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Tuesday July 18 2017

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Men to be spared advert sexism THE ADVERTISING ARCHIVES

Andrew Ellson

Downtrodden men, salvation is upon you. You may not even realise that you are being oppressed, but soon you will be offered the same chance to be offended as everybody else. Deliverance comes in the unlikely form of the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), which will announce a crackdown today on gender stereotyping. No longer will advertisers be allowed to mock men’s inability to work a washing machine or get the children to school on time. Nor will they be able to suggest that men are more likely to take out the rubbish or start wars. Such misconceived notions “reinforce and perpetuate traditional gender roles” and lead to “suboptimal outcomes for individuals and groups in terms of their professional attainment and personal development”, according to the advertising watchdog. The guidance means that men will no longer have to tolerate advertisements that feature them “trying and failing to undertake simple parental or household tasks”, for example. In future, if the watchdog receives complaints about such adverts, it will have the power to ban them from being broadcast, printed or posted online. Adverts which imply that boys should not play with fairies or dress up as princesses are also likely to fall under the watchdog’s beady eye. “An ad that suggests a specific activity is inappropriate for boys because it is stereotypically associated with girls” would be “problematic”, according to the ASA’s report, Depictions, Perceptions and Harm, which is published today. The new rules will, of course, apply equally to adverts that seek to stereotype women or girls. Anything which suggests that it is a woman’s sole responsibility to tidy up after her family will be deemed unacceptable, the watchdog says. Some advertisers may be pleased to learn, however, that the new rules will not automatically ban them from “depicting a woman cleaning or a man doing DIY”. Context and content will be the key considerations, the ASA says. Guy Parker, chief executive of the watchdog, explained: “Portrayals

A fight against stereotypes . . . or free speech Behind the story

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he Advertising Standards Authority says that the UK is behind most developed countries in banning harmful stereotypes in advertising (Lizzy Burden writes). Of the 28 countries it examined, 24 restrict gender stereotypes through legislation or regulatory bodies. In most of Europe, gender stereotyping is policed and offending adverts banned although a notable exception is Sweden, which does not have any legislation dealing with gender discriminatory advertisements. Past proposals for legislation banning sexist advertising in the country have been rejected by the Swedish government on the ground that they conflict with freedom of expression, including freedom of the press. Last month, a suburb of Berlin proposed a ban on billboards portraying women as sexually available or “weak, hysterical or dumb”. In Australia, the Advertising Standards Board considers adverts where men or women are portrayed as generally inferior to the other sex and/or their role belittled or criticised in a derogatory manner as unacceptable. However, America does not have a strict regime regulating advertising. This is because of the great protection afforded to freedom of speech under its constitution.

Women have often been confined to domestic roles in ads whereas men are shown as incompetent

which reinforce outdated and stereotypical views on gender roles in society can play their part in driving unfair outcomes for people. “While advertising is only one of many factors that contribute to unequal gender outcomes, tougher advertising standards can play an important role in tackling inequalities and improving outcomes for individuals, the economy and society as a whole.” Ella Smillie, the author of the ASA’s report, added: “Our review shows that specific forms of gender stereotypes in

They really said that . . . Oven Pride 2011 A woman looks to the camera and says: “So easy even a man can do it” Somerfield 2009 A woman shopper looks at a cashier after her husband forgets to buy tonic and sighs: “What are they like?” Aptamil 2014 Baby milk powder advert featured girls who became ballerinas and boys who became engineers

ads can contribute to harm for adults and children. Such portrayals can limit how people see themselves, how others see them, and limit the life decisions they take. “Tougher standards in the areas we’ve identified will address harms and ensure that modern society is better represented.” The new rules follow a series of adverts that have sought to mock men and their Neanderthal tendencies. In 2014 an advert for Oven Pride claimed their product was so easy to use that “even a man can do it” and in 2011 an advert for KFC suggested that a

father was so remorselessly thick that he was incapable of understanding the merits of a huge bucket of fried chicken. The watchdog concedes that not all advertisers are thrilled with the new rules, which are likely to come into force next year. The report notes: “Those who were less supportive of change spoke of the philosophical ‘right to offend’ or their preference for less regulation and space for market forces to develop.” It did not clarify whether those dissenting voices were expressed only by men but, either way, it chose to ignore them.


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Rare butterfly caterpillars stolen from nature reserve Ben Webster Environment Editor

Police are investigating a case of caterpillar rustling that has threatened the population of one of Britain’s rarest and most beautiful butterflies. Five milk parsley plants that had swallowtail butterfly caterpillars feeding on them were uprooted and stolen from a nature reserve at Hickling Broad in Norfolk. Norfolk Wildlife Trust, which owns the reserve, said that the plants had been removed from the site two weeks ago to acquire the caterpillars. The swallowtail is Britain’s largest native butterfly, with a wingspan of up to 9cm, and is only found in the wild in the fens of the Norfolk Broads. It is prized by some butterfly collectors and the trust said it was possible the plants had been stolen so that the swallowtails could be killed and added to collections. Milk parsley is a scarce and declining internationally protected plant found mainly in East Anglian marshland and is also the only plant on which the swallowtail will feed. Brendan Joyce, the trust’s chief exec-

utive, said: “This is an appalling wildlife crime to dig up these rare plants from an internationally important nature reserve and deliberately take rare swallowtail butterfly caterpillars. “Britain’s vulnerable wildlife faces enough challenges without people callously exploiting precious plants and animals for commercial or personal gain. It is very unlikely that the plants or the caterpillars will survive for any significant amount of time away from the reserve.” Prosecutions for the illegal removal of butterflies or caterpillars are rare but in April a collector was given a six-month suspended prison sentence and ordered to carry out 250 hours of unpaid work for capturing and killing large blues, Britain’s rarest butterfly. Phillip Cullen, 57, an amateur entomologist, was caught after being spotted acting suspiciously at two nature reserves in Somerset and Gloucestershire in 2015. Bristol magistrates were told that there was an illegal market for large blues, which sold for up to £300 per butterfly when mounted

TMS

[email protected] Tuesday July 18 2017

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Class of 2017 dumber than Victorians GETTY IMAGES

Oliver Moody Science Correspondent

Bright sparks

Archimedes could string a number or two together and Homer was fairly handy with a hexameter, but on the whole their contemporaries were probably a little less intelligent than people today, according to a controversial study. Mankind has evolved to become slightly brighter over the past few millennia thanks to circumstances that have favoured the survival of the sharpest, researchers argue. We should not get too smug, though. The inherited part of mental ability — which accounts for roughly half of the difference between individuals — may well have weakened again since the Victorian era, the academics say. An international team led by Michael Woodley, of the Free University in Brussels, claims that the emergence of farming, cities and systems of government would have made it easier for smooth operators such as Odysseus to pass on their genes than for musclebound plodders such as Ajax. Even if the decks were very marginally stacked towards clever people having more children than stupid people, over many centuries this effect might add up to a shift in population-level genetics. To test their idea, Dr Woodley and his colleagues used a bank of genomes recovered from the remains of 99 people from central and eastern Europe. The oldest of these died in about 2,000BC, at the start of the Bronze Age, while the latest was from the seventh century AD. Comparing these against the DNA of 503 modern Europeans, the researchers found that the mutations linked to higher general cognitive ability (GCA), which enables people to solve problems across a range of different modes of thinking, had become more common as time went by. The results were confirmed in a separate analysis of the genes of 66 more ancient people who had lived across 3,200 years. Dr Woodley has previously argued that the genes driving intelligence may have become less common since the 19th century as advances in medicine and nutrition have allowed

Robert Stephenson Robert Stephenson, left, became known as the greatest engineer of the 19th century. Born in in 1803, he developed the steam locomotive Rocket. By 1850 he had been involved in the construction of a third of the country’s railways. Cha Charles Darwin Ag geologist by training, D Darwin identified the m most important m mechanism in m modern biology: n natural selection. Ab Above his first ten tentative sketch of the tree o of life are two words whose ccareful scepticism has been the guiding guid spirit of science ever since: “I think.” Ada Lovelace Byron’s only legitimate child worked with Charles Babbage, one of the fathers of computing, on plans for an “analytical engine” that could perform calculations. Lovelace, below, who died in 1852, is credited with writing the first algorithm and recognising that computers that could do more than simply crunch numbers.

