Quick Settings UI component.

If Android handheld device implementations declare or support, they:

  • [3.16/H-1-1] MUST support the companion device pairing feature.

If the navigation function is provided as an on-screen, gesture-based action:

  • [7.2.3/H] The gesture recognition zone for the Home function SHOULD be no higher than 32 dp in height from the bottom of the screen.

If Handheld device implementations provide a navigation function as a gesture from anywhere on the left and right edges of the screen:

  • [7.2.3/H-0-1] The navigation function's gesture area MUST be less than 40 dp in width on each side. The gesture area SHOULD be 24 dp in width by default.

If Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen and have greater than or equal to 2GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [3.9/H-1-2] MUST declare the support of managed profiles via the feature flag.

2.2.4. Performance and Power

  • [8.1/H-0-1] Consistent frame latency. Inconsistent frame latency or a delay to render frames MUST NOT happen more often than 5 frames in a second, and SHOULD be below 1 frames in a second.
  • [8.1/H-0-2] User interface latency. Device implementations MUST ensure low latency user experience by scrolling a list of 10K list entries as defined by the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) in less than 36 secs.
  • [8.1/H-0-3] Task switching. When multiple applications have been launched, re-launching an already-running application after it has been launched MUST take less than 1 second.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [8.2/H-0-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 5 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 0.5 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 15 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 3.5 MB/s.

If Handheld device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/H-1-1] MUST provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.
  • [8.3/H-1-2] MUST provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [8.4/H-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/H-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/H-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/H-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.
  • [8.4/H] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.

If Handheld device implementations include a screen or video output, they:

2.2.5. Security Model

Handheld device implementations:

  • [9.1/H-0-1] MUST allow third-party apps to access the usage statistics via the permission and provide a user-accessible mechanism to grant or revoke access to such apps in response to the intent.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [9.11/H-0-2] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/H-0-3] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA, and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/H-0-4] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/H-0-5] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/H-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

When Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [9.11/H-1-1] MUST allow the user to choose the shortest sleep timeout, that is a transition time from the unlocked to the locked state, as 15 seconds or less.
  • [9.11/H-1-2] MUST provide user affordance to hide notifications and disable all forms of authentication except for the primary authentication described in 9.11.1 Secure Lock Screen. The AOSP meets the requirement as lockdown mode.

If Handheld device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/H-2-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Handheld device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/H-3-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

Android, through the System API VoiceInteractionService supports a mechanism for secure always-on hotword detection without mic access indication

If Handheld device implementations support the System API or a another mechanism for hotword detection without mic access indication, they:

  • [9.8/H-1-1] MUST make sure the hotword detection service can only transmit data to the System or ContentCaptureService
  • [9.8/H-1-2] MUST make sure the hotword detection service can only transmit mic audio data or data derived from it to the system server through API, or to through API.
  • [9.8/H-1-3] MUST NOT supply mic audio that is longer than 30 seconds for an individual hardware-triggered request to the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-4] MUST NOT supply buffered mic audio older than 8 seconds for an individual request to the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-5] MUST NOT supply buffered mic audio older than 30 seconds to the voice interaction service or similar entity.
  • [9.8/H-1-6] MUST NOT allow more than 100 bytes of data to be transmitted out of the hotword detection service on each successful hotword result.
  • [9.8/H-1-7] MUST NOT allow more than 5 bits of data to be transmitted out of the hotword detection service on each negative hotword result.
  • [9.8/H-1-8] MUST only allow transmission of data out of the hotword detection service on a hotword validation request from the system server.
  • [9.8/H-1-9] MUST NOT allow a user-installable application to provide the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-10] MUST NOT surface in the UI quantitative data about mic usage by the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-11] MUST log the number of bytes included in every transmission from the hotword detection service to allow inspectability for security researchers.
  • [9.8/H-1-12] MUST support a debug mode that logs raw contents of every transmission from the hotword detection service to allow inspectability for security researchers.
  • [9.8/H-1-13] MUST restart the process hosting the hotword detection service at least once every hour or every 30 hardware-trigger events, whichever comes first.
  • [9.8/H-1-14] MUST display the microphone indicator, as required in [9.8/C-3-1], when a successful hotword result is transmitted to the voice interaction service or similar entity.
  • [9.8/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to notify users before setting an application as the provider of the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to disallow the transmission of unstructured data out of the hotword detection service.

If device implementations include an application that uses the System API , or similar mechanism for hotword detection without mic usage indication, the application:

  • [9.8/H-2-1] MUST provide explicit notice to the user for each hotword phrase supported.
  • [9.8/H-2-2] MUST NOT preserve raw audio data, or data derived from it, through the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-2-3] MUST NOT transmit from the hotword detection service, audio data, data that can be used to reconstruct (wholly or partially) the audio, or audio contents unrelated to the hotword itself, except to the .

If Handheld device implementations declare , they:

  • [9.8.2/H-4-1] MUST display the microphone indicator when an app is accessing audio data from the microphone, but not when the microphone is only accessed by , , or apps holding the roles called out in section 9.1 with CDD identifier [C-4-X]. .
  • [9.8.2/H-4-2] MUST display the list of Recent and Active apps using microphone as returned from , along with any attribution messages associated with them.
  • [9.8.2/H-4-3] MUST not hide the microphone indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.
  • [9.8.2/H-4-4] MUST display the list of Recent and Active apps using the microphone as returned from , along with any attribution messages associated with them.

If Handheld device implementations declare , they:

  • [9.8.2/H-5-1] MUST display the camera indicator when an app is accessing live camera data, but not when the camera is only being accessed by app(s) holding the roles called out in section 9.1 with CDD identifier [C-4-X].
  • [9.8.2/H-5-2] MUST display Recent and Active apps using camera as returned from , along with any attribution messages associated with them.
  • [9.8.2/H-5-3] MUST not hide the camera indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

2.2.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Handheld device implementations (* Not applicable for Tablet):

  • [6.1/H-0-1]* MUST support the shell command .

Handheld device implementations (* Not applicable for Tablet):

  • Perfetto
    • [6.1/H-0-2]* MUST expose a binary to the shell user which cmdline complies with the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-3]* The perfetto binary MUST accept as input a protobuf config that complies with the schema defined in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-4]* The perfetto binary MUST write as output a protobuf trace that complies with the schema defined in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-5]* MUST provide, through the perfetto binary, at least the data sources described in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-6]* The perfetto traced daemon MUST be enabled by default (system property ).

2.2.7. Handheld Media Performance Class

See Section 7.11 for the definition of media performance class.

2.2.7.1. Media

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [5.1/H-1-1] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-2] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps.
  • [5.1/H-1-3] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-4] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video encoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps.
  • [5.1/H-1-5] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder and decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-6] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder and hardware video encoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at [email protected] fps resolution.
  • [5.1/H-1-7] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 65 ms or less for a 1080p or smaller video encoding session for all hardware video encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.1/H-1-8] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 50 ms or less for a 128 kbps or lower bitrate audio encoding session for all audio encoders when under load.Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.3/H-1-1] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds (i.e less than 0.333 percent frame drop) for a 1080p 30 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.3/H-1-2] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds during a video resolution change in a 30 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128Kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a tap-to-tone latency of less than 100 milliseconds using the OboeTester tap-to-tone test or CTS Verifier tap-to-tone test.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [5.1/H-1-1] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-2] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps. *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-3] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-4] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video encoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-5] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder and decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-6] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder and hardware video encoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at [email protected] resolution. *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-7] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 50 ms or less for a 1080p or smaller video encoding session for all hardware video encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.1/H-1-8] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 40 ms or less for a 128 kbps or lower bitrate audio encoding session for all audio encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.3/H-1-1] MUST NOT drop more than 2 frames in 10 seconds (i.e less than 0.333 percent frame drop) for a 1080p 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.3/H-1-2] MUST NOT drop more than 2 frames in 10 seconds during a video resolution change in a 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a tap-to-tone latency of less than 100 milliseconds using the OboeTester tap-to-tone test or CTS Verifier tap-to-tone test.

2.2.7.2. Camera

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.5/H-1-1] MUST have a primary rear facing camera with a resolution of at least 12 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary rear-facing camera is the rear-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-2] MUST have a primary front facing camera with a resolution of at least 4 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary front-facing camera is the front-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-3] MUST support android.info.supportedHardwareLevel property as FULL or better for back primary and LIMITED or better for front primary camera.
  • [7.5/H-1-4] MUST support CameraMetadata.SENSOR_INFO_TIMESTAMP_SOURCE_REALTIME for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-5] MUST have camera2 JPEG capture latency < 1000ms for 1080p resolution as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-6] MUST have camera2 startup latency (open camera to first preview frame) < 600ms as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.5/H-1-1] MUST have a primary rear facing camera with a resolution of at least 12 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary rear-facing camera is the rear-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-2] MUST have a primary front facing camera with a resolution of at least 5 megapixels and support video capture at [email protected] The primary front-facing camera is the front-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-3] MUST support property as or better for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-4] MUST support for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-5] MUST have camera2 JPEG capture latency < 1000 ms for 1080p resolution as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-6] MUST have camera2 startup latency (open camera to first preview frame) < 500 ms as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-7] For apps targeting API level 31 or higher, the camera device MUST NOT support JPEG capture resolutions smaller than 1080p for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-8] MUST support and for the primary back camera.

2.2.7.3. Hardware

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-1-1] MUST have screen resolution of at least 1080p.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-1-1] MUST have screen density of at least 400 dpi.
  • [7.6.1/H-1-1] MUST have at least 6 GB of physical memory.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-2-1] MUST have screen resolution of at least 1080p.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-2-1] MUST have screen density of at least 400 dpi.
  • [7.6.1/H-2-1] MUST have at least 6 GB of physical memory.

2.2.7.4. Performance

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [8.2/H-1-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 100 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 10 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 200 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 25 MB/s.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [8.2/H-2-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 125 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 10 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 250 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 40 MB/s.

2.3. Television Requirements

An Android Television device refers to an Android device implementation that is an entertainment interface for consuming digital media, movies, games, apps, and/or live TV for users sitting about ten feet away (a “lean back” or “10-foot user interface”).

Android device implementations are classified as a Television if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have provided a mechanism to remotely control the rendered user interface on the display that might sit ten feet away from the user.
  • Have an embedded screen display with the diagonal length larger than 24 inches OR include a video output port, such as VGA, HDMI, DisplayPort, or a wireless port for display.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Television device implementations.

2.3.1. Hardware

Television device implementations:

  • [7.2.2/T-0-1] MUST support D-pad.
  • [7.2.3/T-0-1] MUST provide the Home and Back functions.
  • [7.2.3/T-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application.
  • [7.2.6.1/T-0-1] MUST include support for game controllers and declare the feature flag.
  • [7.2.7/T] SHOULD provide a remote control from which users can access non-touch navigation and core navigation keys inputs.

If Television device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/T-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/T-1-2] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Television device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/T-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE.
  • [7.6.1/T-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

If Television device implementations include a USB port that supports host mode, they:

  • [7.5.3/T-1-1] MUST include support for an external camera that connects through this USB port but is not necessarily always connected.

If TV device implementations are 32-bit:

  • [7.6.1/T-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens

If TV device implementations are 64-bit:

  • [7.6.1/T-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

Television device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/T] SHOULD include a microphone.
  • [7.8.2/T-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

2.3.2. Multimedia

Television device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/T-0-1] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/T-0-2] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/T-0-3] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Television device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/T-0-1] H.264
  • [5.2/T-0-2] VP8

Television device implementations:

  • [5.2.2/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support H.264 encoding of 720p and 1080p resolution videos at 30 frames per second.

Television device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

Television device implementations MUST support MPEG-2 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.1, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.1/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 59.94 frames per second with Main Profile High Level.
  • [5.3.1/T-1-2] HD 1080i at 59.94 frames per second with Main Profile High Level. They MUST deinterlace interlaced MPEG-2 video and make it available to third-party applications.

Television device implementations MUST support H.264 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.4, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.4/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Baseline Profile
  • [5.3.4/T-1-2] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Main Profile
  • [5.3.4/T-1-3] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with High Profile Level 4.2

Television device implementations with H.265 hardware decoders MUST support H.265 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.5, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.5/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Main Profile Level 4.1

If Television device implementations with H.265 hardware decoders support H.265 decoding and the UHD decoding profile, they:

  • [5.3.5/T-2-1] MUST support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with Main10 Level 5 Main Tier profile

Television device implementations MUST support VP8 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.6, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.6/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second decoding profile

Television device implementations with VP9 hardware decoders MUST support VP9 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.7, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.7/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with profile 0 (8 bit color depth)

If Television device implementations with VP9 hardware decoders support VP9 decoding and the UHD decoding profile, they:

  • [5.3.7/T-2-1] MUST support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with profile 0 (8 bit color depth).
  • [5.3.7/T-2-1] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with profile 2 (10 bit color depth).

Television device implementations:

  • [5.5/T-0-1] MUST include support for system Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs, except for compressed audio passthrough output (where no audio decoding is done on the device).

If Television device implementations do not have a built in display, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-0-1] MUST set the HDMI output mode to select the maximum resolution that can be supported with either a 50Hz or 60Hz refresh rate.
  • [5.8/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide a user configurable HDMI refresh rate selector.
  • [5.8] SHOULD set the HDMI output mode refresh rate to either 50Hz or 60Hz, depending on the video refresh rate for the region the device is sold in.

If Television device implementations do not have a built in display, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-1-1] MUST support HDCP 2.2.

If Television device implementations do not support UHD decoding, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-2-1] MUST support HDCP 1.4

2.3.3. Software

Television device implementations:

  • [3/T-0-1] MUST declare the features and .
  • [3.2.3.1/T-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.
  • [3.4.1/T-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.

If Android Television device implementations support a lock screen,they:

  • [3.8.10/T-1-1] MUST display the Lock screen Notifications including the Media Notification Template.

Television device implementations:

  • [3.8.14/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support picture-in-picture (PIP) mode multi-window.
  • [3.10/T-0-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.

If Television device implementations report the feature , they:

  • [3.11/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.
  • [3.11/T-1-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.

Television device implementations:

  • [3.12/T-0-1] MUST support TV Input Framework.

2.3.4. Performance and Power

  • [8.1/T-0-1] Consistent frame latency. Inconsistent frame latency or a delay to render frames MUST NOT happen more often than 5 frames in a second, and SHOULD be below 1 frames in a second.
  • [8.2/T-0-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 5MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 0.5MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 15MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 3.5MB/s.

If Television device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/T-1-1] MUST provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.

If Television device implementations do not have a battery they:

If Television device implementations have a battery they:

  • [8.3/T-1-3] MUST provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.

Television device implementations:

  • [8.4/T-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/T-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/T-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/T] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.
  • [8.4/T-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.

2.3.5. Security Model

Television device implementations:

  • [9.11/T-0-1] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/T-0-2] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/T-0-3] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/T-0-4] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/T-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

If Television device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [9.11/T-1-1] MUST allow the user to choose the Sleep timeout for transition from the unlocked to the locked state, with a minimum allowable timeout up to 15 seconds or less.

If Television device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/T-2-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Television device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/T-3-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

If Television device implementations declare , they:

  • [[9.8.2/T-4-1] MUST display the microphone indicator when an app is accessing audio data from the microphone, but not when the microphone is only accessed by HotwordDetectionService, SOURCE_HOTWORD, ContentCaptureService, or apps holding the roles called out in Section 9.1 Permissions with CDD identifier C-3-X].
  • [[9.8.2/T-4-2] MUST not hide the microphone indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

If Television device implementations declare , they:

  • [[9.8.2/T-5-1] MUST display the camera indicator when an app is accessing live camera data, but not when the camera is only being accessed by app(s) holding the roles called out in Section 9.1 Permissions with CDD identifier [C-3-X].
  • [[9.8.2/T-5-2] MUST not hide the camera indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

2.3.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Television device implementations:

2.4. Watch Requirements

An Android Watch device refers to an Android device implementation intended to be worn on the body, perhaps on the wrist.

Android device implementations are classified as a Watch if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have a screen with the physical diagonal length in the range from 1.1 to 2.5 inches.
  • Have a mechanism provided to be worn on the body.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Watch device implementations.

2.4.1. Hardware

Watch device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/W-0-1] MUST have a screen with the physical diagonal size in the range from 1.1 to 2.5 inches.

  • [7.2.3/W-0-1] MUST have the Home function available to the user, and the Back function except for when it is in .

  • [7.2.4/W-0-1] MUST support touchscreen input.

  • [7.3.1/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a 3-axis accelerometer.

If Watch device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver and report the capability to applications through the feature flag, they:

  • [7.3.3/W-1-1] MUST report GNSS measurements, as soon as they are found, even if a location calculated from GPS/GNSS is not yet reported.
  • [7.3.3/W-1-2] MUST report GNSS pseudoranges and pseudorange rates, that, in open-sky conditions after determining the location, while stationary or moving with less than 0.2 meter per second squared of acceleration, are sufficient to calculate position within 20 meters, and speed within 0.2 meters per second, at least 95% of the time.

If Watch device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/W-2-1] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Watch device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/W-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth.

  • [7.6.1/W-0-1] MUST have at least 1 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

  • [7.6.1/W-0-2] MUST have at least 416 MB memory available to the kernel and userspace.

  • [7.8.1/W-0-1] MUST include a microphone.

  • [7.8.2/W] MAY have audio output.

2.4.2. Multimedia

No additional requirements.

2.4.3. Software

Watch device implementations:

  • [3/W-0-1] MUST declare the feature .
  • [3/W-0-2] MUST support uiMode = UI_MODE_TYPE_WATCH.
  • [3.2.3.1/W-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.

Watch device implementations:

  • [3.8.4/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

Watch device implementations that declare the feature flag:

  • [3.10/W-1-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.

If Watch device implementations report the feature android.hardware.audio.output, they:

  • [3.11/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.

  • [3.11/W-0-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.

2.4.4. Performance and Power

If Watch device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.
  • [8.3/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.

Watch device implementations:

  • [8.4/W-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/W-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/W-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/W-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.
  • [8.4/W] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.

2.4.5. Security Model

Watch device implementations:

  • [9/H-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

If Watch device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/W-1-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Watch device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/W-2-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

2.5. Automotive Requirements

Android Automotive implementation refers to a vehicle head unit running Android as an operating system for part or all of the system and/or infotainment functionality.

Android device implementations are classified as an Automotive if they declare the feature or meet all the following criteria.

  • Are embedded as part of, or pluggable to, an automotive vehicle.
  • Are using a screen in the driver's seat row as the primary display.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Automotive device implementations.

2.5.1. Hardware

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/A-0-1] MUST have a screen at least 6 inches in physical diagonal size.
  • [7.1.1.1/A-0-2] MUST have a screen size layout of at least 750 dp x 480 dp.

  • [7.2.3/A-0-1] MUST provide the Home function and MAY provide Back and Recent functions.

  • [7.2.3/A-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application.

  • [7.3/A-0-1] MUST implement and report , , and .

  • [7.3/A-0-2] The value of the flag MUST be consistent with dashboard day/night mode and SHOULD be based on ambient light sensor input. The underlying ambient light sensor MAY be the same as Photometer.

  • [7.3/A-0-3] MUST provide sensor additional info field as part of SensorAdditionalInfo for every sensor provided.

  • [7.3/A-0-1] MAY dead reckon Location by fusing GPS/GNSS with additional sensors. If Location is dead reckoned, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement and report the corresponding Sensor types and/or Vehicle Property IDs used.

  • [7.3/A-0-2] The Location requested via LocationManager#requestLocationUpdates() MUST NOT be map matched.

If Automotive device implementations support OpenGL ES 3.1, they:

  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-1] MUST declare OpenGL ES 3.1 or higher.
  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-2] MUST support Vulkan 1.1.
  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-3] MUST include Vulkan loader and export all symbols.

If Automotive device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

If Automotive device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/A-2-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/A-2-3] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 250 degrees per second.
  • [7.3.4/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to configure the gyroscope’s measurement range to +/-250dps in order to maximize the resolution possible

If Automotive device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver, but do not include cellular network-based data connectivity, they:

  • [7.3.3/A-3-1] MUST determine location the very first time the GPS/GNSS receiver is turned on or after 4+ days within 60 seconds.
  • [7.3.3/A-3-2] MUST meet the time-to-first-fix criteria as described in 7.3.3/C-1-2 and 7.3.3/C-1-6 for all other location requests (i.e requests which are not the first time ever or after 4+ days). The requirement 7.3.3/C-1-2 is typically met in vehicles without cellular network-based data connectivity, by using GNSS orbit predictions calculated on the receiver, or using the last known vehicle location along with the ability to dead reckon for at least 60 seconds with a position accuracy satisfying 7.3.3/C-1-3, or a combination of both.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/A-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth and SHOULD support Bluetooth LE.
  • [7.4.3/A-0-2] Android Automotive implementations MUST support the following Bluetooth profiles:
    • Phone calling over Hands-Free Profile (HFP).
    • Media playback over Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP).
    • Media playback control over Remote Control Profile (AVRCP).
    • Contact sharing using the Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP).
  • [7.4.3/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support Message Access Profile (MAP).

  • [7.4.5/A] SHOULD include support for cellular network-based data connectivity.

  • [7.4.5/A] MAY use the System API constant for networks that should be available to system apps.

An exterior view camera is a camera that images scenes outside of the device implementation, like a dashcam.

Automotive device implementations:

  • SHOULD include one or more exterior view cameras.

If Automotive device implementations include an exterior view camera, for such a camera, they:

  • [7.5/A-1-1] MUST NOT have exterior view cameras accessible via the Android Camera APIs, unless they comply with camera core requirements.
  • [7.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED not to rotate or horizontally mirror the camera preview.
  • [7.5.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the horizon.
  • [7.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to have a resolution of at least 1.3 megapixels.
  • SHOULD have either fixed-focus or EDOF (extended depth of field) hardware.
  • SHOULD support Android Synchronization Framework.
  • MAY have either hardware auto-focus or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.6.1/A-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

  • [7.6.1/A] SHOULD format the data partition to offer improved performance and longevity on flash storage, for example using file-system.

If Automotive device implementations provide shared external storage via a portion of the internal non-removable storage, they:

  • [7.6.1/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to reduce I/O overhead on operations performed on the external storage, for example by using .

If Automotive device implementations are 32-bit:

  • [7.6.1/A-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 512MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 280dpi or lower on small/normal screens
    • ldpi or lower on extra large screens
    • mdpi or lower on large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-2] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 608MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • xhdpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • hdpi or higher on large screens
    • mdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-3] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-4] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1344MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 560dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • 400dpi or higher on large screens
    • xhdpi or higher on extra large screens

If Automotive device implementations are 64-bit:

  • [7.6.1/A-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 816MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 280dpi or lower on small/normal screens
    • ldpi or lower on extra large screens
    • mdpi or lower on large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-2] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 944MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • xhdpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • hdpi or higher on large screens
    • mdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-3] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-4] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1824MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 560dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • 400dpi or higher on large screens
    • xhdpi or higher on extra large screens

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.7.1/A] SHOULD include a USB port supporting peripheral mode.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/A-0-1] MUST include a microphone.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.8.2/A-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

2.5.2. Multimedia

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/A-0-1] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/A-0-2] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/A-0-3] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/A-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.2/A-0-2] VP8

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.3/A-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.3/A-0-2] MPEG-4 SP
  • [5.3/A-0-3] VP8
  • [5.3/A-0-4] VP9

Automotive device implementations are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support the following video decoding:

2.5.3. Software

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3/A-0-1] MUST declare the feature .

  • [3/A-0-2] MUST support uiMode = .

  • [3/A-0-3] MUST support all public APIs in the namespace.

If Automotive device implementations provide a proprietary API using with , they:

  • [3/A-1-1] MUST NOT attach special privileges to system application's use of these properties, or prevent third-party applications from using these properties.
  • [3/A-1-2] MUST NOT replicate a vehicle property that already exists in the SDK.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.2.1/A-0-1] MUST support and enforce all permissions constants as documented by the Automotive Permission reference page.

  • [3.2.3.1/A-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.

  • [3.4.1/A-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.

  • [3.8.3/A-0-1] MUST display notifications that use the API when requested by third-party applications.

  • [3.8.4/A-SR] Are Strongly Recommended to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

If Automotive device implementations include a push-to-talk button, they:

  • [3.8.4/A-1-1] MUST use a short press of the push-to-talk button as the designated interaction to launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements .

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.8.3.1/A-0-1] MUST correctly render resources as described in the SDK documentation.
  • [3.8.3.1/A-0-2] MUST display PLAY and MUTE for notification actions in the place of those provided through
  • [3.8.3.1/A] SHOULD restrict the use of rich management tasks such as per-notification-channel controls. MAY use UI affordance per application to reduce controls.

If Automotive device implementations support User HAL properties, they:

Automotive device implementations:

If Automotive device implementations include a default launcher app, they:

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.8/A] MAY restrict the application requests to enter a full screen mode as described in .
  • [3.8/A] MAY keep the status bar and the navigation bar visible at all times.
  • [3.8/A] MAY restrict the application requests to change the colors behind the system UI elements, to ensure those elements are clearly visible at all times.

2.5.4. Performance and Power

Automotive device implementations:

  • [8.2/A-0-1] MUST report the number of bytes read and written to non-volatile storage per each process's UID so the stats are available to developers through System API . The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module.
  • [8.3/A-1-3] MUST support Garage Mode.
  • [8.3/A] SHOULD be in Garage Mode for at least 15 minutes after every drive unless:
    • The battery is drained.
    • No idle jobs are scheduled.
    • The driver exits Garage Mode.
  • [8.4/A-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/A-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/A-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/A] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.
  • [8.4/A-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.

2.5.5. Security Model

If Automotive device implementations support multiple users, they:

Automotive device implementations:

  • [9.11/A-0-1] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/A-0-2] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/A-0-3] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/A-0-4] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/A-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [9.14/A-0-1] MUST gatekeep messages from Android framework vehicle subsystems, e.g., whitelisting permitted message types and message sources.
  • [9.14/A-0-2] MUST watchdog against denial of service attacks from the Android framework or third-party apps. This guards against malicious software flooding the vehicle network with traffic, which may lead to malfunctioning vehicle subsystems.

2.5.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Automotive device implementations:

2.6. Tablet Requirements

An Android Tablet device refers to an Android device implementation that typically meets all the following criteria:

  • Used by holding in both hands.
  • Does not have a clamshell or convertible configuration.
  • Physical keyboard implementations used with the device connect by means of a standard connection (e.g. USB, Bluetooth).
  • Has a power source that provides mobility, such as a battery.

Tablet device implementations have similar requirements to handheld device implementations. The exceptions are indicated by an * in that section and noted for reference in this section.

2.6.1. Hardware

Screen Size

  • [7.1.1.1/Tab-0-1] MUST have a screen in the range of 7 to 18 inches.

** Gyroscope**

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia ... are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users ... 524 people ... And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization ... his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice ... and ... his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians ... remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

Ambox current red Americas.svg

Parts of this article (those related to d:Wikidata:Statistics/Wikipedia) need to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2017)

Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

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Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency ... We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority ... (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

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On Windows Vista: Open Windows explorer to the c:\Program Files\Belarc\BelarcAdvisor\System\tmp directory, or for 64-bit windows c:\Program Files (x86)\Belarc\BelarcAdvisor\System\tmp. Then right click on the file named (COMPUTERNAME).html, where COMPUTERNAME is the name of your PC. In the pop-up menu click Properties. In the Properties dialog click the Change button next to Opens with:, then choose your preferred browser and click OK. When you next run the Belarc Advisor the results will show in your browser.

On Windows XP: Open the Folder Options windows control panel, and on the File Types tab select the HTML Document file type. Then click the Change… button, choose your preferred web browser, and click OK. When you next run the Belarc Advisor the results will show in your browser.

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No. The installer will automatically remove any previous Belarc Advisor version.

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Android 12 Compatibility Definition

1. Introduction

This document enumerates the requirements that must be met in order for devices to be compatible with Android 12.

The use of “MUST”, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” is per the IETF standard defined in RFC2119.

As used in this document, a “device implementer” or Soldier Of Fortune: Payback Full Crack is a person or organization developing a hardware/software solution running Android 12. A “device implementation” or “implementation" is the hardware/software solution so developed.

To be considered compatible 7 iPod Helper 1.0.1 crack serial keygen Android 12, device implementations MUST meet the requirements presented in this Compatibility Definition, including any documents incorporated via reference.

Where this definition or the software tests described in section 10 is silent, ambiguous, or incomplete, it is the responsibility of the device implementer to ensure compatibility with existing implementations.

For this reason, the Android Open Source Project is both the reference and preferred implementation of Android. Device implementers are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to base their implementations to the greatest extent possible on the “upstream” source code available from the Android Open Source Project. While some components can hypothetically be replaced with alternate implementations, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to not follow this practice, as passing the software tests will become substantially more difficult. It is the implementer’s responsibility to ensure full behavioral compatibility with the standard Android implementation, including and beyond the Compatibility Test Suite. Finally, note that certain component substitutions and modifications are explicitly forbidden by this document.

Many of the resources linked to in this document are derived directly or indirectly from the Android SDK and will be functionally identical to the information in that SDK’s documentation. In any cases where this Compatibility Definition or the Compatibility Test Suite disagrees with the SDK documentation, the SDK documentation is considered authoritative, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. Any technical details provided in the linked resources throughout this document are considered by inclusion to be part of this Compatibility Definition.

1.1 Document Structure

1.1.1. Requirements by Device Type

Section 2 contains all of the requirements that apply to a specific device type. Each subsection of Section 2 is dedicated to a specific device type.

All the other requirements, that universally apply to any Android device implementations, are listed in the sections after Section 2. These requirements are referenced as "Core Requirements" in this document.

1.1.2. Requirement ID

Requirement ID is assigned for MUST requirements.

  • The ID is assigned for MUST requirements only.
  • STRONGLY RECOMMENDED requirements are marked as [SR] but ID is not assigned.
  • The ID consists of : Device Type ID - Condition ID - Requirement ID (e.g. C-0-1).

Each ID is defined as below:

  • Device Type ID (see more in 2. Device Types)
    • C: Core (Requirements that are applied to all Android device implementations)
    • H: Android Handheld device
    • T: Android Television device
    • A: Android 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen implementation
    • W: Android Watch implementation
    • Tab: Android Tablet implementation
  • Condition ID
    • When the requirement is unconditional, this ID is set as 0.
    • When the requirement is conditional, 1 is assigned for the 1st condition and the number increments by 1 within the same section and the same device type.
  • Requirement ID

1.1.3. Requirement ID in Section 2

The Requirement IDs in Section 2 have two parts. The first corresponds to a section ID as described above. The second part identifies the form factor and the form-factor specific requirement.

section ID that is followed by the Requirement ID described above.

2. Device Types

The Android Open Source Project provides a software stack that can be used for a variety of device types and form factors. To support security on devices, the software stack, including any replacement OS or an alternate kernel implementation, is expected to execute in a secure environment as described in section 9 and elsewhere within this CDD. There are a few device types that have a relatively better established application distribution ecosystem.

This section describes those device types, and additional requirements and recommendations applicable for each device type.

All Android device implementations that do not fit into any of the described device types MUST still meet all requirements in the other sections of this Compatibility Definition.

2.1 Device Configurations

For the major differences in hardware configuration by device type, see the device-specific requirements that follow in this section.

2.2. Handheld Requirements

An Android Handheld device refers to an Android device implementation that is typically used by holding it in the hand, such as an mp3 player, phone, or tablet.