The Victorians had Dickens, we have Love Island

people with lower IQs to have more children who survived into adulthood. As a result, his team suggests that the “millennia-long microevolutionary trend favouring higher GCA” may have gone into reverse over the course of the 20th century. Their conclusions are likely to be hotly disputed. The extent to which humans are still subject to the same evolutionary pressures that Darwin saw in the animals of the Galapagos is moot. While some mutations, such as the lactase persistence gene, which allows us to drink milk and eat cheese in adulthood, have spread widely over the past 10,000 years, there are relatively few such clear-cut examples — especially in the field of intelligence, which is influenced in a small way by many hundreds of genes. Dr Woodley and another of the paper’s four authors have backgrounds in plant biology, while a third, Davide Piffer, has previously asserted that Africans are genetically disposed to have lower IQs than Europeans. The paper, which was released on bioRxiv, a website for early-stage research, has yet to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Neil Pendleton, professor of medical gerontology at the University of Manchester, who has previously worked on the genetics of human intelligence but was not involved in this study, said that the findings were an “interesting observation”. “The methods are acceptable and the proposal has some evidence: that if the same common genetic variance we can detect for modern humans had the same effect in early figures, then it would seem there is an enrichment for these in the historical period transition,” he said. James Thompson, honorary senior lecturer in psychology at University College London, said that the study appeared to show a long-term upward movement in the biological basis for intelligence, although it was not yet clear how big the difference had been. “If we had been caught in our Victorian prime, our rise in ability since the pre-agricultural, hunter-gatherer ages would have been even more apparent,” he wrote in a blog post. “Selection is the key. When you must use your wits to survive, and restrain present urges for future gains, then the brighter multiply. When, in less taxing circumstances, there is no particular need for wit or restraint, then there is no premium for those characteristics.”

Ex-Doctor defends latest incarnation Sheeran cameo upsets Game of Thrones fans Jack Malvern

The actor Colin Baker has hit out at the “very sad” reaction from some Doctor Who fans to the casting of Jodie Whittaker as the new Doctor. Baker, 74, who had the role between 1984 and 1986, said that he was surprised by those who opposed it being played by a woman. “Cannot deny that I am amazed by the ‘never watch it again’ reaction by some viewers (I hesitate to call them ‘fans’). Very sad,” he tweeted. He also wrote: “To those making ‘parking the Tardis’ jokes — name me one male Doctor who was unfailingly good at that!” Whittaker, 35, will take over from Peter Capaldi to become the 13th incarnation of the Time Lord during a special episode on Christmas Day. Baker had called for a woman to play

the role in the 1990s, when he suggested Joanna Lumley as the ideal candidate. His wish briefly came true in a sketch for Comic Relief in 1999, which was written by Steven Moffat, who went on to become the programme’s creative Jodie Whittaker is the first woman to play the Doctor

head in 2009. This year’s Christmas special will be his last episode in charge. Tom Baker, who played the Doctor from 1974 to 1981, caused a national debate when he announced his retirement from the role with the words: “I certainly wish my successor luck

whoever he — or she — might be.” Moffat has laid the groundwork for the Doctor to regenerate as a woman. Characters have discussed the fact that another Time Lord, the Corsair, had been incarnated as a woman “a couple of times”. Moffat cast Michelle Gomez as Missy, a Time Lord who was previously known as the Master and played by men. He also cast the actress T’Nia Miller as the General, a Time Lord who was previously a man. Sylvester McCoy, who played the Doctor from 1987 to 1989, tweeted: “Congratulations Jodie Whittaker!!!! One small step for women, one giant leap for womenkind!” Alex Kingston, 54, who has played River Song, the Doctor’s wife, heard the news while on stage at a convention. She joked: “I’m always the damn cradle-snatcher.” Hugo Rifkind, page 33

Kaya Burgess

He had nine songs in the Top Ten, headlined Glastonbury and has now invaded Game of Thrones. There is just no escaping Ed Sheeran. The singer makes a cameo in the TV drama’s seventh series, which launched yesterday, but fans of the show were less than thrilled. Sheeran’s appearance comes in a scene with Arya Stark, played by Maisie Williams. She stumbles across a group of soldiers, one of whom is singing a song that features in the original book. The show’s creators revealed Ed Sheeran in the hit drama

in March that Sheeran would appear, adding that Williams was a fan. Some Sheeran devotees were delighted. The Twitter user @ByKalynn posted: “Ed Sheeran randomly appearing in Game of Thrones was the greatest moment of my young life.” Thrones viewers were less impressed. Zach Goins referenced a group of characters called white walkers who are almost impossible to kill, posting: “If Arya doesn’t burn Ed Sheeran he’ll come back as a white walker and be playing Westeros Glastonbury for thousands of years.” TV review, Times2


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Tuesday July 18 2017 the times

News News Politics

Hammond ‘paying price for treating ministers like dirt’ Francis Elliott Political Editor Lucy Fisher

For a man briefed against in the past four days as a sexist, a snob and a saboteur, Philip Hammond is said to be in remarkably good spirits. “You know Philip,” said a friend yesterday. “He doesn’t seem to care all that much. It might be better if he cared a bit more.” Even in ordinary times a chancellor can expect grumbling from ministerial colleagues. That Mr Hammond is at the centre of three raging rows — over the future of austerity and public sector pay, the nature of Britain’s exit from the EU, and the Tory leadership — ensures that the grumblings are particularly loud. The leaking of a series of verbatim but partial accounts of cabinet meetings designed only to humiliate the occupant of Number 11, however, is of a different order again. The explanation lies, in part, with a personal manner that struggles to win sympathy even in Downing Street. “The problem with Hammond is that he has treated all the ministers that have come to him like dirt,” an aide said yesterday. “This has been brewing for some time.” The chancellor’s allies acknowledge that he can be awkward, even clumsy, in his interactions. He was trying to make a point about how unions have blocked innovation in train drivers’ working practices but was caricatured as saying “even a woman” could drive a train, say

friends. Similarly, while he did say that some public sector workers were “overpaid”, it was, they say, part of a wider, very detailed, disquisition on the finer points of remuneration in public services. The latest charge levelled against him — that he is leading an establishment plot to “f***” Brexit — reflects his tendency to use the supposed sanctity of cabinet meetings to push against what is settled policy. “It’s not what Philip says in public that bothers us,” said a cabinet colleague. “In fact, on things like transition there’s not much distance between the positions. But he says things in private that would tear the Tory party apart.” Most Tory MPs, within days of a much-longed-for summer recess, don’t want to face up to the looming split. Some fretted yesterday that when the Commons rises for summer recess on Thursday, leadership speculation could increase rather than cool off, filling up the vacuum left by the absence of parliamentary business. One minister said: “People say once we get away it’ll all move on. But once we get away that’s when silly season starts proper.” Boris Johnson and Michael Gove, as former journalists and Brexiteers, top the list of suspects in Westminster’s unofficial leak inquiry. “A couple of juvenile scribblers who should have stayed away from politics,” was one Tory’s tart judgment. Both fervently deny any role in the attacks on Mr

Hammond. One Johnson ally steered the blame towards David Davis, the man who, it is said, has the most to gain from Theresa May’s potential departure. He too insists that he has had nothing to do with the briefing. Mrs May will try to summon all of what is left of her authority this morning to reprimand those responsible for the leaks. “She will say that, with a small majority, working as a team is more important than ever and that the job before them is more important than any political positioning,” an ally said last night. The prime minister is likely to point out that the bout of Tory in-fighting allowed Jeremy Corbyn to perform a sudden U-turn on his promise to forgive £100 billion in student debts without sustaining any real political damage. “She’ll remind the cabinet that they all have a responsibility to keep Corbyn well away from the levers of power.” Others want her to go much further. “She’s got to try and establish her authority. A lot hinges on cabinet and how she delivers this strong message [against leaks],” said one minister. “So the first stop is the lecture, but the second stop has got to be, if this carries on, something much more symbolic. Someone’s got to go. I’d go with [Andrea] Leadsom. She doesn’t have that much support — there would only be a group of 20, maximum, who’d be upset about it.” Leading article, page 35