Android device implementations are classified as a Handheld if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have a power source that provides mobility, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, such as a battery.
  • Have a physical diagonal screen size in the range of 3.3 inches (or 2.5 inches for devices which launched on an API level earlier than Android 11) to 8 inches.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Handheld device implementations.

Note: Requirements that do not apply to Android Tablet devices are marked with an *.

2.2.1. Hardware

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-0-1] MUST have at least one Android-compatible display that meets all requirements described on this document.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide users an affordance to change the display size (screen density).

  • [7.1.1.1/H-0-2] MUST support GPU composition of graphic buffers at least as large as the highest resolution of any built-in display.

If Handheld device implementations support software screen rotation, they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-1-1]* MUST make the logical screen that is made available for third party applications be at least 2 inches on the short edge(s) and 2.7 inches on the long edge(s). Devices which launched on an API level earlier than that Vectric Aspire V 10.3 Crack 2021 New Latest Version Download Full this document are exempted from this requirement.

If Handheld device implementations do not support software screen rotation, they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-2-1]* MUST make the logical screen that is made available for third party applications be at least 2.7 inches on the short edge(s). Devices which launched on an API level earlier than that of this document are exempted from this requirement.

If Handheld device implementations claim support for Sweet Home 3D 6.4.5 Crack Archives dynamic range displays through they:

  • [7.1.4.5/H-1-1] MUST advertise support for the, and extensions.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.4.6/H-0-1] MUST report whether the device supports the GPU profiling capability via a system property .

If Handheld device implementations declare support via a system propertythey:

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.5/H-0-1] MUST include support for legacy application compatibility mode as implemented by the upstream Android open source code. That is, device implementations MUST NOT alter the triggers or thresholds at which compatibility mode is activated, and MUST NOT alter the behavior of the compatibility mode itself.
  • [7.2.1/H-0-1] MUST include support for third-party Input Method Editor (IME) applications.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-3] MUST provide the Home function on all the Android-compatible displays that provide the home screen.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-4] MUST provide the Back function on all the Android-compatible displays and the Recents function on at least one of the Android-compatible displays.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application. These events MUST NOT be consumed by the system and CAN be triggered by outside of the Android device (e.g. external hardware keyboard connected to the Android device).
  • [7.2.4/H-0-1] MUST support touchscreen input.
  • [7.2.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements VoiceInteractionService, or an activity handling the on long-press of or if the foreground activity does not handle those long-press events.
  • [7.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a 3-axis accelerometer.

If Handheld device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

  • [7.3.1/H-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.

If Handheld device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver and report the capability to applications through the feature flag, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, they:

  • [7.3.3/H-2-1] MUST report GNSS measurements, as soon as they are found, even if a location calculated from GPS/GNSS is not yet reported.
  • [7.3.3/H-2-2] MUST report GNSS pseudoranges and pseudorange rates, that, in open-sky conditions after determining the location, while stationary or moving with less than 0.2 meter per second squared of acceleration, are sufficient to calculate position within 20 meters, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen speed within 0.2 meters per second, at least 95% of the time.

If Handheld device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/H-3-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/H-3-2] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Handheld device implementations that can make a voice call and indicate any value other than in :

  • [7.3.8/H] SHOULD include a proximity sensor.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.3.11/H-SR] Are RECOMMENDED to support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom.
  • [7.4.3/H] SHOULD include support for Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE.

If Handheld device implementations include a metered connection, they:

  • [7.4.7/H-1-1] MUST provide the data saver mode.

If Handheld device implementations include a logical camera device that lists capabilities usingthey:

  • [7.5.4/H-1-1] MUST have normal field of view (FOV) by default and it MUST be between 50 and 90 degrees.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.6.1/H-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).
  • [7.6.1/H-0-2] MUST return “true” for when there is less than 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace.

If Handheld device implementations declare support of only a 32-bit ABI:

  • [7.6.1/H-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 416MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to qHD (e.g. FWVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 592MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to HD+ (e.g, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. HD, WSVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-3-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to FHD (e.g, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. WSXGA+).

  • [7.6.1/H-4-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1344MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to QHD (e.g. QWXGA).

If Handheld device implementations declare support of 32-bit and 64-bit ABIs:

  • [7.6.1/H-5-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 816MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to qHD (e.g, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. FWVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-6-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 944MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to HD+ (e.g. HD, WSVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-7-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to FHD (e.g. WSXGA+).

  • [7.6.1/H-8-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1824MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to QHD (e.g. QWXGA).

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

If Handheld device implementations include less than or equal to 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [7.6.1/H-9-1] MUST declare the feature flag .
  • [7.6.1/H-9-2] MUST have at least 1.1 GB of non-volatile storage for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

If Handheld device implementations include more than 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [7.6.1/H-10-1] MUST have at least 4GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).
  • SHOULD 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen the feature flag .

If Handheld device implementations include greater than or equal to 2GB and less than 4GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they: * [7.6.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support only 32-bit userspace (both apps and system code)

If Handheld device implementations include less than 2GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they: * [7.6.1/H-1-1] MUST support only 32-bit ABIs.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.6.2/H-0-1] MUST NOT provide an application shared storage smaller than 1 GiB.
  • [7.7.1/H] SHOULD include a USB port supporting peripheral mode.

If handheld device implementations include a USB port supporting peripheral mode, they:

  • [7.7.1/H-1-1] MUST implement the Android Open Accessory (AOA) API.

If Handheld device implementations include SysTools Hard Drive Data Recovery Crack v16.4.0 + Keygen [2021] USB port supporting host mode, they:

  • [7.7.2/H-1-1] MUST implement the USB audio class as documented in the Android SDK documentation.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/H-0-1] MUST include a microphone.
  • [7.8.2/H-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

If Handheld device implementations are capable of meeting all the performance requirements for supporting VR mode and include support for it, they:

  • [7.9.1/H-1-1] MUST declare the feature flag.
  • [7.9.1/H-1-2] MUST include an application implementing that can be enabled by VR applications via .

If Handheld device implementations include one or more USB-C port(s) in host mode and implement (USB audio class), in addition to requirements in section 7.7.2, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-1-1] MUST provide the following software mapping of HID codes:
FunctionMappingsContextBehavior
AHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0CD
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playbackInput: Short press
Output: Play or pause
Input: Long press
Output: Launch voice command
Sends: if the device is locked or its screen is off. Sends otherwise
Incoming callInput: Need For Speed Undercover [MULTI2][PCDVD][WwW.GamesTorrents.CoM] press
Output: Accept call
Input: Long press
Output: Reject call
Ongoing callInput: Short press
Output: End call
Input: Long press
Output: Mute or unmute microphone
BHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0E9
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playback, Ongoing callInput: Short or long press
Output: Increases the system or headset volume
CHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0EA
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playback, Ongoing callInput: Short or long press
Output: Decreases the system or headset volume
DHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0CF
Kernel key:
Android key:
All. Can be triggered in any instance.Input: Short or long press
Output: Launch voice command
  • [7.8.2.2/H-1-2] MUST trigger ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG upon a plug insert, but only after the USB audio interfaces and endpoints have been properly enumerated in order to identify the type of terminal connected.

When the USB audio terminal types 0x0302 is detected, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-2-1] MUST broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG with "microphone" extra set to 0.

When the USB audio terminal types 0x0402 is detected, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-3-1] MUST broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG with "microphone" extra set to 1.

When API AudioManager.getDevices() is called while the USB peripheral is connected they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-1] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0302.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-2] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0402.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-3] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0402.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-4] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x603.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-5] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x604.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-6] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x400.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-7] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x400.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED upon connection of a USB-C audio peripheral, to perform enumeration of USB descriptors, identify terminal types and broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG in less than 1000 milliseconds.

If Handheld device implementations declare and1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, they:

  • [5.6(#5_6_audio-latency)/H-1-1] MUST have a Mean Continuous Round-Trip latency of 800 milliseconds or less over 5 measurements, with a Mean Absolute Deviation less than 100 ms, over at least one supported path.

If Handheld device implementations include at least one haptic actuator, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD NOT use an eccentric rotating mass (ERM) haptic actuator (vibrator).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD position the placement of the actuator near the location where the device is typically held or touched by hands.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.view.HapticFeedbackConstants namely (CLOCK_TICK, CONTEXT_CLICK, KEYBOARD_PRESS, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, KEYBOARD_RELEASE, KEYBOARD_TAP, LONG_PRESS, TEXT_HANDLE_MOVE, VIRTUAL_KEY, VIRTUAL_KEY_RELEASE, CONFIRM, REJECT, GESTURE_START and GESTURE_END).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect namely (EFFECT_TICK, EFFECT_CLICK, EFFECT_HEAVY_CLICK and EFFECT_DOUBLE_CLICK) and all public constants for rich haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect.Composition namely (PRIMITIVE_CLICK and PRIMITIVE_TICK).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD use these linked haptic constants mappings.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD follow quality assessment for [createOneShot()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/VibrationEffect#createOneShot(long,%20int)) and [createWaveform()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/VibrationEffect#createWaveform(long[],%20int)) API's.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD verify the capabilities for amplitude scalability by running [android.os.Vibrator.hasAmplitudeControl()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Vibrator#hasAmplitudeControl()).

A linear resonant actuator (LRA) is a single-mass spring system which has a dominant resonant frequency where the mass translates in the direction of desired motion.

If Handheld device implementations include at least one linear resonant actuator, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD move the haptic actuator in the X-axis of portrait orientation.

If Handheld device implementations have a haptic actuator which is X-axis linear resonant actuator (LRA), they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD have the resonant frequency of the X-axis LRA be under 200 Hz.

If handheld device implementations follow haptic constants mapping, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD verify the implementation status by running [android.os.Vibrator.areAllEffectsSupported()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Vibrator#areAllEffectsSupported(int.)) and android.os.Vibrator.arePrimitvesSupported() API's.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD perform a quality assessment for haptic constants.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD provide fallback support to mitigate the risk of failure as described here.

2.2.2. Multimedia

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/H-0-1] AMR-NB
  • [5.1/H-0-2] AMR-WB
  • [5.1/H-0-3] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/H-0-4] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/H-0-5] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/H-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.2/H-0-2] VP8

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.3/H-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.3/H-0-2] H.265 HEVC
  • [5.3/H-0-3] MPEG-4 SP
  • [5.3/H-0-4] VP8
  • [5.3/H-0-5] VP9

2.2.3. Software

Handheld device implementations:

  • [3.2.3.1/H-0-1] MUST have an application that handles the,and intents as described in the SDK documents, and provide the user affordance to access the document provider data by using API.
  • [3.2.3.1/H-0-2]* MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.
  • [3.2.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload an email application which can handle ACTION_SENDTO or ACTION_SEND or ACTION_SEND_MULTIPLE intents to send an email.
  • [3.4.1/H-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.
  • [3.4.2/H-0-1] MUST include a standalone Browser application for general user web browsing.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement a default launcher that supports in-app pinning of shortcuts, widgets and widgetFeatures.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement a default launcher that provides quick access to the additional shortcuts provided by third-party apps through the ShortcutManager API.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a default launcher app that shows badges for the app icons.
  • [3.8.2/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support third-party app widgets.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-1] MUST allow third-party apps to notify users of notable events through the and API classes.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-2] MUST support rich notifications.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-3] MUST support heads-up notifications.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-4] MUST include a notification shade, providing the user the ability to directly control (e.g. reply, snooze, dismiss, block) the notifications through user affordance such as action buttons or the control panel as implemented in the AOSP.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-5] MUST display the choices provided through in the notification shade.
  • [3.8.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display the first choice provided through in the notification shade without additional user interaction.
  • [3.8.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display all the choices provided through in the notification shade when the user expands all notifications in the notification shade.
  • [3.8.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display actions for which is set as in-line with the replies displayed by .
  • [3.8.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

If Handheld device implementations support Assist action, they:

  • [3.8.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to use long press on key as the designated interaction to launch the assist app as described in section 7.2.3. MUST launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements or an activity handling the intent.

If Handheld device implementations support and group them into a separate section from alerting and silent non-conversation notifications, they:

  • [3.8.4/H-1-1]* MUST display conversation notifications ahead of non 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen notifications with the exception of ongoing foreground service 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen and importance:high notifications.

If Android Handheld device implementations support a lock screen, they:

  • [3.8.10/H-1-1] MUST display the Lock screen Notifications including the Media Notification Template.

If Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [3.9/H-1-1] MUST implement the full range of device administration policies defined in the Android SDK documentation.
  • [3.9/H-1-2] MUST declare the support of managed profiles via the feature flag, except when the device is configured so that it would report itself as a low RAM device or so that it allocates internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage.

If Handheld device implementations include support for and APIs and allow third-party applications to publishthen they:

  • [3.8.16/H-1-1] MUST declare the feature flag and set it to .
  • [3.8.16/H-1-2] MUST provide a user affordance with the ability to add, edit, select, and operate the user’s favorite device controls from the controls registered by the third-party applications Surfer 22.1.151 Crack With Torrent Full Version Free Download the and the APIs.
  • [3.8.16/H-1-3] MUST provide access to this user affordance within three interactions from a default Launcher.
  • [3.8.16/H-1-4] MUST accurately render in this user affordance the name and icon of each third-party app that provides controls via the API as well as any specified fields provided by the APIs.

Conversely, If Handheld device implementations do not implement such controls, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, they:

Handheld device implementations:

  • [3.10/H-0-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.
  • [3.11/H-0-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.
  • [3.11/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.
  • [3.13/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a Quick Settings UI component.

If Android handheld device implementations declare or support, they:

  • [3.16/H-1-1] MUST support the companion device pairing feature.

If the navigation function is provided as an on-screen, gesture-based action:

  • [7.2.3/H] The gesture recognition zone for the Home function SHOULD be no higher than 32 dp in height from the bottom of the screen.

If Handheld device implementations provide a navigation function as a gesture from anywhere on the left and right edges of the screen:

  • [7.2.3/H-0-1] The navigation function's gesture area MUST be less than 40 dp in 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen on each side. The gesture area SHOULD be 24 dp in width by default.

If Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen and have greater than or equal to 2GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [3.9/H-1-2] MUST declare the support of managed profiles via the feature flag.

2.2.4. Performance and Power

  • [8.1/H-0-1] Consistent frame latency. Inconsistent frame latency or a delay to render frames MUST NOT happen more often than 5 frames in a second, and SHOULD be below 1 frames in a second.
  • [8.1/H-0-2] User interface latency. Device implementations MUST ensure low latency user experience by scrolling a list of 10K list entries as defined by the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) in less than 36 secs.
  • [8.1/H-0-3] Task switching. When multiple applications have been launched, re-launching an already-running application after it has been launched MUST take less than 1 second.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [8.2/H-0-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 5 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 0.5 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 15 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 3.5 MB/s.

If Handheld device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

Handheld device implementations:

  • [8.4/H-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/H-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/H-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/H-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.
  • [8.4/H] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.

If Handheld device implementations include a screen or video output, they:

2.2.5. Security Model

Handheld device implementations:

  • [9.1/H-0-1] MUST allow third-party apps to access the usage statistics via the permission and provide a user-accessible mechanism to grant or revoke access to such apps in response to the intent.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [9.11/H-0-2] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/H-0-3] MUST have implementations of RSA, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, AES, ECDSA, and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/H-0-4] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android ableton crack reddit Archives - keygenfile Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/H-0-5] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/H-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

When Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [9.11/H-1-1] MUST allow the user to choose the shortest sleep timeout, that is a transition time from the unlocked to the locked state, as 15 seconds or less.
  • [9.11/H-1-2] MUST provide user affordance to hide notifications and disable all forms of authentication except for the primary authentication described in 9.11.1 Secure Lock Screen. The AOSP meets the requirement as lockdown mode.