Chief of staff at ease in Tory jungle Profile

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avin Barwell has more reason than most to resent Theresa May’s bungled snap election (Francis Elliott writes). Had she run a better campaign he would, by now, be sitting at the cabinet table as communities secretary instead of Sajid Javid. Instead, the former MP, 45, lost his hometown, hyper-marginal seat of Croydon Central on June 8, a constituency that he had won in 2010 and kept against the odds with a majority of 165 through prodigious efforts five years later. While some of his former colleagues carp among the canapes at end-of-term receptions, Barwell is hard at work keeping the wolves from Mrs May’s door. She hasn’t made many popular decisions since her disastrous election campaign but appointing him as her chief of staff

was one. “Gavin is pretty much keeping the show on the road,” a cabinet minister acknowledged. He replaced Fiona Hill and Nick Timothy, Mrs May’s previous chiefs of staff who were blamed for the election fiasco and much else besides. It is said that the idea of appointing Mr Barwell was actually Mr Timothy’s parting gift to the prime minister. Their styles, nevertheless, are different. Cabinet ministers frozen out by the former chiefs approvingly report that their successor solicits their views and smooths rather than provokes disputes. Colleagues say that he is bright, unflappable, has good instincts and a sense of proportion. Clues to his resilience are Gavin Barwell: “pretty much keeping the Tory show on the road”

not hard to find: he became politically engaged while suffering from leukaemia in his early years. “I had cancer as a young child, and you had to sort of get helped across picket lines to get treatment,” he told the Conservative Home website in 2015. “I guess I’d have been seven or eight, and the doctor who treated me left because he got fed up with all the strikes and the whole sort of environment in the NHS. That was an issue I can remember talking to my parents about and trying to understand what was going on.” Having survived his leukaemia, Barwell read natural sciences at Cambridge where he was president of the union before losing his father to an aggressive form of dementia. “Watching

him being taken away from us, piece by piece, was the toughest thing I’ve ever been through,” he has written. Some people complain that he is more functional than visionary; too neat a fit with Mrs May’s own persona. “He’s not electric,” said a former colleague. A One Nation pro-European Tory, Barwell is viewed with suspicion by some on the Conservative right. His workrate — he is said to start at Downing Street at 5am most days — and the depth of his experience command respect. He has variously been a councillor, an MP, a whip, a minister, a member of the Conservative Research Department, part of the party’s press office, a special adviser, CCHQ’s chief operating officer and a director of campaigning. The thing about Gavin is that he really does know what it’s like in pretty much every corner of the Tory jungle,” a friend said.

Eyes on the prize A series of leaks from the weekly cabinet meeting has prompted speculation about the culprits, the beneficiaries and the characters who might have the appetite to succeed Theresa May (Lucy Fisher writes). david davis The Brexit secretary has a strong coterie of allies in the Commons, with claims surfacing at the weekend that he commands the support of 30 Conservative MPs. Reports have abounded that his friends are hatching a plot to call on Mrs May to quit, while other Tory MPs are said to be urging him to challenge her. One of his most loyal friends is Andrew Mitchell, the former international development secretary who ran Mr Davis’s thwarted leadership campaign in 2005. Mr Mitchell was said to have told MPs at a private Commons dinner this month that the prime minister had to go. In recent days Mr Davis’s friends were accused of spreading smears that Mrs May’s husband, Philip, was encouraging her to is quit. His allies view Boris Johnson as his main rival and are said to be targeting the support of Philip Hammond, the chancellor, for a leadership bid. Publicly Mr Davis, 68, has called any leadership contest at present “the height of self-indulgence”, but he has not ruled out wanting the job in future. boris johnson The bombastic foreign secretary boasts a high public profile and is viewed as another top contender. The former London mayor, 53, was accused of going on

manoeuvres immediately after the general election. After reports of his politicking at that crucial hour, a WhatsApp message from him to Tory MPs urging them to “get behind” the prime minister and “calm down” was leaked, leading to speculation that the leak originated

among his allies. Like Mr Hammond he has been the subject of hostile briefings, including rumours about his love life in recent days. Four separate factions are out to destroy him, one commentator said. Mr Johnson’s team yesterday cast a wider net than usual to provide details about his performance at the foreign affairs council in Brussels in an attempt to highlight his influence and seriousness. It came after colleagues privately criticised his attention to detail and grasp of his portfolio. Last week he and Mr

House of living dead Patrick Kidd Political Sketch

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arliament stumbles towards recess like the cast of a film by the late George A Romero. Some call this a zombie government but that gives the cabinet more signs of life than it might deserve. Zombies always shuffle forwards, moaning and dropping body parts or manifesto pledges as they go, and are ruthlessly single-minded, if empty-minded. If any party’s MPs are like zombies, surely it is Labour’s. “Votes, votes” groan the reanimated corpses of the Labour backbenchers, who only two months ago seemed to be preparing for eternal rest, while Theresa May barricades herself into a

deserted farmhouse and tries to keep the opposition out, as well as some of her own colleagues. The feature film shown in the chamber yesterday was Teatime of the Living Dead, a three-hour emergency debate on the scheduling of parliamentary business (or rather the lack of it). Valerie Vaz, opening for the opposition, observed that MPs have discussed legislation on only four days since the election and that by September eight months will have passed between debates on a Labour “opposition day” motion. “Is the government scared of the opposition?” she asked. “It seems that the cabinet is too busy trying to push the prime minister out. The electorate needs to see us at work.” In reply, Andrea Leadsom, leader of the House, said that the government had lots of legislation up its sleeves,


the times Tuesday July 18 2017

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The prince and princess peer out from their private jet and on disembarking, Charlotte gave a royal wave. Their parents impressed at a soirée

Baby talk follows his royal shyness

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hey already have an heir and a spare, in the shape of Prince George and Princess Charlotte. But perhaps it’s not enough (Valentine Low writes). On the first day of their Polish tour, the Duchess of Cambridge joked yesterday that she and Prince William should have another baby. Babies plural, to be precise. Her remark — which one will have to assume was a joke, until evidence appears to the contrary — came after the duchess was given a present designed for newborn babies at an event for start-up tech companies in Warsaw. Saying thank you for

the cuddly toy, which is designed to soothe tiny babies, she turned to the duke laughing and said: “We will just have to have more babies.” Among the other gifts was a T-shirt for the duchess with the slogan “i’mperfect”, part of the company’s campaign to encourage mothers not to feel the pressure to be flawless. Student Madga Mordaka, 21, who met the Duchess later in the day, said: “We were telling her that she is beautiful and perfect, but she said it’s not true — it’s just the make-up.” Yesterday was the first of a five-day tour of Poland and Germany on which the duke and duchess have taken George and Charlotte

with them. The tour is part of the royal family’s Brexit charm offensive, designed to bolster the UK’s relations with European countries. George, however, did not appear to have read the briefing paper. As their private chartered

jet arrived at Chopin airport, Warsaw, he initially refused his father’s entreaties to walk with him down the aircraft steps. After a few moments, Prince William managed to coax him down, while the duchess — who was

wearing an Alexander McQueen coat-dress — followed carrying Princess Charlotte. But even then George did not look like a boy who was fully committed to the task of improving Anglo-Polish relations. He fidgeted. He swung

his leg back and forth. He stuck his hand in his pocket. He even stuck his bottom lip out. Perhaps someone should have told him about the toys. Before they arrived President Duda of Poland had tweeted pictures of toys, including a bicycle, wooden plane and a rocking horse, that awaited the children at the Belvedere Palace, the former presidential residence where the Cambridges are staying. George, who turns four on Saturday, and Charlotte, two, are likely to be seen again only at the end of the tour. At an evening garden party to celebrate the Queen’s birthday, the duchess impressed Polish high society in a sleeveless white dress with black embroidery by Gosia Baczynska, the first Polish designer to show at Paris fashion week. Prince William made a short speech to the 600 guests at the event in the Orangery in Warsaw’s Lazienki Park and was cheered as he addressed them in faltering Polish to say “good evening, we hope you have a nice party”.

failing to stem Moped-riding robbers Checks knife crime, says Rudd stabbed man to death Richard Ford Home Correspondent

Fiona Hamilton Crime Editor

A young father on his way home from a jazz bar was stabbed to death after an altercation with two men who arrived at the scene on a moped. Friends of Danny Pearce, 31, who was attacked just after midnight on Saturday after leaving Oliver’s Jazz Bar in Greenwich, southeast London, said that he had refused to hand over his £5,000 Rolex watch and phone. Detectives are keeping an open mind about the motive, which will raise further concerns about the rapid rise of moped-enabled crime. In the capital there were 8,300 crimes carried out by moped riders in the past year, compared with 317 five years ago, a rise of 1,600 per cent. There were more than 5,500 mopedenabled crimes in the first four months of this year, according to the Metropolitan police. Officers have said that changes in pursuit policy, allowing them only to chase suspects in certain circumstances, are behind the rise. Mr Pearce was approached by two men wearing motorbike helmets. One fired a gun and the other jumped off the moped and lashed out at him with a kitchen knife. Mr Pearce died at the scene. No one has been arrested. An anonymous friend who came to lay flowers there said yesterday said: “He was with his girlfriend and was stabbed in the throat. They wanted his