If Handheld device implementations include multiple 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/H-2-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Handheld device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/H-3-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

Android, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen the System API VoiceInteractionService supports a mechanism for secure always-on hotword detection without mic access indication

If Handheld device implementations support the System API or a another mechanism for hotword detection without mic access indication, they:

  • [9.8/H-1-1] MUST make sure the hotword detection service can only transmit data to the System or ContentCaptureService
  • [9.8/H-1-2] MUST make sure the hotword detection service can only transmit mic audio data or data derived from it to the system server through API, or to through API.
  • [9.8/H-1-3] MUST NOT supply mic audio that is longer than 30 seconds for an individual hardware-triggered request to the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-4] MUST NOT supply buffered mic audio older than 8 seconds for an individual request to the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-5] MUST NOT supply buffered mic audio older than 30 seconds to the voice interaction service or similar entity.
  • [9.8/H-1-6] MUST NOT allow more than 100 bytes of data to be transmitted out of the hotword detection service on each successful hotword result.
  • [9.8/H-1-7] MUST NOT allow more than 5 bits of data to be transmitted out of the hotword detection service on each negative hotword result.
  • [9.8/H-1-8] MUST only allow transmission of data out of the hotword detection service on a hotword validation request from the system server.
  • [9.8/H-1-9] MUST NOT allow a user-installable application to provide the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-10] MUST NOT surface in the UI quantitative data about mic usage by the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-11] MUST log the number of bytes included in every transmission from the hotword detection service to allow inspectability for security researchers.
  • [9.8/H-1-12] MUST support a debug mode that logs raw contents of every transmission from the hotword detection service to allow inspectability for security researchers.
  • [9.8/H-1-13] MUST restart the process hosting the hotword detection service at least once every hour or every 30 hardware-trigger events, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, whichever comes first.
  • [9.8/H-1-14] MUST display the microphone indicator, as required in [9.8/C-3-1], when a successful hotword result is transmitted to the voice interaction service or similar entity.
  • [9.8/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to notify users before setting an application as the provider of 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to disallow the transmission of unstructured data out of the hotword detection service.

If device implementations include an application ESET Internet Security 10-12 crack serial keygen uses the System APIor similar mechanism for hotword detection without mic usage indication, the application:

  • [9.8/H-2-1] MUST provide explicit notice to the user for each hotword phrase supported.
  • [9.8/H-2-2] MUST NOT preserve raw audio data, or data derived from it, through the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-2-3] MUST NOT transmit from the hotword detection service, audio data, data that can be used to reconstruct (wholly or partially) the audio, or audio contents unrelated to the hotword itself, except to the .

If Handheld device implementations declarethey:

  • [9.8.2/H-4-1] MUST display the microphone indicator when an app is accessing audio data from the microphone, but not when the microphone is only accessed by, or apps holding the roles called out in section 9.1 with CDD identifier [C-4-X]. .
  • [9.8.2/H-4-2] MUST display the list of Recent and Active apps using microphone as returned fromalong with any attribution messages associated with them.
  • [9.8.2/H-4-3] MUST not hide the microphone indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.
  • [9.8.2/H-4-4] MUST display the list of Recent and Active apps using the microphone as returned fromalong with any attribution messages associated with them.

If Handheld device implementations declare1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, they:

  • [9.8.2/H-5-1] MUST display the camera indicator when an app is accessing live camera data, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, but not when the camera is only being accessed by app(s) holding the roles called out in section 9.1 with CDD identifier [C-4-X].
  • [9.8.2/H-5-2] MUST display Recent and Active apps using camera as returned fromalong with any attribution messages associated with them.
  • [9.8.2/H-5-3] MUST not hide the camera indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

2.2.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Handheld device implementations (* Not applicable for Tablet):

  • [6.1/H-0-1]* MUST support the shell command .

Handheld device implementations (* Not applicable for Tablet):

  • Perfetto
    • [6.1/H-0-2]* MUST expose a binary to the shell user which cmdline complies with the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-3]* The perfetto binary MUST accept as input a protobuf config that complies with the schema defined in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-4]* The perfetto binary MUST write as output a protobuf trace that complies with the schema defined in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-5]* MUST provide, through the perfetto binary, at least the data sources described in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-6]* The perfetto traced daemon MUST be nck qualcomm crack Archives by default (system property ).

2.2.7. Handheld Media Performance Class

See Section 7.11 for the definition of media performance class.

2.2.7.1, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. Media

If Handheld device implementations return forthen they:

  • [5.1/H-1-1] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-2] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps.
  • [5.1/H-1-3] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-4] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video encoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps.
  • [5.1/H-1-5] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder and decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-6] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder and hardware video encoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at [email protected] fps resolution.
  • [5.1/H-1-7] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 65 ms or less for a 1080p or smaller video encoding session for all hardware video encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.1/H-1-8] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 50 ms or less for a 128 kbps or lower bitrate audio encoding session for all audio encoders when under load.Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.3/H-1-1] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds (i.e less than 0.333 percent frame drop) for a 1080p 30 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.3/H-1-2] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds during a video resolution change in a 30 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128Kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a tap-to-tone latency of less than 100 milliseconds using the OboeTester tap-to-tone test or CTS Verifier tap-to-tone test.

If Handheld device implementations return forthen they:

  • [5.1/H-1-1] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-2] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps. *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-3] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder sessions that can be run concurrently Synapse X administrator crack serial keygen any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-4] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video encoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-5] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder and decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-6] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder and hardware video encoder sessions 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at [email protected] resolution. *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-7] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 50 ms or less for a 1080p or smaller video encoding session for all hardware video encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.1/H-1-8] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 40 ms or less for a 128 kbps or lower bitrate audio encoding session for all audio encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.3/H-1-1] MUST NOT drop more than 2 frames in 10 seconds (i.e less than 0.333 percent frame drop) for a 1080p 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session Jogos de Engraçado de Graça para Baixar hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.3/H-1-2] MUST NOT drop more than 2 frames in 10 seconds during a video resolution change in a 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a tap-to-tone latency of less than 100 milliseconds using the OboeTester tap-to-tone test or CTS Verifier tap-to-tone test.

2.2.7.2. Camera

If Handheld device implementations return forthen they:

  • [7.5/H-1-1] MUST have a primary rear facing camera with a resolution of at least 12 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary rear-facing camera is the rear-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-2] MUST have a primary front facing camera with a resolution of at least 4 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary front-facing camera is the front-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-3] MUST support android.info.supportedHardwareLevel property as FULL or better for back primary and LIMITED or better for front primary camera.
  • [7.5/H-1-4] MUST support CameraMetadata.SENSOR_INFO_TIMESTAMP_SOURCE_REALTIME for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-5] MUST have camera2 JPEG capture latency < 1000ms for 1080p resolution as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-6] MUST have camera2 startup latency (open camera to first preview frame) < 600ms as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.

If Handheld device implementations return forthen they:

  • [7.5/H-1-1] MUST have a primary rear facing camera with a resolution of at least 12 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary rear-facing camera is the rear-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-2] MUST have a primary front facing camera with a resolution of at least 5 megapixels and support video capture at [email protected] The primary front-facing camera is the front-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-3] MUST support property as or better for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-4] MUST support for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-5] MUST have camera2 JPEG capture latency < 1000 ms for 1080p resolution as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-6] MUST have camera2 startup latency (open camera to first preview frame) < 500 ms as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-7] For apps targeting API level 31 or higher, the camera device MUST NOT support JPEG capture resolutions smaller than 1080p for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-8] MUST support and for the primary back camera.

2.2.7.3. Hardware

If Handheld device implementations return forthen they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-1-1] MUST have screen resolution of at least 1080p.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-1-1] MUST have screen density of at least 400 dpi.
  • [7.6.1/H-1-1] MUST have at least 6 GB of physical memory.

If Handheld device implementations return forthen they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-2-1] MUST have screen resolution of at least 1080p.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-2-1] MUST have screen density of at least 400 dpi.
  • [7.6.1/H-2-1] MUST have at least 6 GB of physical memory.

2.2.7.4. Performance

If Handheld device implementations return forthen they:

  • [8.2/H-1-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 100 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 10 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 200 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 25 MB/s.

If Handheld device implementations return for1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, then they:

  • [8.2/H-2-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 125 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 10 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 250 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 40 MB/s.

2.3. Television Requirements

An Android Television device refers to an Android device implementation that is an entertainment interface for consuming digital media, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, games, apps, and/or live TV for users sitting about ten feet away (a “lean back” or “10-foot user interface”).

Android device implementations are classified as a Television if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have provided a mechanism to remotely control the rendered user interface on the display that might sit ten feet away from the user.
  • Have an embedded screen display with the diagonal length larger than 24 inches OR 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen a video output port, such as VGA, HDMI, DisplayPort, or a wireless port for display.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Television device implementations.

2.3.1. Hardware

Television device implementations:

  • [7.2.2/T-0-1] MUST support D-pad.
  • [7.2.3/T-0-1] MUST provide the Home and Back functions.
  • [7.2.3/T-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application.
  • [7.2.6.1/T-0-1] MUST include support for game controllers and declare the feature flag.
  • [7.2.7/T] SHOULD provide a remote control from which users can access non-touch navigation and core navigation keys inputs.

If Television device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/T-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/T-1-2] MUST be Kanto player karaoke crack serial keygen of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Television device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/T-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE.
  • [7.6.1/T-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

If Television device implementations include a USB port that supports host mode, they:

  • [7.5.3/T-1-1] 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen include support for an external camera that connects through this USB port but is not necessarily always connected.

If TV device implementations are 32-bit:

  • [7.6.1/T-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens

If TV device implementations are 64-bit:

  • [7.6.1/T-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

Television device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/T] SHOULD include a microphone.
  • [7.8.2/T-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

2.3.2. Multimedia

Television device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/T-0-1] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/T-0-2] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/T-0-3] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Television device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/T-0-1] H.264
  • [5.2/T-0-2] VP8

Television device implementations:

  • [5.2.2/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support H.264 encoding of 720p and 1080p resolution videos at 30 frames per second.

Television device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

Television device implementations MUST support MPEG-2 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.1, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.1/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 59.94 frames per second with Main Profile High Level.
  • [5.3.1/T-1-2] HD 1080i at 59.94 frames per second with Main Profile High Level. They MUST deinterlace interlaced MPEG-2 video and make it available to third-party applications.

Television device implementations MUST support H.264 decoding, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, as detailed in Section 5.3.4, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.4/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Baseline Profile
  • [5.3.4/T-1-2] HD 1080p at 60 frames per 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen with Main Profile
  • [5.3.4/T-1-3] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with High Profile Level 4.2

Television device implementations with H.265 hardware decoders MUST support H.265 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.5, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.5/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Main Profile Level 4.1

If Television device implementations with H.265 hardware decoders support H.265 decoding and the UHD decoding profile, they:

  • [5.3.5/T-2-1] MUST support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with Main10 Level 5 Main Tier profile

Television device implementations MUST support VP8 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.6, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.6/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second decoding profile

Television device implementations with VP9 hardware decoders MUST support VP9 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.7, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.7/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with profile 0 (8 bit color depth)

If Television device implementations with VP9 hardware decoders support VP9 decoding and the UHD decoding profile, they:

  • [5.3.7/T-2-1] MUST support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with profile 0 (8 bit color depth).
  • [5.3.7/T-2-1] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with profile 2 (10 bit color depth).

Television device implementations:

  • [5.5/T-0-1] MUST include support for system Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs, except for compressed audio passthrough output (where no audio decoding is done on the device).

If Television device implementations do not have a built in display, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-0-1] MUST set the HDMI output mode to select the maximum resolution that can be supported with either a 50Hz or 60Hz refresh rate.
  • [5.8/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide a user configurable HDMI refresh rate selector.
  • [5.8] SHOULD set the HDMI output mode refresh rate to either 50Hz or 60Hz, depending on the video refresh rate for the region the device is sold in.

If Television device implementations do not have a built in display, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-1-1] MUST support HDCP 2.2.

If Television device implementations do not support UHD decoding, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-2-1] MUST support HDCP 1.4

2.3.3. Software

Television device implementations:

  • [3/T-0-1] MUST declare the features and .
  • [3.2.3.1/T-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.
  • [3.4.1/T-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen API.

If Android Television device implementations support a lock screen,they:

  • [3.8.10/T-1-1] MUST display the Lock screen Notifications including the Media Notification Template.

Television device implementations:

  • [3.8.14/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support picture-in-picture (PIP) mode multi-window.
  • [3.10/T-0-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen in the talkback open source project.

If Television device implementations report the featurethey:

  • [3.11/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.
  • [3.11/T-1-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.

Television device implementations:

  • [3.12/T-0-1] MUST support TV Input Framework.

2.3.4. Performance and Power

  • [8.1/T-0-1] Consistent frame latency. Inconsistent frame latency or a delay to render frames MUST NOT happen more often than 5 frames in a second, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, and SHOULD be below 1 frames in a second.
  • [8.2/T-0-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 5MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 0.5MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 15MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen 3.5MB/s.

If Television device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/T-1-1] MUST provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.

If Television device implementations do not have a battery they:

If Television device implementations have a battery they:

  • [8.3/T-1-3] MUST provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.

Television device implementations:

  • [8.4/T-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/T-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/T-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/T] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.
  • [8.4/T-0-4] MUST make this PDF Splitter and Merger 4.0 crack serial keygen usage available via the shell command to the app developer.

2.3.5. Security Model

Television device implementations:

  • [9.11/T-0-1] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/T-0-2] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/T-0-3] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/T-0-4] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/T-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

If Television device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [9.11/T-1-1] MUST allow the user to choose the Sleep timeout for transition from the unlocked to the locked state, with a minimum allowable timeout up to 15 seconds 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen less.

If Television device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/T-2-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, Express VPN 2021 Crack + Activation Code [LATEST] owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Television device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/T-3-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

If Television device implementations declarethey:

  • [[9.8.2/T-4-1] MUST display the microphone indicator when an app is accessing audio data from the microphone, but not when the microphone is only accessed by HotwordDetectionService, SOURCE_HOTWORD, ContentCaptureService, or apps holding the roles called out in Section 9.1 Permissions with CDD identifier C-3-X].
  • [[9.8.2/T-4-2] MUST not hide the microphone indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

If Television device implementations declarethey:

  • [[9.8.2/T-5-1] MUST display the camera indicator when an app is accessing live camera data, but not when the camera is only being accessed by app(s) holding the roles called out in Section 9.1 Permissions with CDD identifier [C-3-X].
  • [[9.8.2/T-5-2] MUST not hide the camera indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

2.3.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Television device implementations:

2.4. Watch Requirements

An Android Watch device refers to an Android device implementation intended to be worn on the body, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, perhaps on the wrist.

Android device implementations are classified as a Watch if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have a screen with the physical diagonal length in the range from 1.1 to 2.5 inches.
  • Have a mechanism provided to be worn on the body.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Watch device implementations.

2.4.1. Hardware

Watch device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/W-0-1] MUST have a screen with the physical diagonal size in the range from 1.1 to 2.5 inches.

  • [7.2.3/W-0-1] MUST have the Home function available to the user, and the Back function except for when it is in .

  • [7.2.4/W-0-1] MUST support touchscreen input.

  • [7.3.1/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a 3-axis accelerometer.

If Watch device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver and report the capability to applications through the feature flag, they:

  • [7.3.3/W-1-1] MUST report GNSS measurements, as soon as they are found, even if a location calculated from GPS/GNSS is not yet reported.
  • [7.3.3/W-1-2] MUST report GNSS pseudoranges and pseudorange rates, that, in open-sky conditions after determining the location, while stationary or moving with less than 0.2 meter per second squared of acceleration, are sufficient to calculate position within 20 meters, and speed within 0.2 meters per second, at least 95% of the time.

If Watch device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/W-2-1] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Watch device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/W-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth.