Radcliffe helps mugging victim The actor Daniel Radcliffe came to the aid of a man who was slashed in the face by moped thieves in one of London’s most exclusive shopping areas (Fiona Hamilton writes). Radcliffe, star of the Harry Potter films, is believed to have witnessed the mugging in which the foreign tourist was targeted as he walked along King’s Road in Chelsea, west London. David Videcette, a former counterterrorism detective, said that the thieves had been trawling the area before slashing the victim and stealing his bag. He said that Radcliffe waited at the scene to give police his details and comfort the victim. “Fair play to him,” he added. Mr Videcette wrote on Twitter: “And I want to say a big thank you to Daniel Radcliffe who stopped to help the guy that had been robbed. Top bloke. Some stars wouldn’t have.” Radcliffe’s spokeswoman said that he was present but declined to comment further.

watch, I think it was an expensive watch, about £5,000, it must have been a Rolex or something and he had a good phone. They tried to take his stuff and there was a boy holding out a gun and because he didn’t give it to them the other guy jumped off the moped and stabbed him in the neck. “Danny was not the kind of guy to start trouble, he was on his phone trying to get a lift home, he was with his girlfriend and his friend’s girlfriend.” Dozens of flowers, a Chelsea scarf Danny Pearce refused to hand over a Rolex watch

and “daddy” balloons were attached to the railings along the pavement where Mr Pearce died. A child’s drawing was marked “to daddy, love gracie”. An eyewitness said: “I heard the screaming first . . . A girl was screaming, she was screaming for about four hours.” Separately, a 16-year-old rider on a stolen moped, who was hit by a police car during a chase, is fighting for his life in hospital. He was one of three teenagers thrown from the moped in Wimbledon, south London, in the early hours of Sunday morning.

People buying knives online will be forced to collect them in person under a government proposal to clamp down on sales to children and teenagers. Online age verification checks have failed to stop under-18s obtaining knives, the home secretary admitted. The Home Office proposal means that instead of having a knife delivered to their own address, buyers would have to arrange to pick them up from a store, which would be responsible for checking their age. How online sellers without physical stores would comply with the legislation will be considered as part of a consultation this autumn. Amber Rudd, the home secretary, said: “We are announcing new measures to combat knife crime and the devastating impact it has on families, individuals and communities. “We are going to be consulting on new legislation so that people can’t buy knives online without having their identity checked. We have evidence that young people have been able to buy knives without verifying their ID and I want to stop that.” She said it was a “perfectly reasonable” step to take, quoting figures that indicated almost three quarters of online retailers that should carry out age verification checks were not doing so. “The online retailers may say, ‘Well, we ask people whether they are over or under 18’, and that’s just not good enough,” Ms Rudd said. In one case a

buyer aged under 18 was able to have a knife delivered to their mother’s shed, the home secretary added. Demand for action rose last year after a court was told that the knife used to fatally stab Bailey Gwynne, an Aberdeen schoolboy, was bought online. Bailey’s killer, who was 16 at the time of the killing, cannot be named for legal reasons. He denied murder and was sentenced to nine years in prison on the lesser charge of culpable homicide. Other Home Office proposals include closing a loophole that leaves police powerless to seize banned weapons such as so-called zombie knives, knuckledusters and “throwing stars” — flat-bladed throwing weapons with three or more points — if they find them on private premises. The consultation will also ask whether the offence of possessing a knife in a public place or school premises should be extended to include further education colleges and universities. Figures released in April showed that knife crime in England and Wales had reached its highest level in six years. Knife-crime incidents rose 14 per cent between 2015 and 2016 from 28,427 to 32,448, figures revealed. Most police forces in England and Wales recorded an increase in knife crime, with the largest recorded by the Metropolitan Police, according to the Office for National Statistics. The next official crime figures will be published on Thursday. Rachel Sylvester, page 31


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as route of HS2 is confirmed The route

It’s France 3 Spain 0 in the race for the £6.6bn rail jackpot

York

New station Existing station

Existing mainline

Leeds

Manchester Shimmer Estate 16 newly built Piccadilly properties to be demolished

Liverpool Lime Street

Sheffield Manchester Midland AIrport Crewe relocation of rolling stock depot

PHASE 2 PHASE 1 Construction contracts East Midlands Hub

Contractors and agreed price 7 Delta Junction to Handsacre Balfour Beatty/Vinci £1.15bn

Birmingham Curzon Street

6 Long Itchington-Delta Junction-Birmingham Balfour Beatty/Vinci £1.32bn

Birmingham Bickenhill Interchange

5 Brackley to Long Itchington Carillion/Eiffage/Kier £616m

Phase 1 losers

4 Little Missenden to Brackley Carillion/Eiffage/Kier £724m

Chetwode The line will slice this village in two Wendover Noise barriers up to 6m high will be erected to protect the town Chilterns Trains will enter a 16km tunnel near the M25 and emerge near Great Missenden in the Chilterns

400

Estimated total number of homes to be demolished (150 in north London)

3 Colne Valley to Little Missenden Bouygues/Volker/McAlpine £965m

PHASE 1 Chetwode

2 Old Oak Common to Colne Valley Skanska/Costain/Strabag £1.1bn

Wendover Great Missenden Chiltern Hills

Colne Valley Park Old Oak Oak Commo on Common

1 Euston tunnels to Old Oak Common Skanska/Costain/Strabag £740m

London n E t Euston

argued that the cost of the most complicated stretch of line, the six miles into Euston and the reconfiguration of the London terminal, is way beyond official estimates. Mr Byng, who was contracted by petitioners in the London borough of Camden to challenge HS2, says the cost to the taxpayer will be £8.2 billion — far more than the £2.3 billion he says the DfT unofficially told him. Factoring in cost overruns along the line, Mr Byng says he gets to a £48 billion bill for Phase 1. Others,

using his calculations, have put a total bill for the project at £104 billion. “That is not my figure but people are entitled to make their own extrapolation,” Mr Byng told The Times. “The department has simply not been able to give me a structured estimate. It has not challenged me on methodology or quantum.” The DfT said that, contrary to reports, Mr Byng had not been commissioned by it to produce a report on HS2. “We do not recognise his figures,” a spokesman said.

the winners balfour beatty The daddy of the UK heavy construction market has won, with its partner Vinci of France, what will be the two technically most challenging above-ground parcels of work. The £2.5 billion contracts will take the HS2 line from the heart of Warwickshire into Birmingham Airport and then, by creation of a delta junction, into the heart of the city at Curzon Street and separately on northwards. The technical work will include the HS2 line vaulting main roads as well as the rail line between Coventry and Birmingham. The win for Balfour Beatty will be a huge fillip for a company that three years ago was brought to its knees by a string of profit warnings when a host of its construction contracts went wrong. Its partner, Vinci, was involved in building the latest TGV line to Bordeaux. costain The main contractor on the Channel tunnel and on the original HS1 — the Channel Tunnel rail link — has won more than £1.8 billion of work on the tunnels running under suburban north-west London, through a new terminal and property development at Old Oak Common in Acton into the Euston terminus. It too had a

Artist impression of how the new London Euston will look

the Chilterns nor the viaducts and bridges needed to enter the West Midlands, butting up against existing rail lines and motorways. The latest incendiary interjection has come from a Midlands quantity surveyor called Michael Byng, a sometime Network Rail consultant, who last weekend estimated that the total bill would be far higher than predicted. Mr Byng, who is not currently a member of the industry professional body RICS after a disciplinary action taken against him seven years ago, has

For western Europe’s big construction contractors, HS2 promised to be a bonanza — but so far in the competition for glory, it is France 3 Spain 0 (Robert Lea writes). It was always meant to be an international affair. HS2 Ltd had insisted that every UK construction firm bidding for what we now know is £6.6 billion of tunnelling, viaduct building and track preparation had to form a consortium with a company that had international high-speed rail expertise. The competition put France’s three big high-speed rail contractors against a clutch of Spanish construction giants. Each of the French firms’ consortiums won — the Spanish contractors won nothing.

strong consortium, partnering with the Swedish giant Skanska with which it has worked on Crossrail. Skanska bought into the UK construction market at the turn of the century when it acquired Trafalgar House. The consortium also included Austrian tunnelling specialist Strabag.

carillion The deeply troubled construction company, whose shares collapsed by 70 per cent last week after a shock profit warning, has won £1.3 billion of projects taking the line out of the Chilterns through Oxfordshire up to Warwickshire. It has teamed with Eiffage, another of the great French TGV builders, and UK construction firm Kier, known for developing the UK’s Supreme Court building in Westminster. Although there are question marks over the future funding and ownership of Carillion, the DfT said it was confident that the consortium would deliver. Carillion shares yesterday jumped 20 per cent. sir robert mcalpine The family-owned construction firm that built Arsenal’s Emirates stadium has been tasked with tunnelling under the Chilterns in a consortium with Bouygues of France and the Anglo-Dutch firm Volker Fitzpatrick. The contract is worth nearly £1 billion. the losers Not one of the Spanish construction giants has landed a job in the construction of Phase 1 of HS2: Ferrovial, the part-owner of Heathrow airport had teamed up with UK urban regeneration firm Morgan Sindall; Dragados had joined forces with Galliford Try, a UK housebuilder, and Hochtief of Germany; Acciona, a Spanish highspeed rail specialist was partnering with domestic contractors Lagan and Sisk; and FCC had joined the privately owned Anglo-Irish contractor Laing O’Rourke, which had had great HS2 ambitions. Carillion contract, page 43

Ten-minute delays no longer ‘on time’ Graeme Paton

Rail bosses are preparing to scrap rules that allow trains to be classed as “on time” despite running almost ten minutes late. As part of major reforms of the network announced today, from April 2019 services will be expected to reach individual stations within a minute of their scheduled arrival time to avoid being officially classed as late. The new system will use GPS data to track the time that trains stop at every station rather than just the final destination, which is the current measure. The change is expected to be incorporated into contracts between the government and rail companies from 2019 onwards, raising the prospect of operators being hit with heavy fines if

trains regularly run more than a minute late. Penalties could also be given to Network Rail for failures to the rail infrastructure that prevent trains reaching stations on time. The reforms are a significant step for an industry that has been reluctant to move towards a system of “right-time” performance for fear of damaging confidence in the rail network. The Rail Delivery Group (RDG), which represents train operators and Network Rail, said that the change represented the “most transparent” measure of train times in Europe. It will initially be published alongside the existing system that classes intercity trains as “on time” if they reach their final destination within ten minutes. For shorter commuter

services, the limit has been set at five minutes. The changes are expected to lead to an initial sharp rise in the number of trains being classed as late. Over the past year, 88 per cent of trains arrived at their final destination within five or ten minutes of the timetable. However, the proportion dropped to 63.2 per cent using the “right-time” measure. This means that an average of 8,832 trains ran late every day. Anthony Smith, chief executive of Transport Focus, the passenger watchdog, said: “Passengers want a reliable, on-time train service. How that performance is measured and reported should, our research shows, closely mirror passengers’ real life experience, otherwise trust will not be built up.”


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Manchester mosque gutted by fire as anti-Muslim crimes soar Gabriella Swerling Northern Correspondent

A mosque in Manchester has been badly damaged by a fire that worshippers said was the third there in three years. Police have begun an investigation into the “suspicious” blaze at the Nasfat Islamic Centre, in the northeast of the city, at 11.40pm on Sunday. Monsurat Adebanjo-Aremu, the mosque secretary, said that in the past year somebody had thrown two pigs’

heads inside the building and urinated outside. Shamusideen Oladimeji, a spokesman for the mosque, added that it was the third fire at the building since 2014 and that the reason for them was “just hatred”. The fire, which police believe was started when someone forced open a window and placed an “unknown accelerant inside”, is being treated as a hate crime by Greater Manchester police. In the month after the Manchester Arena bomb in May there were 224

reports of anti-Muslim hate crimes in the city compared with 37 in the same period last year. Mr Oladimeji said that the main prayer hall and classrooms had been destroyed. “We just had the classrooms done not long ago,” he said. “Now everything is gone. I feel bad, we use them for the children. We can’t even gain entrance to the building at the moment because the forensics are still doing their investigating.” He added that the first attack on the

mosque was in 2014 after the murder of Lee Rigby by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale and that the second happened last year. “I think it’s just hatred,” Mr Oladimeji said. He added: “I don’t know why this is happening to us . . . we have been good to the community.” Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service said that five engines attended the scene. Detective Chief Inspector Paul Walker of Greater Manchester police said: “We are investigating this as

JULIAN COX/SOLENT NEWS & PHOTO AGENCY

Top car hire firm accused of £30m customer rip-off Andrew Ellson Consumer Affairs Correspondent

One of Europe’s biggest car hire operators may have overcharged customers £30 million for damaging vehicles. Europcar admitted the scale of the problem after Trading Standards began an investigation last month into allegations of “fraudulent” costs. The French business is accused of breaching consumer law by inflating the cost of windscreens and other repairs by up to 300 per cent to boost profits. Europcar UK said in a statement: “On the basis of our own preliminary review, our view is that the implications of the investigation will be somewhere in the region of £30 million and we will communicate as appropriate as matters develop.” It added: “We are fully co-operating with the authorities.” Europcar, which has a market value of €1.85 billion (£1.63 billion) in France, is accused of making secret deals with garages in Britain that would invoice customers a higher amount for repairs than they charged the company. The brand operates in 140 countries worldwide but it is not clear whether its overseas offices operate the same practices as in Britain. The statement led to calls for a wider investigation into the car hire industry. James Daley, director of the campaign group Fairer Finance, said: “People have long suspected they are being ripped off for hire car repairs but it’s shocking to see the evidence. Car hire companies are in the business of

Dozens of hospital staff will have to pay parking fines totalling thousands of pounds after they lost a court case. They were issued with the tickets after the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff contracted out its parking to Indigo, a private contractor, last year. Although 3,000 workers including doctors, nurses and cleaners were issued with free permits there were only 1,500 spaces for staff parking. As a result many workers claimed that they had to use the public parking areas to avoid being late for work. A judge ruled that Indigo could collect £70,000 from 75 members of staff who had failed to

Vole’s eye view Julian Cox, a photographer, set up a camera trap to capture a barn owl as it came in for the kill in a field in Suffolk

loaning vehicles, not exploiting customers involved in a scrape. Europcar are unlikely to be the only ones doing this and the industry must change its ways.” Alex Neill, of Which?, added: “If Europcar is found to have inflated costs for repairs, people will be outraged. There should be an immediate investigation to ensure others aren’t doing this and customers who have been left out of pocket are compensated without delay.” The car hire industry is already under pressure over its practices. Last year The Times revealed that tens of thousands of British holidaymakers were being falsely accused of damaging hire cars in Europe every year with growing numbers in dispute with hire companies over charges applied for minor damage and scratches. Last year almost three million Britons hired a car overseas and complaints to the car hire ombudsman are at a record high. The Daily Telegraph reported yesterday that the Europcar case may be picked up by the Serious Fraud Office. If found guilty of a criminal offence, Europcar could face a fine of up to 10 per cent of its turnover. It could also face compensation claims from customers. A spokesman for the SFO said that it did not confirm or deny whether it was investigating cases. A spokesman for Leicester Trading Standards, which is conducting the investigation, said: “It would not be appropriate to comment further at this stage as it is an ongoing investigation.”

Judge orders hospital staff to pay huge parking fines Simon de Bruxelles

a hate crime which has damaged a place of worship used by members of the Nigerian community. “Hate crime is often under-reported for a number of reasons, but people should have the confidence in coming forward, as no one should be the subject of hate and intolerance. “We are grateful to have very strong relationships and co-operation with different groups and are working with partner agencies to support the community.”

buy parking tickets. She also ordered the workers to pay £29,000 costs. Sue Prior, of Taff Ely Parking Action Group, said that staff had been left “broken” by the ruling. “It’s horrendous. [Staff] are scared stiff, petrified, they feel sick,” she added. Felicity Richards, a staff nurse, said: “I have to allow 45 minutes to an hour to find somewhere to park my car every morning.” An Indigo spokesman said: “A number of people refused to pay for parking. They also declined to use the appeals process . . . With the full support of the health board we took the strongest possible action against this small group of persistent offenders. The court’s ruling has justified our decision.”