  • [7.6.1/W-0-1] MUST have at least 1 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

  • [7.6.1/W-0-2] MUST have at least 416 MB memory available to the kernel and userspace.

  • [7.8.1/W-0-1] MUST include a microphone.

  • [7.8.2/W] MAY have audio output.

2.4.2, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. Multimedia

No additional requirements.

2.4.3. Software

Watch device implementations:

  • [3/W-0-1] MUST declare the feature .
  • [3/W-0-2] MUST support uiMode = UI_MODE_TYPE_WATCH.
  • [3.2.3.1/W-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.

Watch device implementations:

  • [3.8.4/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

Watch device implementations that declare the feature flag:

  • [3.10/W-1-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.

If Watch device implementations report the feature android.hardware.audio.output, they:

  • [3.11/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.

2.4.4. Performance and Power

If Watch device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.
  • [8.3/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.

Watch device implementations:

  • [8.4/W-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile VeryPDF PDF2Word v3.0 crack serial keygen defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/W-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/W-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/W-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.
  • [8.4/W] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.

2.4.5. Security Model

Watch device implementations:

  • [9/H-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

If Watch device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/W-1-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Watch device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/W-2-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

2.5. Automotive Requirements

Android Automotive implementation refers to a 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen head unit running Android as an operating system for part or all of the system and/or infotainment functionality.

Android device implementations are classified as an Automotive if they declare the feature or meet all the following criteria.

  • Are embedded as part of, or pluggable to, an automotive vehicle.
  • Are using a screen in the driver's seat row as the primary display.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Automotive device implementations.

2.5.1. Hardware

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/A-0-1] MUST have a screen at least 6 inches in physical diagonal size.
  • [7.1.1.1/A-0-2] MUST have a screen size layout of at least 750 dp x GTA 4 PC crack serial keygen dp.

  • [7.2.3/A-0-1] MUST provide the Home function and MAY provide Back and Recent functions.

  • [7.2.3/A-0-2] MUST send both the normal 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application.

  • [7.3/A-0-1] MUST implement and report, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, and .

  • [7.3/A-0-2] The value of the flag MUST be consistent with dashboard day/night mode and SHOULD be based on ambient light sensor input. The underlying ambient light sensor MAY be the same as Photometer.

  • [7.3/A-0-3] MUST provide sensor additional info field as part of SensorAdditionalInfo for every sensor provided.

  • [7.3/A-0-1] MAY dead reckon Location by fusing GPS/GNSS with additional sensors. If Location is dead reckoned, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement and report the corresponding Sensor types and/or Vehicle Property IDs used.

  • [7.3/A-0-2] The Location Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 5.6 crack serial keygen via LocationManager#requestLocationUpdates() MUST NOT be map matched.

If Automotive device implementations support OpenGL ES 3.1, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, they:

  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-1] MUST declare OpenGL ES 3.1 or higher.
  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-2] MUST support Vulkan 1.1.
  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-3] MUST include Vulkan loader and export all symbols.

If Automotive device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

If Automotive device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/A-2-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/A-2-3] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 250 degrees per second.
  • [7.3.4/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to configure the gyroscope’s measurement range to +/-250dps in order to maximize the resolution possible

If Automotive device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver, but do not include cellular network-based data connectivity, they:

  • [7.3.3/A-3-1] MUST determine location the very first time the GPS/GNSS receiver is turned on or after 4+ days within 60 seconds.
  • [7.3.3/A-3-2] MUST meet the time-to-first-fix criteria as described in 7.3.3/C-1-2 and 7.3.3/C-1-6 for all other location requests (i.e requests which are not the first time ever or after 4+ days). The requirement 7.3.3/C-1-2 is typically met in vehicles without cellular network-based data connectivity, by using GNSS orbit predictions calculated on the receiver, or using the last known vehicle location along with the ability to dead reckon for at least 60 seconds with a position accuracy satisfying 7.3.3/C-1-3, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, or a combination of both.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/A-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth and SHOULD support Bluetooth LE.
  • [7.4.3/A-0-2] Android Automotive implementations MUST support the following Bluetooth profiles:
    • Phone calling over Hands-Free Profile (HFP).
    • Media playback over Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP).
    • Media playback control over Remote Control Profile (AVRCP).
    • Contact sharing using the Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP).
  • [7.4.3/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support Message Access Profile (MAP).

  • [7.4.5/A] SHOULD include support for cellular network-based data connectivity.

  • [7.4.5/A] MAY use the System API constant for networks that should be available to system apps.

An exterior view camera is a camera that images scenes outside of the device implementation, like a dashcam.

Automotive device implementations:

  • SHOULD include one or more exterior view cameras.

If Automotive device implementations include an exterior view camera, for such a camera, they:

  • [7.5/A-1-1] MUST NOT have exterior view cameras accessible via the Android Camera APIs, unless they comply with camera core 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED not to rotate or horizontally mirror the camera preview.
  • [7.5.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the horizon.
  • [7.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to have a resolution of at least 1.3 megapixels.
  • SHOULD have either fixed-focus or EDOF (extended depth of field) hardware.
  • SHOULD support Android Synchronization Framework.
  • MAY have either hardware auto-focus or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.6.1/A-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

  • [7.6.1/A] SHOULD format the data partition to offer improved performance and longevity on flash storage, for example using file-system.

If Automotive device implementations provide shared external storage via a portion of the internal non-removable storage, they:

  • [7.6.1/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to reduce I/O overhead on operations performed on the external storage, for example by using .

If Automotive device implementations are 32-bit:

  • [7.6.1/A-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 512MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 280dpi or lower on small/normal screens
    • ldpi or lower on extra large screens
    • mdpi or lower on large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-2] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 608MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • xhdpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • hdpi or higher on large screens
    • mdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-3] The Affinity Designer 1.8.5.703 Crack + Serial Key Free Download available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-4] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1344MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 560dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • 400dpi or higher on large screens
    • xhdpi or higher on extra large screens

If Automotive device implementations are 64-bit:

  • [7.6.1/A-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 816MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 280dpi or lower on small/normal screens
    • ldpi or lower on extra large screens
    • mdpi or lower on large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-2] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 944MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • xhdpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • hdpi or higher on large screens
    • mdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-3] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-4] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1824MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 560dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • 400dpi or higher on large screens
    • xhdpi or higher on extra large screens

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.7.1/A] SHOULD include a USB port supporting peripheral mode.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/A-0-1] MUST include a microphone.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.8.2/A-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

2.5.2. Multimedia

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/A-0-1] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/A-0-2] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/A-0-3] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following video 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/A-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.2/A-0-2] VP8

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.3/A-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.3/A-0-2] MPEG-4 SP
  • [5.3/A-0-3] VP8
  • [5.3/A-0-4] VP9

Automotive device implementations are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support the following video decoding:

2.5.3. Software

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3/A-0-1] MUST declare the feature .

  • [3/A-0-2] MUST support uiMode = .

  • [3/A-0-3] MUST support all public APIs in the namespace.

If Automotive device implementations 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen a proprietary API using withthey:

  • [3/A-1-1] MUST NOT attach special privileges to system application's use of these properties, or prevent third-party applications from using these properties.
  • [3/A-1-2] MUST NOT replicate a vehicle property that already exists in the SDK.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.2.1/A-0-1] MUST support and enforce all permissions constants as documented by the Automotive Permission reference page.

  • [3.2.3.1/A-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.

  • [3.4.1/A-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.

  • [3.8.3/A-0-1] MUST display notifications that use the API when requested by third-party applications.

  • [3.8.4/A-SR] Are Strongly Recommended to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

If Automotive device implementations include a push-to-talk button, they:

  • [3.8.4/A-1-1] MUST use a short press of the push-to-talk button as the designated interaction to launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements .

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.8.3.1/A-0-1] MUST correctly render resources as described in the SDK documentation.
  • [3.8.3.1/A-0-2] MUST display PLAY and MUTE for notification actions in the place of those provided through
  • [3.8.3.1/A] SHOULD restrict the use of rich management tasks such as per-notification-channel controls. MAY use UI affordance per application to reduce controls.

If Automotive device implementations support User HAL properties, they:

Automotive device implementations:

If Automotive device implementations include a default launcher app, they:

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.8/A] MAY restrict the application requests to enter a full screen mode as described in .
  • [3.8/A] MAY keep the status bar and the navigation bar visible at all times.
  • [3.8/A] MAY restrict the application requests to change the colors behind the system UI elements, to ensure those elements are clearly visible at all times.

2.5.4. Performance and Power

Automotive device implementations:

  • [8.2/A-0-1] MUST report the number of bytes read and written to non-volatile storage per each process's UID so the stats are available to developers through System API. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module.
  • [8.3/A-1-3] MUST support Garage Mode.
  • [8.3/A] SHOULD be in Garage Mode for at least 15 minutes after every drive unless:
    • The battery is drained.
    • No idle jobs are scheduled.
    • The driver exits Garage Mode.
  • [8.4/A-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/A-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/A-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/A] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.
  • [8.4/A-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.

2.5.5. Security Model

If Automotive device implementations support multiple users, they:

Automotive device implementations:

  • [9.11/A-0-1] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/A-0-2] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/A-0-3] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/A-0-4] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/A-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [9.14/A-0-1] MUST gatekeep messages from Android framework vehicle subsystems, e.g., whitelisting permitted message types and message sources.
  • [9.14/A-0-2] MUST watchdog against denial of service attacks from the Android framework or third-party apps. This guards against malicious software flooding the vehicle network with traffic, which may lead to malfunctioning vehicle subsystems.

2.5.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Automotive device implementations:

2.6. Tablet Requirements

An Android Tablet device refers to an Android device implementation that typically meets all the following criteria:

  • Used by holding in both hands.
  • Does not have a clamshell or convertible configuration.
  • Physical keyboard implementations used with the device connect by means of a standard connection (e.g. USB, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, Bluetooth).
  • Has a power source that provides mobility, such as a battery.

Tablet device implementations have similar requirements to handheld device implementations. The exceptions are indicated by an * in that section and noted for reference in this section.

2.6.1. Hardware

Screen Size

** Gyroscope**

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Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are Tenorshare UltData 7.3.5.8 For Windows With License Keys for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes Windows 10 Pro Product Key & License Key Full Free Download commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

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Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community . a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia . are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users . 524 people . And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen height="145">
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines. Smadav Pro 2021 Crack & Registration Key Free Download addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These ElectraX VST Crack 2021 With Torrent Full Version Free Download may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all PC Activity Recorder Archives - Kali Software Crack projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, geography, society, culture, science, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the DVDFab Player Ultra 6.1.1.4 Crack Full Version Download analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules Jogos de Assaltos de Graça para Baixar laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen communications officer, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general Serato DJ Pro 2.5.6 With Crack Free Download [ Latest Version ] that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(December 2020)

Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that Cubase Pro 10.5.5 free download Archives percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization . his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice . and . his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians . remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to Pycharm free download Archives him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, they are often written in a poor, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under IDM 6.39 Build 1 Crack 2022 Keygen review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, inclining to be young, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone Jogos de sandbox de Graça para Baixar access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, with the court rejecting the 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

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Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency . We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority . (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects, 1 Click Runner 2.0 crack serial keygen. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and pdf-converter 4.0.5.1+pdf-converter-pro-win_full1271 crack keygen described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

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Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia ... are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users ... 524 people ... And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization ... his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice ... and ... his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians ... remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency ... We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority ... (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Android 12 Compatibility Definition

1. Introduction

This document enumerates the requirements that must be met in order for devices to be compatible with Android 12.

The use of “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” is per the IETF standard defined in RFC2119.

As used in this document, a “device implementer” or “implementer” is a person or organization developing a hardware/software solution running Android 12. A “device implementation” or “implementation" is the hardware/software solution so developed.

To be considered compatible with Android 12, device implementations MUST meet the requirements presented in this Compatibility Definition, including any documents incorporated via reference.

Where this definition or the software tests described in section 10 is silent, ambiguous, or incomplete, it is the responsibility of the device implementer to ensure compatibility with existing implementations.

For this reason, the Android Open Source Project is both the reference and preferred implementation of Android. Device implementers are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to base their implementations to the greatest extent possible on the “upstream” source code available from the Android Open Source Project. While some components can hypothetically be replaced with alternate implementations, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to not follow this practice, as passing the software tests will become substantially more difficult. It is the implementer’s responsibility to ensure full behavioral compatibility with the standard Android implementation, including and beyond the Compatibility Test Suite. Finally, note that certain component substitutions and modifications are explicitly forbidden by this document.

Many of the resources linked to in this document are derived directly or indirectly from the Android SDK and will be functionally identical to the information in that SDK’s documentation. In any cases where this Compatibility Definition or the Compatibility Test Suite disagrees with the SDK documentation, the SDK documentation is considered authoritative. Any technical details provided in the linked resources throughout this document are considered by inclusion to be part of this Compatibility Definition.

1.1 Document Structure

1.1.1. Requirements by Device Type

Section 2 contains all of the requirements that apply to a specific device type. Each subsection of Section 2 is dedicated to a specific device type.

All the other requirements, that universally apply to any Android device implementations, are listed in the sections after Section 2. These requirements are referenced as "Core Requirements" in this document.

1.1.2. Requirement ID

Requirement ID is assigned for MUST requirements.

  • The ID is assigned for MUST requirements only.
  • STRONGLY RECOMMENDED requirements are marked as [SR] but ID is not assigned.
  • The ID consists of : Device Type ID - Condition ID - Requirement ID (e.g. C-0-1).

Each ID is defined as below:

  • Device Type ID (see more in 2. Device Types)
    • C: Core (Requirements that are applied to all Android device implementations)
    • H: Android Handheld device
    • T: Android Television device
    • A: Android Automotive implementation
    • W: Android Watch implementation
    • Tab: Android Tablet implementation
  • Condition ID
    • When the requirement is unconditional, this ID is set as 0.
    • When the requirement is conditional, 1 is assigned for the 1st condition and the number increments by 1 within the same section and the same device type.
  • Requirement ID
    • This ID starts from 1 and increments by 1 within the same section and the same condition.

1.1.3. Requirement ID in Section 2

The Requirement IDs in Section 2 have two parts. The first corresponds to a section ID as described above. The second part identifies the form factor and the form-factor specific requirement.

section ID that is followed by the Requirement ID described above.

  • The ID in Section 2 consists of : Section ID / Device Type ID - Condition ID - Requirement ID (e.g. 7.4.3/A-0-1).

2. Device Types

The Android Open Source Project provides a software stack that can be used for a variety of device types and form factors. To support security on devices, the software stack, including any replacement OS or an alternate kernel implementation, is expected to execute in a secure environment as described in section 9 and elsewhere within this CDD. There are a few device types that have a relatively better established application distribution ecosystem.

This section describes those device types, and additional requirements and recommendations applicable for each device type.

All Android device implementations that do not fit into any of the described device types MUST still meet all requirements in the other sections of this Compatibility Definition.

2.1 Device Configurations

For the major differences in hardware configuration by device type, see the device-specific requirements that follow in this section.

2.2. Handheld Requirements

An Android Handheld device refers to an Android device implementation that is typically used by holding it in the hand, such as an mp3 player, phone, or tablet.

Android device implementations are classified as a Handheld if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have a power source that provides mobility, such as a battery.
  • Have a physical diagonal screen size in the range of 3.3 inches (or 2.5 inches for devices which launched on an API level earlier than Android 11) to 8 inches.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Handheld device implementations.

Note: Requirements that do not apply to Android Tablet devices are marked with an *.

2.2.1. Hardware

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-0-1] MUST have at least one Android-compatible display that meets all requirements described on this document.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide users an affordance to change the display size (screen density).

  • [7.1.1.1/H-0-2] MUST support GPU composition of graphic buffers at least as large as the highest resolution of any built-in display.

If Handheld device implementations support software screen rotation, they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-1-1]* MUST make the logical screen that is made available for third party applications be at least 2 inches on the short edge(s) and 2.7 inches on the long edge(s). Devices which launched on an API level earlier than that of this document are exempted from this requirement.

If Handheld device implementations do not support software screen rotation, they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-2-1]* MUST make the logical screen that is made available for third party applications be at least 2.7 inches on the short edge(s). Devices which launched on an API level earlier than that of this document are exempted from this requirement.

If Handheld device implementations claim support for high dynamic range displays through , they:

  • [7.1.4.5/H-1-1] MUST advertise support for the , , , , and extensions.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.4.6/H-0-1] MUST report whether the device supports the GPU profiling capability via a system property .

If Handheld device implementations declare support via a system property , they:

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.1.5/H-0-1] MUST include support for legacy application compatibility mode as implemented by the upstream Android open source code. That is, device implementations MUST NOT alter the triggers or thresholds at which compatibility mode is activated, and MUST NOT alter the behavior of the compatibility mode itself.
  • [7.2.1/H-0-1] MUST include support for third-party Input Method Editor (IME) applications.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-3] MUST provide the Home function on all the Android-compatible displays that provide the home screen.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-4] MUST provide the Back function on all the Android-compatible displays and the Recents function on at least one of the Android-compatible displays.
  • [7.2.3/H-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application. These events MUST NOT be consumed by the system and CAN be triggered by outside of the Android device (e.g. external hardware keyboard connected to the Android device).
  • [7.2.4/H-0-1] MUST support touchscreen input.
  • [7.2.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements VoiceInteractionService, or an activity handling the on long-press of or if the foreground activity does not handle those long-press events.
  • [7.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a 3-axis accelerometer.

If Handheld device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

  • [7.3.1/H-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.

If Handheld device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver and report the capability to applications through the feature flag, they:

  • [7.3.3/H-2-1] MUST report GNSS measurements, as soon as they are found, even if a location calculated from GPS/GNSS is not yet reported.
  • [7.3.3/H-2-2] MUST report GNSS pseudoranges and pseudorange rates, that, in open-sky conditions after determining the location, while stationary or moving with less than 0.2 meter per second squared of acceleration, are sufficient to calculate position within 20 meters, and speed within 0.2 meters per second, at least 95% of the time.

If Handheld device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/H-3-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/H-3-2] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Handheld device implementations that can make a voice call and indicate any value other than in :

  • [7.3.8/H] SHOULD include a proximity sensor.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.3.11/H-SR] Are RECOMMENDED to support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom.
  • [7.4.3/H] SHOULD include support for Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE.

If Handheld device implementations include a metered connection, they:

  • [7.4.7/H-1-1] MUST provide the data saver mode.

If Handheld device implementations include a logical camera device that lists capabilities using , they:

  • [7.5.4/H-1-1] MUST have normal field of view (FOV) by default and it MUST be between 50 and 90 degrees.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.6.1/H-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).
  • [7.6.1/H-0-2] MUST return “true” for when there is less than 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace.

If Handheld device implementations declare support of only a 32-bit ABI:

  • [7.6.1/H-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 416MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to qHD (e.g. FWVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 592MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to HD+ (e.g. HD, WSVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-3-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to FHD (e.g. WSXGA+).

  • [7.6.1/H-4-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1344MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to QHD (e.g. QWXGA).

If Handheld device implementations declare support of 32-bit and 64-bit ABIs:

  • [7.6.1/H-5-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 816MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to qHD (e.g. FWVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-6-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 944MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to HD+ (e.g. HD, WSVGA).

  • [7.6.1/H-7-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to FHD (e.g. WSXGA+).

  • [7.6.1/H-8-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1824MB if the default display uses framebuffer resolutions up to QHD (e.g. QWXGA).

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

If Handheld device implementations include less than or equal to 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [7.6.1/H-9-1] MUST declare the feature flag .
  • [7.6.1/H-9-2] MUST have at least 1.1 GB of non-volatile storage for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

If Handheld device implementations include more than 1GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [7.6.1/H-10-1] MUST have at least 4GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).
  • SHOULD declare the feature flag .

If Handheld device implementations include greater than or equal to 2GB and less than 4GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they: * [7.6.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support only 32-bit userspace (both apps and system code)

If Handheld device implementations include less than 2GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they: * [7.6.1/H-1-1] MUST support only 32-bit ABIs.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.6.2/H-0-1] MUST NOT provide an application shared storage smaller than 1 GiB.
  • [7.7.1/H] SHOULD include a USB port supporting peripheral mode.

If handheld device implementations include a USB port supporting peripheral mode, they:

  • [7.7.1/H-1-1] MUST implement the Android Open Accessory (AOA) API.

If Handheld device implementations include a USB port supporting host mode, they:

  • [7.7.2/H-1-1] MUST implement the USB audio class as documented in the Android SDK documentation.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/H-0-1] MUST include a microphone.
  • [7.8.2/H-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

If Handheld device implementations are capable of meeting all the performance requirements for supporting VR mode and include support for it, they:

  • [7.9.1/H-1-1] MUST declare the feature flag.
  • [7.9.1/H-1-2] MUST include an application implementing that can be enabled by VR applications via .

If Handheld device implementations include one or more USB-C port(s) in host mode and implement (USB audio class), in addition to requirements in section 7.7.2, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-1-1] MUST provide the following software mapping of HID codes:
FunctionMappingsContextBehavior
AHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0CD
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playbackInput: Short press
Output: Play or pause
Input: Long press
Output: Launch voice command
Sends: if the device is locked or its screen is off. Sends otherwise
Incoming callInput: Short press
Output: Accept call
Input: Long press
Output: Reject call
Ongoing callInput: Short press
Output: End call
Input: Long press
Output: Mute or unmute microphone
BHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0E9
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playback, Ongoing callInput: Short or long press
Output: Increases the system or headset volume
CHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0EA
Kernel key:
Android key:
Media playback, Ongoing callInput: Short or long press
Output: Decreases the system or headset volume
DHID usage page: 0x0C
HID usage: 0x0CF
Kernel key:
Android key:
All. Can be triggered in any instance.Input: Short or long press
Output: Launch voice command
  • [7.8.2.2/H-1-2] MUST trigger ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG upon a plug insert, but only after the USB audio interfaces and endpoints have been properly enumerated in order to identify the type of terminal connected.

When the USB audio terminal types 0x0302 is detected, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-2-1] MUST broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG with "microphone" extra set to 0.

When the USB audio terminal types 0x0402 is detected, they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-3-1] MUST broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG with "microphone" extra set to 1.

When API AudioManager.getDevices() is called while the USB peripheral is connected they:

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-1] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0302.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-2] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0402.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-3] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_HEADSET and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x0402.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-4] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x603.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-5] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x604.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-6] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSink() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x400.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-4-7] MUST list a device of type AudioDeviceInfo.TYPE_USB_DEVICE and role isSource() if the USB audio terminal type field is 0x400.

  • [7.8.2.2/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED upon connection of a USB-C audio peripheral, to perform enumeration of USB descriptors, identify terminal types and broadcast Intent ACTION_HEADSET_PLUG in less than 1000 milliseconds.

If Handheld device implementations declare and , they:

  • [5.6(#5_6_audio-latency)/H-1-1] MUST have a Mean Continuous Round-Trip latency of 800 milliseconds or less over 5 measurements, with a Mean Absolute Deviation less than 100 ms, over at least one supported path.

If Handheld device implementations include at least one haptic actuator, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD NOT use an eccentric rotating mass (ERM) haptic actuator (vibrator).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD position the placement of the actuator near the location where the device is typically held or touched by hands.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.view.HapticFeedbackConstants namely (CLOCK_TICK, CONTEXT_CLICK, KEYBOARD_PRESS, KEYBOARD_RELEASE, KEYBOARD_TAP, LONG_PRESS, TEXT_HANDLE_MOVE, VIRTUAL_KEY, VIRTUAL_KEY_RELEASE, CONFIRM, REJECT, GESTURE_START and GESTURE_END).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect namely (EFFECT_TICK, EFFECT_CLICK, EFFECT_HEAVY_CLICK and EFFECT_DOUBLE_CLICK) and all public constants for rich haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect.Composition namely (PRIMITIVE_CLICK and PRIMITIVE_TICK).
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD use these linked haptic constants mappings.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD follow quality assessment for [createOneShot()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/VibrationEffect#createOneShot(long,%20int)) and [createWaveform()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/VibrationEffect#createWaveform(long[],%20int)) API's.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD verify the capabilities for amplitude scalability by running [android.os.Vibrator.hasAmplitudeControl()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Vibrator#hasAmplitudeControl()).

A linear resonant actuator (LRA) is a single-mass spring system which has a dominant resonant frequency where the mass translates in the direction of desired motion.

If Handheld device implementations include at least one linear resonant actuator, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD move the haptic actuator in the X-axis of portrait orientation.

If Handheld device implementations have a haptic actuator which is X-axis linear resonant actuator (LRA), they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD have the resonant frequency of the X-axis LRA be under 200 Hz.

If handheld device implementations follow haptic constants mapping, they:

  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD verify the implementation status by running [android.os.Vibrator.areAllEffectsSupported()](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Vibrator#areAllEffectsSupported(int...)) and android.os.Vibrator.arePrimitvesSupported() API's.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD perform a quality assessment for haptic constants.
  • [7.10/H]* SHOULD provide fallback support to mitigate the risk of failure as described here.

2.2.2. Multimedia

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/H-0-1] AMR-NB
  • [5.1/H-0-2] AMR-WB
  • [5.1/H-0-3] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/H-0-4] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/H-0-5] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/H-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.2/H-0-2] VP8

Handheld device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.3/H-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.3/H-0-2] H.265 HEVC
  • [5.3/H-0-3] MPEG-4 SP
  • [5.3/H-0-4] VP8
  • [5.3/H-0-5] VP9

2.2.3. Software

Handheld device implementations:

  • [3.2.3.1/H-0-1] MUST have an application that handles the , , , and intents as described in the SDK documents, and provide the user affordance to access the document provider data by using API.
  • [3.2.3.1/H-0-2]* MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.
  • [3.2.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload an email application which can handle ACTION_SENDTO or ACTION_SEND or ACTION_SEND_MULTIPLE intents to send an email.
  • [3.4.1/H-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.
  • [3.4.2/H-0-1] MUST include a standalone Browser application for general user web browsing.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement a default launcher that supports in-app pinning of shortcuts, widgets and widgetFeatures.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement a default launcher that provides quick access to the additional shortcuts provided by third-party apps through the ShortcutManager API.
  • [3.8.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a default launcher app that shows badges for the app icons.
  • [3.8.2/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support third-party app widgets.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-1] MUST allow third-party apps to notify users of notable events through the and API classes.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-2] MUST support rich notifications.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-3] MUST support heads-up notifications.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-4] MUST include a notification shade, providing the user the ability to directly control (e.g. reply, snooze, dismiss, block) the notifications through user affordance such as action buttons or the control panel as implemented in the AOSP.
  • [3.8.3/H-0-5] MUST display the choices provided through in the notification shade.
  • [3.8.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display the first choice provided through in the notification shade without additional user interaction.
  • [3.8.3/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display all the choices provided through in the notification shade when the user expands all notifications in the notification shade.
  • [3.8.3.1/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to display actions for which is set as in-line with the replies displayed by .
  • [3.8.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

If Handheld device implementations support Assist action, they:

  • [3.8.4/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to use long press on key as the designated interaction to launch the assist app as described in section 7.2.3. MUST launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements , or an activity handling the intent.

If Handheld device implementations support and group them into a separate section from alerting and silent non-conversation notifications, they:

  • [3.8.4/H-1-1]* MUST display conversation notifications ahead of non conversation notifications with the exception of ongoing foreground service notifications and importance:high notifications.

If Android Handheld device implementations support a lock screen, they:

  • [3.8.10/H-1-1] MUST display the Lock screen Notifications including the Media Notification Template.

If Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [3.9/H-1-1] MUST implement the full range of device administration policies defined in the Android SDK documentation.
  • [3.9/H-1-2] MUST declare the support of managed profiles via the feature flag, except when the device is configured so that it would report itself as a low RAM device or so that it allocates internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage.

If Handheld device implementations include support for and APIs and allow third-party applications to publish , then they:

  • [3.8.16/H-1-1] MUST declare the feature flag and set it to .
  • [3.8.16/H-1-2] MUST provide a user affordance with the ability to add, edit, select, and operate the user’s favorite device controls from the controls registered by the third-party applications through the and the APIs.
  • [3.8.16/H-1-3] MUST provide access to this user affordance within three interactions from a default Launcher.
  • [3.8.16/H-1-4] MUST accurately render in this user affordance the name and icon of each third-party app that provides controls via the API as well as any specified fields provided by the APIs.

Conversely, If Handheld device implementations do not implement such controls, they:

Handheld device implementations:

  • [3.10/H-0-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.
  • [3.11/H-0-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.
  • [3.11/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.
  • [3.13/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a Quick Settings UI component.

If Android handheld device implementations declare or support, they:

  • [3.16/H-1-1] MUST support the companion device pairing feature.

If the navigation function is provided as an on-screen, gesture-based action:

  • [7.2.3/H] The gesture recognition zone for the Home function SHOULD be no higher than 32 dp in height from the bottom of the screen.

If Handheld device implementations provide a navigation function as a gesture from anywhere on the left and right edges of the screen:

  • [7.2.3/H-0-1] The navigation function's gesture area MUST be less than 40 dp in width on each side. The gesture area SHOULD be 24 dp in width by default.

If Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen and have greater than or equal to 2GB of memory available to the kernel and userspace, they:

  • [3.9/H-1-2] MUST declare the support of managed profiles via the feature flag.

2.2.4. Performance and Power

  • [8.1/H-0-1] Consistent frame latency. Inconsistent frame latency or a delay to render frames MUST NOT happen more often than 5 frames in a second, and SHOULD be below 1 frames in a second.
  • [8.1/H-0-2] User interface latency. Device implementations MUST ensure low latency user experience by scrolling a list of 10K list entries as defined by the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) in less than 36 secs.
  • [8.1/H-0-3] Task switching. When multiple applications have been launched, re-launching an already-running application after it has been launched MUST take less than 1 second.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [8.2/H-0-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 5 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 0.5 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 15 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-0-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 3.5 MB/s.

If Handheld device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/H-1-1] MUST provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.
  • [8.3/H-1-2] MUST provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [8.4/H-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/H-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/H-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/H-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.
  • [8.4/H] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.

If Handheld device implementations include a screen or video output, they:

2.2.5. Security Model

Handheld device implementations:

  • [9.1/H-0-1] MUST allow third-party apps to access the usage statistics via the permission and provide a user-accessible mechanism to grant or revoke access to such apps in response to the intent.

Handheld device implementations:

  • [9.11/H-0-2] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/H-0-3] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA, and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/H-0-4] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/H-0-5] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/H-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

When Handheld device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [9.11/H-1-1] MUST allow the user to choose the shortest sleep timeout, that is a transition time from the unlocked to the locked state, as 15 seconds or less.
  • [9.11/H-1-2] MUST provide user affordance to hide notifications and disable all forms of authentication except for the primary authentication described in 9.11.1 Secure Lock Screen. The AOSP meets the requirement as lockdown mode.