Campaigner fights for ‘dignified’ death Frances Gibb Legal Editor

A man who fears being “entombed” by a terminal illness has taken his fight to choose when and how to die to the High Court. He said that he wanted to have a “swift and dignified” death. Noel Conway, 67, a retired lecturer from Shrewsbury, was told that he had motor neurone disease in November 2014 and he now has less than a year to live. He was not well enough to be at the hearing in London yesterday but hopes to appear by video link tomorrow. When he has less than six months to live and has the mental capacity to make the decision, he wishes to bring about a “peaceful” death with professional medical help. The Suicide Act 1961 prohibits assisted suicide, which is punishable by up to

14 years’ imprisonment. In a statement to the court, Mr Conway said: “This disease is a relentless and merciless process of progressive deterioration. At some point my breathing will stop altogether or I will become so helpless that Noel Conway fears being “entombed” by his illness

I will be effectively entombed in my own body . . . I find the prospect of this state for me to live quite unacceptable and I wish to end my life when I feel it is the right moment to do so, in a way that is swift and dignified.” He wants a

declaration that the Suicide Act 1961 is incompatible with Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which relates to respect for private and family life, and Article 14, which protects from discrimination. Richard Gordon, QC, told the court that others in Mr Conway’s position might go to Switzerland to die and expose anyone who helped with the arrangements to a risk of prosecution. He did not see that as an option. “The choices facing the claimant are therefore stark and unpalatable: seek to bring about his own death now whilst he is physically able to do so but before he is ready to do so; or await death with no control over when and how it comes,” he said. David Lidington, the justice secretary opposes the case, which continues.


the times the times

News PATRICK DEMARCHELIER

Cancer patients charged £1,000 for holiday insurance Cancer patients are being denied holiday insurance or forced to pay £1,000 for a product that costs the general public £37 on average, a charity claims. Macmillan Cancer Support says that some policies reflect an outdated view of the illness as something that only affects a small number of people or is a “death sentence”. However, by 2020 one in every two people will get the disease at some point in their lives, trends suggest. Cancer patients are also twice as likely to survive at least ten years after diagnosis as they were at the start of the 1970s. A survey of more than 2,000 cancer patients found that 2 per cent have been denied insurance even though their cancer was diagnosed

more than a decade ago. Extrapolating the figures, the charity estimates that 8,500 British holidaymakers are affected. An estimated 7,500 Britons who have had cancer in the past have paid £1,000 or more for travel insurance. On average, people with cancer paid £133 for their policies — nearly four times the average cost of an annual travel policy for the general public. The charity called on the insurance industry to use more “accurate, relevant and tailored” data in its policies. A spokeswoman for the Association of British Insurers said cover was widely available for people with long-term medical conditions. It advised customers to use specialist providers if necessary.

Doctors find 27 contact lenses in woman’s eye

Glamorous bride Miranda Kerr, the model, has shared pictures of the Dior gown she wore to marry Evan Spiegel, the founder of Snapchat, with Vogue magazine

Doctors carrying out a routine cataract operation on a 67-year-old woman at Solihull Hospital in the West Midlands discovered 27 contact lenses trapped in her right eye. Writing in the British Medical Journal, they said they had found “a bluish foreign body” which turned out to be a hard lump of 17 monthly disposable Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen lenses “bound together by mucus”. Ten more were found as the operation continued. Rupal Morjaria, a specialist trainee in ophthalmology, said: “None of us have ever seen this before. We were really surprised that the patient didn’t notice it, because it would cause quite a lot of irritation. She thought the discomfort was just part of old age.”

Attackers use children’s drink bottles to spray acid Acid attackers are using children’s squeezable drink bottles to inflict “maximum injuries” on their victims (Richard Ford writes). Police in London have been told to check the drink bottles if they find them during searches of young people on the streets, according to The Sun. Yesterday at Stratford youth court a 16-year-old boy denied carrying out a series of acid attacks in less than 90 minutes in London last Thursday. He is accused of targeting six victims, all of whom were riding mopeds, and spraying them in the face with a noxious liquid. He is charged with 13 offences

in connection with the incident, all of which he denies. He also faces another charge of stealing a moped on June 25, which he also denies. The defendant, who cannot be named because of his age, spoke only to confirm his name and address and enter pleas. The boy, from Croydon, south London, was remanded in custody to appear at Wood Green crown court next month. Separately, a teenager was charged over an alleged acid attack in Mile End, east London, on July 4. Mustafa Ahmed, 19, will appear at Thames magistrates’ court today.

Tributes paid to ex-RAF man killed in plane crash

Bread on table for return of stolen prize cheddars

The wife of a trained pilot killed while travelling as a passenger in a light aircraft said he was “precious and outrageously talented”, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Paul Gunnell died when the plane came down in a field near Marlborough, Wiltshire, on Thursday evening. Mr Gunnell flew in the RAF and with Cathay Pacific for 23 years. The pilot of the plane has not yet been identified. Kirsty Boazman, Mr Gunnell’s wife, said: “Our thoughts are with the family who have lost a loved one, who shared Paul’s sheer joy of being in the air.” An investigation is under way.

A £500 reward is being offered for the return of two award-winning blocks of cheddar cheese that were stolen from a country show. Made by Wyke Farms in Somerset, the two 20kg blocks were named as champion and reserve Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen at the Yeovil show at the weekend but vanished from the tent soon after judging had finished. Rich Clothier, managing director of Wyke Farms, said he was saddened but unsurprised. “We believe it to be the best-quality cheese available. A 20kg block of it is extremely tempting.”

Rachel Sylvester, page 31

I N T H E T I M E S T O M O R ROW BUSINESS

SPORT

DAVID SMITH Thank heavens for our risk-averse chancellor

SIMON HUGHES Where England are going wrong MAIN PAPER

MAIN PAPER

ARTS Sigrid, the Norwegian pop star behind the song of the summer TIMES2

COMMENT

When letting loved ones die is the kindest thing to do DANIEL FINKELSTEIN


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Schoolgirl tormented by racist bullies, inquest told Simon de Bruxelles

A Polish-born teenager who was found hanged in toilets at her school had complained about being told to “go back to your own country” by other pupils, an inquest has heard. Dagmara Przybysz, 16, had repeatedly been called a “stupid Pole” by girls at her school, her mother claimed. The day before her death Dagmara became so upset that other pupils were laughing at her during a PE lesson that she punched a wall and needed medical treatment. She later claimed to have taken an overdose of pills, but her parents did not believe her and insisted she go to school. Dagmara’s father Jedrzej Przybysz told Cornwall coroner’s court that his daughter had refused to say why she was upset when she came home from

Dagmara told her mother she had been called a “stupid Pole” at school

school the day before her death. He said: “She did not want to tell me the reason for her upset. Later she said she had problems at school which I would not understand.” The hearing in Truro was told that Dagmara had been driven to hospital by her uncle Tomasz Dobek for treatment to her injured hand. Mr Dobek said that on the way to hospital they

saw two girls in Pool Academy uniforms, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. He said she asked him “Can you run them over?” but he had not taken the comment seriously. The following morning Dagmara phoned him at 6.20am at the fish factory where he and her parents worked nights, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. She was crying and saying she had taken an overdose. Her parents saw no evidence she had taken any pills and said they would discuss her problems when she came home from school. The next day Mr Przybysz was waiting for his daughter outside the school in Pool, Cornwall, when he received a Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen from his wife telling him that police were at their home in Redruth and Dagmara was dead. He said: “My wife and I kept wondering whether we should have kept Dagmara home that day but there was no physical sign that she had taken any tablets, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, otherwise we would have taken her to hospital.” The inquest heard that Dagmara had a place to study photography at Truro College and was looking forward to her Year 11 prom when she died on May 17, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, 2016. She had previously told her parents and her boyfriend that she had overheard classmates making “racist” comments and saying she should “go home to Poland”. Dagmara’s mother, Ewelina Przybysz, said her daughter had complained about fellow pupils being nasty to her. She said: “Dagmara often talked to me about her problems and she was hurt if someone said something unpleasant to her. “I don’t know whether these incidents were racist in nature, however I can say that on several occasions she overheard comments such as ‘stupid Pole’. “We think the biggest problem for Dagmara was not racism, but bullying.” Lewis Simpson, Dagmara’s boy-

University ‘gave Eugenie place because she is a royal’ Gabriella Swerling Northern Correspondent

Princess Eugenie was rejected from university because her grades were “not good enough” — but she was immediately offered a place once it emerged who she was, a senior lecturer has claimed. Her application to study a BA honours in English literature was said to have been turned down by an admissions officer at Newcastle University who had not realised that she was a member of the royal family. The university was allegedly “horrified” once it emerged that it had rejected Eugenie, who is eighth in line to the throne, without offering her a place on an alternative degree course. Martin Farr, a senior history lecturer at Newcastle, made the allegations at a convention for the anti-monarchist campaign group, Republic, in the city. The Duke and Duchess of York’s Princess Eugenie graduated from Newcastle in 2012 with a 2:1

Dagmara Przybysz died in May last year. She had been worried about her exams

friend, said other pupils had made comments to her such as “go back to your own country”, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. He said: “I think it got to her a little bit.” Susan Kent, a pastoral support worker at Pool Academy, said: “To the best of my knowledge, Dagmara never mentioned any problems with racism to me or any other person at school.” Other teachers described Dagmara

as being friendly, happy, very sporty and a “lovely girl”, but said she was worried about her exams and had concerns that she may have dyslexia. The inquest heard that CCTV showed Dagmara had entered the toilets at 12.14. She was found dead by students at 13.50. The inquest is expected to last three days.

daughter, 27, who gained two As and a B at A level, ended up studying a combined BA honours degree in English literature, history of art and politics and graduated in 2012 with a 2:1. Dr Farr said: “We had at Newcastle university one of the Queen’s granddaughters, Princess Eugenie. And a friend of mine who is Italian was the admissions officer for BA English literature and received one application for the undergraduate degree that was not good enough and so discarded it. Apparently the university was horrified she had been rejected before she was offered a place for another degree.” A university spokeswoman said: “If an applicant does not have the actual or predicted grades to meet the requirements for a particular programme, it is common practice for them to be considered for alternative programmes. Dr Farr was not involved in the admissions process that took place at that time and he would have no knowledge or insight into any of the decisions.”

Sarah Payne’s brothers filled with regret For sale: lighthouse island The two brothers of murdered schoolgirl Sarah Payne have described their guilt at not being able to save their sister on the day she vanished. Speaking publicly for the first time since the eight-year-old was abducted and murdered by the paedophile Roy Whiting, Luke and Lee Payne said that she ran ahead of them and their sister Charlotte on July 1, 2000. In an interview for a Channel 5 documentary, they recalled how she dipped through a gap leading from the field to a road in Kingston Gorse, West Sussex, and was not seen alive again. She was snatched by Whiting, who is serving life in prison for her murder, and who smiled and waved at Lee as he drove away before they could raise the alarm. Luke, who was then 12 years old, said the thought that he Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen have saved her “eats you up inside”. He said: “I don’t get a lot of sleep. I dread the night, because it’s just you and your thoughts.”

Lee and Luke Payne said they would never get over the loss of their sister

He added that his late father, Michael, bought a sawn-off shotgun and talked to both brothers about what he would do if Whiting was found not guilty. Luke added that when he sees Sarah’s friends, “I always wonder where she would be. . what she would be doing.” Lee Payne, who was 13, remembered seeing Whiting’s van drive past the field and thought it did a U-turn to snatch Sarah. He saw Whiting at the wheel and said he looked like “a real dodgy person”, who smiled and waved seconds after the abduction. Lee was close be-

hind Sarah, but when he could not see her he thought she was hiding because “she’d left in a huff”. He added: “I did for a few years beat myself up. . if I ran faster. . I might have caught up with her”. He said: “There’s never going to be a day when you’re going to turn round and be like, ‘I’m over that now’. Because that’s just going to happen.” Charlotte, who was five, said she suffered anxiety attacks as she grew up and sometimes felt guilty. “Why was it her and not me?” she asked. Sara Payne, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, their mother, described seeing Whiting in court for the first time and realising he “wasn’t a monster”. “I realised, he’s just a sad, lonely person that goes after children because he couldn’t have a relationship with an adult. And it hit home then, I’d allowed him too much of my mind space, and at that moment, I thought, no more.” 6 Sarah Payne: A Mother’s Story is on Channel 5 tomorrow at 9pm.

with a history of darkness A Scottish island which became famous for a high-profile murder case more than 50 years ago has been put on the market for £325,000. Little Ross Island, off southwest Scotland, could be sold for about the same price as a two-bedroom flat in Edinburgh city centre. The 29-acre island, which is home to a 19th-century lighthouse, gained national attention in August 1960 when two visitors discovered the body of Hugh Clark, a lighthouse keeper. Robert Dickson, another lighthouse keeper, was sentenced to hang for the murder but his punishment was later commuted to life imprisonment. The tower was built in 1843 to close the gap between other lighthouses at the Mull of Galloway and Southerness and was automated after the murder.

The sale listing includes a six-bedroom cottage and courtyard, although the lighthouse tower is not included. It is owned and managed by the Commissioners for Northern Lighthouses who visit regularly to maintain it. The island is off-grid, with power coming from solar panels and a small wind turbine, and is accessible only via private boat or helicopter. David Corrie, an estate agent, said that the island offered “fantastic development potential”. When the lighthouse was manned its keepers and their families had run a small dairy and pig farm to support themselves, he pointed out. “Private islands rarely come up for sale at an affordable price. We expect a lot of interest from all over the UK as well as abroad,” he added.


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News News

as route of HS2 is confirmed The route

It’s France 3 Spain 0 in the race for the £6.6bn rail jackpot

York

New station Existing station

Existing mainline

Leeds

Manchester Shimmer Estate 16 newly built Piccadilly properties to be demolished

Liverpool Lime Street

Sheffield Manchester Midland AIrport Crewe relocation of rolling stock depot

PHASE 2 PHASE 1 Construction contracts East Midlands Hub

Contractors and agreed price 7 Delta Junction to Handsacre Balfour Beatty/Vinci £1.15bn

Birmingham Curzon Street

6 Long Itchington-Delta Junction-Birmingham Balfour Beatty/Vinci £1.32bn

Birmingham Bickenhill Interchange

5 Brackley to Long Itchington Carillion/Eiffage/Kier £616m

Phase 1 losers

4 Little Missenden to Brackley Carillion/Eiffage/Kier £724m

Chetwode The line will slice this village in two Wendover Noise barriers up to 6m high will be erected to protect the town Chilterns Trains will enter a 16km tunnel near the M25 and emerge near Great Missenden in the Chilterns

400

Estimated total number of homes to be demolished (150 in north London)

3 Colne Valley to Little Missenden Bouygues/Volker/McAlpine £965m

PHASE 1 Chetwode

2 Old Oak Common to Colne Valley Skanska/Costain/Strabag £1.1bn

Wendover Great Missenden Chiltern Hills

Colne Valley Park Old Oak Oak Commo on Common

1 Euston tunnels to Old Oak Common Skanska/Costain/Strabag £740m

London n E t Euston

argued that the cost of the most complicated stretch of line, the six miles into Euston and the reconfiguration of the London terminal, is way beyond official estimates. Mr Byng, who was contracted by petitioners in the London borough of Camden to challenge HS2, says the cost to the taxpayer will be £8.2 billion — far more than the £2.3 billion he says the DfT unofficially told him. Factoring in cost overruns along the line, Mr Byng says he gets to a £48 billion bill for Phase 1. Others,

using his calculations, have put a total bill for the project at £104 billion. “That is not my figure but people are entitled to make their own extrapolation,” Mr Byng told The Times. “The department has simply not been able to give me a structured estimate. It has not challenged me on methodology or quantum.” The DfT said that, contrary to reports, Mr Byng had not been commissioned by it to produce a report on HS2. “We do not recognise his figures,” a spokesman said.

the winners balfour beatty The daddy of the UK heavy construction market has won, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, with its partner Vinci of France, what will be the two technically most challenging above-ground parcels of work. The Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen billion contracts will take the HS2 line from the heart of Warwickshire into Birmingham Airport and then, by creation of a delta junction, into the heart of the city at Curzon Street and separately on northwards. The technical work will include the HS2 line vaulting main roads as well as the rail line between Coventry and Birmingham. The win for Balfour Beatty will be a huge fillip for a company that three years ago was brought to its knees by a string of profit warnings when a host of its construction contracts went wrong. Its partner, Vinci, was involved in building the latest TGV line to Bordeaux. costain The main contractor on the Channel tunnel and on the original HS1 — the Channel Tunnel rail link — has won more than £1.8 billion of work on the tunnels running under suburban north-west London, through a new terminal and property development at Old Oak Common in Acton into the Euston terminus. It too had a

Artist impression of how the new London Euston will look

the Chilterns nor the viaducts and bridges needed to enter the West Midlands, butting up against existing rail lines and motorways. The latest incendiary interjection has come from a Midlands quantity surveyor called Michael Byng, a sometime Network Rail consultant, who last weekend estimated that the total bill would be far higher than predicted. Mr Byng, who is not currently a member of the industry professional body RICS after a disciplinary action taken against him seven years ago, has