If Handheld device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/H-2-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Handheld device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/H-3-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

Android, through the System API VoiceInteractionService supports a mechanism for secure always-on hotword detection without mic access indication

If Handheld device implementations support the System API or a another mechanism for hotword detection without mic access indication, they:

  • [9.8/H-1-1] MUST make sure the hotword detection service can only transmit data to the System or ContentCaptureService
  • [9.8/H-1-2] MUST make sure the hotword detection service can only transmit mic audio data or data derived from it to the system server through API, or to through API.
  • [9.8/H-1-3] MUST NOT supply mic audio that is longer than 30 seconds for an individual hardware-triggered request to the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-4] MUST NOT supply buffered mic audio older than 8 seconds for an individual request to the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-5] MUST NOT supply buffered mic audio older than 30 seconds to the voice interaction service or similar entity.
  • [9.8/H-1-6] MUST NOT allow more than 100 bytes of data to be transmitted out of the hotword detection service on each successful hotword result.
  • [9.8/H-1-7] MUST NOT allow more than 5 bits of data to be transmitted out of the hotword detection service on each negative hotword result.
  • [9.8/H-1-8] MUST only allow transmission of data out of the hotword detection service on a hotword validation request from the system server.
  • [9.8/H-1-9] MUST NOT allow a user-installable application to provide the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-10] MUST NOT surface in the UI quantitative data about mic usage by the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-1-11] MUST log the number of bytes included in every transmission from the hotword detection service to allow inspectability for security researchers.
  • [9.8/H-1-12] MUST support a debug mode that logs raw contents of every transmission from the hotword detection service to allow inspectability for security researchers.
  • [9.8/H-1-13] MUST restart the process hosting the hotword detection service at least once every hour or every 30 hardware-trigger events, whichever comes first.
  • [9.8/H-1-14] MUST display the microphone indicator, as required in [9.8/C-3-1], when a successful hotword result is transmitted to the voice interaction service or similar entity.
  • [9.8/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to notify users before setting an application as the provider of the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to disallow the transmission of unstructured data out of the hotword detection service.

If device implementations include an application that uses the System API , or similar mechanism for hotword detection without mic usage indication, the application:

  • [9.8/H-2-1] MUST provide explicit notice to the user for each hotword phrase supported.
  • [9.8/H-2-2] MUST NOT preserve raw audio data, or data derived from it, through the hotword detection service.
  • [9.8/H-2-3] MUST NOT transmit from the hotword detection service, audio data, data that can be used to reconstruct (wholly or partially) the audio, or audio contents unrelated to the hotword itself, except to the .

If Handheld device implementations declare , they:

  • [9.8.2/H-4-1] MUST display the microphone indicator when an app is accessing audio data from the microphone, but not when the microphone is only accessed by , , or apps holding the roles called out in section 9.1 with CDD identifier [C-4-X]. .
  • [9.8.2/H-4-2] MUST display the list of Recent and Active apps using microphone as returned from , along with any attribution messages associated with them.
  • [9.8.2/H-4-3] MUST not hide the microphone indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.
  • [9.8.2/H-4-4] MUST display the list of Recent and Active apps using the microphone as returned from , along with any attribution messages associated with them.

If Handheld device implementations declare , they:

  • [9.8.2/H-5-1] MUST display the camera indicator when an app is accessing live camera data, but not when the camera is only being accessed by app(s) holding the roles called out in section 9.1 with CDD identifier [C-4-X].
  • [9.8.2/H-5-2] MUST display Recent and Active apps using camera as returned from , along with any attribution messages associated with them.
  • [9.8.2/H-5-3] MUST not hide the camera indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

2.2.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Handheld device implementations (* Not applicable for Tablet):

  • [6.1/H-0-1]* MUST support the shell command .

Handheld device implementations (* Not applicable for Tablet):

  • Perfetto
    • [6.1/H-0-2]* MUST expose a binary to the shell user which cmdline complies with the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-3]* The perfetto binary MUST accept as input a protobuf config that complies with the schema defined in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-4]* The perfetto binary MUST write as output a protobuf trace that complies with the schema defined in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-5]* MUST provide, through the perfetto binary, at least the data sources described in the perfetto documentation.
    • [6.1/H-0-6]* The perfetto traced daemon MUST be enabled by default (system property ).

2.2.7. Handheld Media Performance Class

See Section 7.11 for the definition of media performance class.

2.2.7.1. Media

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [5.1/H-1-1] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-2] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps.
  • [5.1/H-1-3] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-4] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video encoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps.
  • [5.1/H-1-5] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder and decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-6] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder and hardware video encoder sessions (AVC or HEVC) in any codec combination running concurrently at [email protected] fps resolution.
  • [5.1/H-1-7] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 65 ms or less for a 1080p or smaller video encoding session for all hardware video encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.1/H-1-8] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 50 ms or less for a 128 kbps or lower bitrate audio encoding session for all audio encoders when under load.Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.3/H-1-1] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds (i.e less than 0.333 percent frame drop) for a 1080p 30 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.3/H-1-2] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds during a video resolution change in a 30 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128Kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a tap-to-tone latency of less than 100 milliseconds using the OboeTester tap-to-tone test or CTS Verifier tap-to-tone test.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [5.1/H-1-1] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-2] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] fps. *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-3] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-4] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video encoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 720p [email protected] *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-5] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder and decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the and methods.
  • [5.1/H-1-6] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder and hardware video encoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9* or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at [email protected] resolution. *Only 2 instances are required if VP9 codec is present.
  • [5.1/H-1-7] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 50 ms or less for a 1080p or smaller video encoding session for all hardware video encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.1/H-1-8] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 40 ms or less for a 128 kbps or lower bitrate audio encoding session for all audio encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
  • [5.3/H-1-1] MUST NOT drop more than 2 frames in 10 seconds (i.e less than 0.333 percent frame drop) for a 1080p 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.3/H-1-2] MUST NOT drop more than 2 frames in 10 seconds during a video resolution change in a 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
  • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a tap-to-tone latency of less than 100 milliseconds using the OboeTester tap-to-tone test or CTS Verifier tap-to-tone test.

2.2.7.2. Camera

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.5/H-1-1] MUST have a primary rear facing camera with a resolution of at least 12 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary rear-facing camera is the rear-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-2] MUST have a primary front facing camera with a resolution of at least 4 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary front-facing camera is the front-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-3] MUST support android.info.supportedHardwareLevel property as FULL or better for back primary and LIMITED or better for front primary camera.
  • [7.5/H-1-4] MUST support CameraMetadata.SENSOR_INFO_TIMESTAMP_SOURCE_REALTIME for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-5] MUST have camera2 JPEG capture latency < 1000ms for 1080p resolution as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-6] MUST have camera2 startup latency (open camera to first preview frame) < 600ms as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.5/H-1-1] MUST have a primary rear facing camera with a resolution of at least 12 megapixels supporting video capture at [email protected] The primary rear-facing camera is the rear-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-2] MUST have a primary front facing camera with a resolution of at least 5 megapixels and support video capture at [email protected] The primary front-facing camera is the front-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
  • [7.5/H-1-3] MUST support property as or better for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-4] MUST support for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-5] MUST have camera2 JPEG capture latency < 1000 ms for 1080p resolution as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-6] MUST have camera2 startup latency (open camera to first preview frame) < 500 ms as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-7] For apps targeting API level 31 or higher, the camera device MUST NOT support JPEG capture resolutions smaller than 1080p for both primary cameras.
  • [7.5/H-1-8] MUST support and for the primary back camera.

2.2.7.3. Hardware

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-1-1] MUST have screen resolution of at least 1080p.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-1-1] MUST have screen density of at least 400 dpi.
  • [7.6.1/H-1-1] MUST have at least 6 GB of physical memory.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [7.1.1.1/H-2-1] MUST have screen resolution of at least 1080p.
  • [7.1.1.3/H-2-1] MUST have screen density of at least 400 dpi.
  • [7.6.1/H-2-1] MUST have at least 6 GB of physical memory.

2.2.7.4. Performance

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [8.2/H-1-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 100 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 10 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 200 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-1-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 25 MB/s.

If Handheld device implementations return for , then they:

  • [8.2/H-2-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 125 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 10 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 250 MB/s.
  • [8.2/H-2-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 40 MB/s.

2.3. Television Requirements

An Android Television device refers to an Android device implementation that is an entertainment interface for consuming digital media, movies, games, apps, and/or live TV for users sitting about ten feet away (a “lean back” or “10-foot user interface”).

Android device implementations are classified as a Television if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have provided a mechanism to remotely control the rendered user interface on the display that might sit ten feet away from the user.
  • Have an embedded screen display with the diagonal length larger than 24 inches OR include a video output port, such as VGA, HDMI, DisplayPort, or a wireless port for display.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Television device implementations.

2.3.1. Hardware

Television device implementations:

  • [7.2.2/T-0-1] MUST support D-pad.
  • [7.2.3/T-0-1] MUST provide the Home and Back functions.
  • [7.2.3/T-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application.
  • [7.2.6.1/T-0-1] MUST include support for game controllers and declare the feature flag.
  • [7.2.7/T] SHOULD provide a remote control from which users can access non-touch navigation and core navigation keys inputs.

If Television device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/T-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/T-1-2] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Television device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/T-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE.
  • [7.6.1/T-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

If Television device implementations include a USB port that supports host mode, they:

  • [7.5.3/T-1-1] MUST include support for an external camera that connects through this USB port but is not necessarily always connected.

If TV device implementations are 32-bit:

  • [7.6.1/T-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens

If TV device implementations are 64-bit:

  • [7.6.1/T-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

Television device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/T] SHOULD include a microphone.
  • [7.8.2/T-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

2.3.2. Multimedia

Television device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/T-0-1] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/T-0-2] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/T-0-3] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Television device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/T-0-1] H.264
  • [5.2/T-0-2] VP8

Television device implementations:

  • [5.2.2/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support H.264 encoding of 720p and 1080p resolution videos at 30 frames per second.

Television device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

Television device implementations MUST support MPEG-2 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.1, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.1/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 59.94 frames per second with Main Profile High Level.
  • [5.3.1/T-1-2] HD 1080i at 59.94 frames per second with Main Profile High Level. They MUST deinterlace interlaced MPEG-2 video and make it available to third-party applications.

Television device implementations MUST support H.264 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.4, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.4/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Baseline Profile
  • [5.3.4/T-1-2] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Main Profile
  • [5.3.4/T-1-3] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with High Profile Level 4.2

Television device implementations with H.265 hardware decoders MUST support H.265 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.5, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.5/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with Main Profile Level 4.1

If Television device implementations with H.265 hardware decoders support H.265 decoding and the UHD decoding profile, they:

  • [5.3.5/T-2-1] MUST support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with Main10 Level 5 Main Tier profile

Television device implementations MUST support VP8 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.6, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.6/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second decoding profile

Television device implementations with VP9 hardware decoders MUST support VP9 decoding, as detailed in Section 5.3.7, at standard video frame rates and resolutions up to and including:

  • [5.3.7/T-1-1] HD 1080p at 60 frames per second with profile 0 (8 bit color depth)

If Television device implementations with VP9 hardware decoders support VP9 decoding and the UHD decoding profile, they:

  • [5.3.7/T-2-1] MUST support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with profile 0 (8 bit color depth).
  • [5.3.7/T-2-1] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support the UHD decoding profile at 60 frames per second with profile 2 (10 bit color depth).

Television device implementations:

  • [5.5/T-0-1] MUST include support for system Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs, except for compressed audio passthrough output (where no audio decoding is done on the device).

If Television device implementations do not have a built in display, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-0-1] MUST set the HDMI output mode to select the maximum resolution that can be supported with either a 50Hz or 60Hz refresh rate.
  • [5.8/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide a user configurable HDMI refresh rate selector.
  • [5.8] SHOULD set the HDMI output mode refresh rate to either 50Hz or 60Hz, depending on the video refresh rate for the region the device is sold in.

If Television device implementations do not have a built in display, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-1-1] MUST support HDCP 2.2.

If Television device implementations do not support UHD decoding, but instead support an external display connected via HDMI, they:

  • [5.8/T-2-1] MUST support HDCP 1.4

2.3.3. Software

Television device implementations:

  • [3/T-0-1] MUST declare the features and .
  • [3.2.3.1/T-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.
  • [3.4.1/T-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.

If Android Television device implementations support a lock screen,they:

  • [3.8.10/T-1-1] MUST display the Lock screen Notifications including the Media Notification Template.

Television device implementations:

  • [3.8.14/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support picture-in-picture (PIP) mode multi-window.
  • [3.10/T-0-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.

If Television device implementations report the feature , they:

  • [3.11/T-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.
  • [3.11/T-1-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.

Television device implementations:

  • [3.12/T-0-1] MUST support TV Input Framework.

2.3.4. Performance and Power

  • [8.1/T-0-1] Consistent frame latency. Inconsistent frame latency or a delay to render frames MUST NOT happen more often than 5 frames in a second, and SHOULD be below 1 frames in a second.
  • [8.2/T-0-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 5MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 0.5MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 15MB/s.
  • [8.2/T-0-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 3.5MB/s.

If Television device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/T-1-1] MUST provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.

If Television device implementations do not have a battery they:

If Television device implementations have a battery they:

  • [8.3/T-1-3] MUST provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.

Television device implementations:

  • [8.4/T-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/T-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/T-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/T] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.
  • [8.4/T-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.

2.3.5. Security Model

Television device implementations:

  • [9.11/T-0-1] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/T-0-2] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/T-0-3] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/T-0-4] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/T-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

If Television device implementations support a secure lock screen, they:

  • [9.11/T-1-1] MUST allow the user to choose the Sleep timeout for transition from the unlocked to the locked state, with a minimum allowable timeout up to 15 seconds or less.

If Television device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/T-2-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Television device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/T-3-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

If Television device implementations declare , they:

  • [[9.8.2/T-4-1] MUST display the microphone indicator when an app is accessing audio data from the microphone, but not when the microphone is only accessed by HotwordDetectionService, SOURCE_HOTWORD, ContentCaptureService, or apps holding the roles called out in Section 9.1 Permissions with CDD identifier C-3-X].
  • [[9.8.2/T-4-2] MUST not hide the microphone indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

If Television device implementations declare , they:

  • [[9.8.2/T-5-1] MUST display the camera indicator when an app is accessing live camera data, but not when the camera is only being accessed by app(s) holding the roles called out in Section 9.1 Permissions with CDD identifier [C-3-X].
  • [[9.8.2/T-5-2] MUST not hide the camera indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

2.3.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Television device implementations:

2.4. Watch Requirements

An Android Watch device refers to an Android device implementation intended to be worn on the body, perhaps on the wrist.

Android device implementations are classified as a Watch if they meet all the following criteria:

  • Have a screen with the physical diagonal length in the range from 1.1 to 2.5 inches.
  • Have a mechanism provided to be worn on the body.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Watch device implementations.

2.4.1. Hardware

Watch device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/W-0-1] MUST have a screen with the physical diagonal size in the range from 1.1 to 2.5 inches.

  • [7.2.3/W-0-1] MUST have the Home function available to the user, and the Back function except for when it is in .

  • [7.2.4/W-0-1] MUST support touchscreen input.

  • [7.3.1/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a 3-axis accelerometer.

If Watch device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver and report the capability to applications through the feature flag, they:

  • [7.3.3/W-1-1] MUST report GNSS measurements, as soon as they are found, even if a location calculated from GPS/GNSS is not yet reported.
  • [7.3.3/W-1-2] MUST report GNSS pseudoranges and pseudorange rates, that, in open-sky conditions after determining the location, while stationary or moving with less than 0.2 meter per second squared of acceleration, are sufficient to calculate position within 20 meters, and speed within 0.2 meters per second, at least 95% of the time.

If Watch device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/W-2-1] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 1000 degrees per second.

Watch device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/W-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth.

  • [7.6.1/W-0-1] MUST have at least 1 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

  • [7.6.1/W-0-2] MUST have at least 416 MB memory available to the kernel and userspace.

  • [7.8.1/W-0-1] MUST include a microphone.

  • [7.8.2/W] MAY have audio output.

2.4.2. Multimedia

No additional requirements.

2.4.3. Software

Watch device implementations:

  • [3/W-0-1] MUST declare the feature .
  • [3/W-0-2] MUST support uiMode = UI_MODE_TYPE_WATCH.
  • [3.2.3.1/W-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.

Watch device implementations:

  • [3.8.4/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

Watch device implementations that declare the feature flag:

  • [3.10/W-1-1] MUST support third-party accessibility services.
  • [3.10/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to preload accessibility services on the device comparable with or exceeding functionality of the Switch Access and TalkBack (for languages supported by the preinstalled Text-to-speech engine) accessibility services as provided in the talkback open source project.

If Watch device implementations report the feature android.hardware.audio.output, they:

  • [3.11/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device.

  • [3.11/W-0-1] MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.

2.4.4. Performance and Power

If Watch device implementations include features to improve device power management that are included in AOSP or extend the features that are included in AOSP, they:

  • [8.3/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide user affordance to display all apps that are exempted from App Standby and Doze power-saving modes.
  • [8.3/W-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide user affordance to enable and disable the battery saver feature.

Watch device implementations:

  • [8.4/W-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/W-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/W-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/W-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.
  • [8.4/W] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.

2.4.5. Security Model

Watch device implementations:

  • [9/H-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

If Watch device implementations include multiple users and do not declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/W-1-1] MUST support restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments.

If Watch device implementations include multiple users and declare the feature flag, they:

  • [9.5/W-2-1] MUST NOT support restricted profiles but MUST align with the AOSP implementation of controls to enable /disable other users from accessing the voice calls and SMS.

2.5. Automotive Requirements

Android Automotive implementation refers to a vehicle head unit running Android as an operating system for part or all of the system and/or infotainment functionality.

Android device implementations are classified as an Automotive if they declare the feature or meet all the following criteria.

  • Are embedded as part of, or pluggable to, an automotive vehicle.
  • Are using a screen in the driver's seat row as the primary display.

The additional requirements in the rest of this section are specific to Android Automotive device implementations.

2.5.1. Hardware

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.1.1.1/A-0-1] MUST have a screen at least 6 inches in physical diagonal size.
  • [7.1.1.1/A-0-2] MUST have a screen size layout of at least 750 dp x 480 dp.

  • [7.2.3/A-0-1] MUST provide the Home function and MAY provide Back and Recent functions.

  • [7.2.3/A-0-2] MUST send both the normal and long press event of the Back function () to the foreground application.

  • [7.3/A-0-1] MUST implement and report , , and .

  • [7.3/A-0-2] The value of the flag MUST be consistent with dashboard day/night mode and SHOULD be based on ambient light sensor input. The underlying ambient light sensor MAY be the same as Photometer.

  • [7.3/A-0-3] MUST provide sensor additional info field as part of SensorAdditionalInfo for every sensor provided.

  • [7.3/A-0-1] MAY dead reckon Location by fusing GPS/GNSS with additional sensors. If Location is dead reckoned, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement and report the corresponding Sensor types and/or Vehicle Property IDs used.

  • [7.3/A-0-2] The Location requested via LocationManager#requestLocationUpdates() MUST NOT be map matched.

If Automotive device implementations support OpenGL ES 3.1, they:

  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-1] MUST declare OpenGL ES 3.1 or higher.
  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-2] MUST support Vulkan 1.1.
  • [7.1.4.1/A-0-3] MUST include Vulkan loader and export all symbols.

If Automotive device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

If Automotive device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

  • [7.3.4/A-2-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
  • [7.3.4/A-2-3] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 250 degrees per second.
  • [7.3.4/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to configure the gyroscope’s measurement range to +/-250dps in order to maximize the resolution possible

If Automotive device implementations include a GPS/GNSS receiver, but do not include cellular network-based data connectivity, they:

  • [7.3.3/A-3-1] MUST determine location the very first time the GPS/GNSS receiver is turned on or after 4+ days within 60 seconds.
  • [7.3.3/A-3-2] MUST meet the time-to-first-fix criteria as described in 7.3.3/C-1-2 and 7.3.3/C-1-6 for all other location requests (i.e requests which are not the first time ever or after 4+ days). The requirement 7.3.3/C-1-2 is typically met in vehicles without cellular network-based data connectivity, by using GNSS orbit predictions calculated on the receiver, or using the last known vehicle location along with the ability to dead reckon for at least 60 seconds with a position accuracy satisfying 7.3.3/C-1-3, or a combination of both.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.4.3/A-0-1] MUST support Bluetooth and SHOULD support Bluetooth LE.
  • [7.4.3/A-0-2] Android Automotive implementations MUST support the following Bluetooth profiles:
    • Phone calling over Hands-Free Profile (HFP).
    • Media playback over Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP).
    • Media playback control over Remote Control Profile (AVRCP).
    • Contact sharing using the Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP).
  • [7.4.3/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support Message Access Profile (MAP).

  • [7.4.5/A] SHOULD include support for cellular network-based data connectivity.

  • [7.4.5/A] MAY use the System API constant for networks that should be available to system apps.

An exterior view camera is a camera that images scenes outside of the device implementation, like a dashcam.

Automotive device implementations:

  • SHOULD include one or more exterior view cameras.

If Automotive device implementations include an exterior view camera, for such a camera, they:

  • [7.5/A-1-1] MUST NOT have exterior view cameras accessible via the Android Camera APIs, unless they comply with camera core requirements.
  • [7.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED not to rotate or horizontally mirror the camera preview.
  • [7.5.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the horizon.
  • [7.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to have a resolution of at least 1.3 megapixels.
  • SHOULD have either fixed-focus or EDOF (extended depth of field) hardware.
  • SHOULD support Android Synchronization Framework.
  • MAY have either hardware auto-focus or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.6.1/A-0-1] MUST have at least 4 GB of non-volatile storage available for application private data (a.k.a. "/data" partition).

  • [7.6.1/A] SHOULD format the data partition to offer improved performance and longevity on flash storage, for example using file-system.

If Automotive device implementations provide shared external storage via a portion of the internal non-removable storage, they:

  • [7.6.1/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to reduce I/O overhead on operations performed on the external storage, for example by using .

If Automotive device implementations are 32-bit:

  • [7.6.1/A-1-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 512MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 280dpi or lower on small/normal screens
    • ldpi or lower on extra large screens
    • mdpi or lower on large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-2] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 608MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • xhdpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • hdpi or higher on large screens
    • mdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-3] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 896MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-1-4] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1344MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 560dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • 400dpi or higher on large screens
    • xhdpi or higher on extra large screens

If Automotive device implementations are 64-bit:

  • [7.6.1/A-2-1] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 816MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 280dpi or lower on small/normal screens
    • ldpi or lower on extra large screens
    • mdpi or lower on large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-2] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 944MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • xhdpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • hdpi or higher on large screens
    • mdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-3] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1280MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 400dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • xhdpi or higher on large screens
    • tvdpi or higher on extra large screens
  • [7.6.1/A-2-4] The memory available to the kernel and userspace MUST be at least 1824MB if any of the following densities are used:

    • 560dpi or higher on small/normal screens
    • 400dpi or higher on large screens
    • xhdpi or higher on extra large screens

Note that the "memory available to the kernel and userspace" above refers to the memory space provided in addition to any memory already dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that are not under the kernel’s control on device implementations.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.7.1/A] SHOULD include a USB port supporting peripheral mode.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.8.1/A-0-1] MUST include a microphone.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [7.8.2/A-0-1] MUST have an audio output and declare .

2.5.2. Multimedia

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following audio encoding and decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.1/A-0-1] MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC)
  • [5.1/A-0-2] MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)
  • [5.1/A-0-3] AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following video encoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.2/A-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.2/A-0-2] VP8

Automotive device implementations MUST support the following video decoding formats and make them available to third-party applications:

  • [5.3/A-0-1] H.264 AVC
  • [5.3/A-0-2] MPEG-4 SP
  • [5.3/A-0-3] VP8
  • [5.3/A-0-4] VP9

Automotive device implementations are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support the following video decoding:

2.5.3. Software

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3/A-0-1] MUST declare the feature .

  • [3/A-0-2] MUST support uiMode = .

  • [3/A-0-3] MUST support all public APIs in the namespace.

If Automotive device implementations provide a proprietary API using with , they:

  • [3/A-1-1] MUST NOT attach special privileges to system application's use of these properties, or prevent third-party applications from using these properties.
  • [3/A-1-2] MUST NOT replicate a vehicle property that already exists in the SDK.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.2.1/A-0-1] MUST support and enforce all permissions constants as documented by the Automotive Permission reference page.

  • [3.2.3.1/A-0-1] MUST preload one or more applications or service components with an intent handler, for all the public intent filter patterns defined by the following application intents listed here.

  • [3.4.1/A-0-1] MUST provide a complete implementation of the API.

  • [3.8.3/A-0-1] MUST display notifications that use the API when requested by third-party applications.

  • [3.8.4/A-SR] Are Strongly Recommended to implement an assistant on the device to handle the Assist action.

If Automotive device implementations include a push-to-talk button, they:

  • [3.8.4/A-1-1] MUST use a short press of the push-to-talk button as the designated interaction to launch the user-selected assist app, in other words the app that implements .

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.8.3.1/A-0-1] MUST correctly render resources as described in the SDK documentation.
  • [3.8.3.1/A-0-2] MUST display PLAY and MUTE for notification actions in the place of those provided through
  • [3.8.3.1/A] SHOULD restrict the use of rich management tasks such as per-notification-channel controls. MAY use UI affordance per application to reduce controls.

If Automotive device implementations support User HAL properties, they:

Automotive device implementations:

If Automotive device implementations include a default launcher app, they:

Automotive device implementations:

  • [3.8/A] MAY restrict the application requests to enter a full screen mode as described in .
  • [3.8/A] MAY keep the status bar and the navigation bar visible at all times.
  • [3.8/A] MAY restrict the application requests to change the colors behind the system UI elements, to ensure those elements are clearly visible at all times.

2.5.4. Performance and Power

Automotive device implementations:

  • [8.2/A-0-1] MUST report the number of bytes read and written to non-volatile storage per each process's UID so the stats are available to developers through System API . The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module.
  • [8.3/A-1-3] MUST support Garage Mode.
  • [8.3/A] SHOULD be in Garage Mode for at least 15 minutes after every drive unless:
    • The battery is drained.
    • No idle jobs are scheduled.
    • The driver exits Garage Mode.
  • [8.4/A-0-1] MUST provide a per-component power profile that defines the current consumption value for each hardware component and the approximate battery drain caused by the components over time as documented in the Android Open Source Project site.
  • [8.4/A-0-2] MUST report all power consumption values in milliampere hours (mAh).
  • [8.4/A-0-3] MUST report CPU power consumption per each process's UID. The Android Open Source Project meets the requirement through the kernel module implementation.
  • [8.4/A] SHOULD be attributed to the hardware component itself if unable to attribute hardware component power usage to an application.
  • [8.4/A-0-4] MUST make this power usage available via the shell command to the app developer.

2.5.5. Security Model

If Automotive device implementations support multiple users, they:

Automotive device implementations:

  • [9.11/A-0-1] MUST back up the keystore implementation with an isolated execution environment.
  • [9.11/A-0-2] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.
  • [9.11/A-0-3] MUST perform the lock screen authentication in the isolated execution environment and only when successful, allow the authentication-bound keys to be used. Lock screen credentials MUST be stored in a way that allows only the isolated execution environment to perform lock screen authentication. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides the Gatekeeper Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and Trusty, which can be used to satisfy this requirement.
  • [9.11/A-0-4] MUST support key attestation where the attestation signing key is protected by secure hardware and signing is performed in secure hardware. The attestation signing keys MUST be shared across large enough number of devices to prevent the keys from being used as device identifiers. One way of meeting this requirement is to share the same attestation key unless at least 100,000 units of a given SKU are produced. If more than 100,000 units of an SKU are produced, a different key MAY be used for each 100,000 units.
  • [9/A-0-1] MUST declare the ‘android.hardware.security.model.compatible’ feature.

Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment and support the key attestation, unless it declares the feature which requires a keystore backed by an isolated execution environment.

Automotive device implementations:

  • [9.14/A-0-1] MUST gatekeep messages from Android framework vehicle subsystems, e.g., whitelisting permitted message types and message sources.
  • [9.14/A-0-2] MUST watchdog against denial of service attacks from the Android framework or third-party apps. This guards against malicious software flooding the vehicle network with traffic, which may lead to malfunctioning vehicle subsystems.

2.5.6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

Automotive device implementations:

2.6. Tablet Requirements

An Android Tablet device refers to an Android device implementation that typically meets all the following criteria:

  • Used by holding in both hands.
  • Does not have a clamshell or convertible configuration.
  • Physical keyboard implementations used with the device connect by means of a standard connection (e.g. USB, Bluetooth).
  • Has a power source that provides mobility, such as a battery.

Tablet device implementations have similar requirements to handheld device implementations. The exceptions are indicated by an * in that section and noted for reference in this section.

2.6.1. Hardware

Screen Size

  • [7.1.1.1/Tab-0-1] MUST have a screen in the range of 7 to 18 inches.

** Gyroscope**

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Q: Can I purchase a license to run the Belarc Advisor on my corporate network, or my customer’s network?

We do not permit use of the Belarc Advisor for commercial purposes, however we suggest that you take a look at our products, which we do license for commercial use.

We offer some charitable organizations a license to use the Belarc Advisor at no cost, under certain conditions. Please send us information about your charity, a URL and the number of PCs and servers. Email: [email protected]
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Q: Will the Belarc Advisor send my PC profile information up to a web server?
No. The Belarc Advisor creates a local Web page, keeping your PC profile on your PC and does not send it to a web server, including Belarc’s server.

Belarc is able to personalize a web page to show you details of your computer without a web server by using technologies included in the Belarc Advisor.

Please let us know if you have any questions or how you feel about this issue by sending mail to [email protected]

Q: Must any previously installed Belarc Advisor be removed before installing a newer version?

No. The installer will automatically remove any previous Belarc Advisor version.

Q: When checking for new security definitions the Advisor gets an error. What can I do?

This is usually caused by a software firewall installed on your computer. Check the settings of your firewall for options that block or permit applications to connect to the Internet. If your firewall needs to allow specific programs access to the Internet, allowing the BelarcAdvisor.exe program should work. You’ll find BelarcAdvisor.exe in the C:\Program Files\Belarc\Advisor directory on your computer.

Q: The Advisor has installed and finished a discovery of my PC’s hardware and software, but I do not see any results.

This usually happens when the Windows file association, for the HTML file extension, is misconfigured on your computer. Most often, this is caused by trying out a new browser and then uninstalling it from your computer.

Here's how you can fix that.

On Windows 10, 8 or 7: Open Windows file explorer to the c:\Program Files (x86)\Belarc\BelarcAdvisor\System\tmp directory, or for 32-bit windows c:\Program Files\Belarc\BelarcAdvisor\System\tmp. Then right click on the file named (COMPUTERNAME).html, where COMPUTERNAME is the name of your PC. In the pop-up menu click Open with and then click Choose another app or Choose default program… in the Open with submenu. In the Open with dialog choose your preferred browser and check the Always use this app to open .html files or Use this app for all .html files checkbox. When you next run the Belarc Advisor the results will show in your browser.

On Windows Vista: Open Windows explorer to the c:\Program Files\Belarc\BelarcAdvisor\System\tmp directory, or for 64-bit windows c:\Program Files (x86)\Belarc\BelarcAdvisor\System\tmp. Then right click on the file named (COMPUTERNAME).html, where COMPUTERNAME is the name of your PC. In the pop-up menu click Properties. In the Properties dialog click the Change button next to Opens with:, then choose your preferred browser and click OK. When you next run the Belarc Advisor the results will show in your browser.

On Windows XP: Open the Folder Options windows control panel, and on the File Types tab select the HTML Document file type. Then click the Change… button, choose your preferred web browser, and click OK. When you next run the Belarc Advisor the results will show in your browser.

If that doesn’t work for you, open this file:

    c:\Program Files\Belarc\BelarcAdvisor\System\tmp\(COMPUTERNAME).html

(where COMPUTERNAME is the name of your PC) using the File

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