For western Europe’s big construction contractors, HS2 promised to be a bonanza — but so far in the competition for glory, it is France 3 Spain 0 (Robert Lea writes). It was always meant to be an international affair. HS2 Ltd had insisted that every UK construction firm bidding for what we now know is £6.6 billion of tunnelling, viaduct building and track preparation had to form a consortium with a company that had international high-speed rail expertise. The competition put France’s three big high-speed rail contractors against a clutch of Spanish construction giants. Each of the French firms’ consortiums won — the Spanish contractors won nothing.

strong consortium, partnering with the Swedish giant Skanska with which it has worked on Crossrail. Skanska bought into the UK construction market at the turn of the century when it acquired Trafalgar House. The consortium also included Austrian tunnelling specialist Strabag.

carillion The deeply troubled construction company, whose shares collapsed by 70 per cent last week after a shock profit warning, has won £1.3 billion of projects taking the line out of the Chilterns through Oxfordshire up to Warwickshire, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. It has teamed with Eiffage, another of the great French TGV builders, and UK construction firm Kier, known for developing the UK’s Supreme Court building in Westminster. Although there are question marks over the future funding and ownership of Carillion, the DfT said it was confident that the consortium would deliver. Carillion shares yesterday jumped 20 per cent. sir robert mcalpine The family-owned construction firm that built Arsenal’s Emirates stadium has been tasked with tunnelling under the Chilterns in a consortium with Bouygues of France and the Anglo-Dutch firm Volker Fitzpatrick. The contract is worth nearly £1 billion. the losers Not one of the Spanish construction giants has landed a job in the construction of Phase 1 of HS2: Ferrovial, the part-owner of Heathrow airport had teamed up with UK urban regeneration firm Morgan Sindall; Dragados had joined forces with Galliford Try, a UK housebuilder, and Hochtief of Germany; Acciona, a Spanish highspeed rail specialist was partnering with domestic contractors Lagan and Sisk; and FCC had joined the privately owned Anglo-Irish contractor Laing O’Rourke, which had had great HS2 ambitions. Carillion contract, page 43

Ten-minute delays no longer ‘on time’ Graeme Paton

Rail bosses are preparing to scrap rules that allow trains to be classed as “on time” despite running almost ten minutes late. As part of major reforms of the network announced today, from April 2019 services will be expected to reach individual stations within a minute of their scheduled arrival time to avoid being officially classed as late. The new system will use GPS data to track the time that trains stop at every station rather than just the final destination, which is the current measure. The change is expected to be incorporated into contracts between the government and rail companies from 2019 onwards, raising the prospect of operators being hit with heavy fines if

trains regularly run more than a minute late. Penalties could also be given to Network Rail for failures to the rail infrastructure that prevent trains reaching stations on time, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. The reforms are a significant step for an industry that has been reluctant to move towards a system of “right-time” performance for fear of damaging confidence in the rail network. The Rail Delivery Group (RDG), which represents train operators and Network Rail, said that the change represented the “most transparent” measure of train times in Europe. It will initially be published alongside the existing system that classes intercity trains as “on time” if they reach their final destination within ten minutes. For shorter commuter

services, the limit has been set at five minutes. The changes are expected to lead to an initial sharp rise in the number of trains being classed as late. Over the past year, 88 per cent of trains arrived at their final destination within five or ten minutes of the timetable. However, the proportion dropped to 63.2 per cent using the “right-time” measure. This means that an average of 8,832 trains ran late every day. Anthony Smith, chief executive of Transport Focus, the passenger watchdog, said: “Passengers want a reliable, on-time train service. How that performance is measured and reported should, our research shows, closely mirror passengers’ real life experience, otherwise trust will not be built up.”


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News

Teenage couple and friend killed when BMW crashed into tree David Brown

Three teenagers were killed when the BMW in which they were travelling left the road and hit a tree near their home on Sunday afternoon. Ryan Barber, 19, his girlfriend, TrudiMae Kennell, 18, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, and their friend Will Louch, all from Atherstone, Warwickshire, had been returning from a weekend walking in Snowdonia. They were killed instantly in the crash at Baxterley, three miles from home, at 4.40pm. A fourth man, Dan

Whale, 18, who was in the back, was flown to hospital with serious injuries. Tammi Garcia Sanchez, Mr Barber’s mother, wrote on Facebook: “It’s with a broken heart. . That my baby boy Ryan Barber passed away yesterday afternoon in a car accident along with his beautiful girlfriend. I’m so sorry to the people who are reading this that I haven’t told. . My heart is broken and I’m not sure how life will carry on without my baby boy.” Mr Barber had been training to be a scaffolder. Ms Kennell was a reception-

Will Louch, Trudi-Mae Kennell and Ryan Barber had been driving home from a walking holiday in Snowdonia

ist and a lifeguard at Atherstone Leisure Complex. She previously went to what is now Queen Elizabeth Academy in Atherstone. One of her friends wrote on Facebook: “You made me so happy in so many ways, and I could sit here and write a book on how everyone feels about you.” Another friend of the couple said: “Trudi and Ryan were inseparable. They were the most gorgeous, happy, loving couple. Their deaths have torn our lives apart.” Mr Louch’s aunt Susan

Louch, 52, said: “We found out [about his death] in the early hours. We are all still in a state of shock. All we know is that he was on his way back from Snowdonia. It’s awful.” Sergeant Carl Stafford, of Warwickshire police, said: “We are in the very early stages of the investigation and I would urge anyone who witnessed the collision to contact police.” A West Midlands Ambulance Service spokesman said: “Unfortunately, it became apparent that nothing could be done to save three of the patients.” TIMES PHOTOGRAPHER JACK HILL

Fire chief ‘fondled colleague in lewd game’ A fire chief played a Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen game with a female firefighter, scoring points by squeezing her breasts at work, a court heard yesterday. David “Dai” Lewis is also accused of “kegging” the woman — pulling her trousers down to her ankles when she was not expecting it. Mr Lewis, who is married, denies five charges of sexually touching without consent. He said that the games were just part of “garage humour” at the fire station in Wales. Swansea crown court heard that he was sacked as crew manager for his behaviour towards the younger officer, who was left “embarrassed” and in tears. The jury was told that on one occasion the woman, in her twenties, was sitting in the ladies’ lavatories when Mr Lewis burst in. Craig Jones, for the prosecution, said: “It began with inappropriate sexual comments. He would refer to the size of her breasts and offer to use his tools to help her if she required assistance. “He would make sexual gestures with his fingers and tongue.” The court heard that the abuse became physical and Mr Lewis grabbed the firefighter’s breasts when she was carrying a tray of teas and coffees for her colleagues. Mr Jones said: “She would tell him not to do it but he would laugh and call her a slag, saying she ‘loved it’. “He would make sure she went up the stairs first and then touch her bottom. “At the top of the stairs he would pull her trousers down. There was an occasion when she was sitting on the loo and he pushed the door open so that others could see her sitting there.” The court heard that “kegging” was a popular practice at the station. Mr Jones said: “Lewis claimed it was garage humour and that the woman was a willing participant, claiming she had done ‘kegging’ to him.” In a police interview, played to the jury, the woman said: “It started off by him referring to my figure and the size of my breasts.” She broke down in tears as she described how Mr Lewis would follow her up stairs at the fire Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen and pull down her jogging bottoms. “My personal space had been entered and I had no control over what he was going to do,” she said. The firefighter added that Mr Lewis’s conduct got “worse and worse” as time went by. “It was ongoing every day, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. I would tell him, ‘Don’t do that, stop’ but he would say, ‘Shut up you slag, you love it,’ ” she told police. The woman said that Mr Lewis would also blame her period if she was in a bad mood. The trial continues.

Flight crew Royal swan uppers, with others from the Dyers’ and Vintners’ livery companies, check the health of cygnets during the annual census on the Thames

Police memorial charity spends £640,000 on private consultants Billy Kenber Investigations Reporter

A charity that was given £1 million of taxpayers’ money to build a memorial to fallen police officers has paid more than £600,000 in management fees to a consultancy company. The UK Police Memorial Trust has raised £2.5 million of the £4 million it needs to build a permanent memorial at the National Memorial Arboretum near Lichfield, Staffordshire. The government has committed Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen million to the project from fines levied on banks for manipulating Libor and it has received the backing of the Duke of Cambridge. The trust, which is chaired by Sir Hugh Orde, former president of the Association of Chief Police Officers, aims to build a memorial featuring a brass screen with sections cut out in the shape of leaves that will be given to bereaved families, by early 2019. A digital memorial, grants for families of staff killed in the line of duty and an education programme are also planned. However, £640,000 has already been paid out in “trust and project manage-

ment fees”, according to the charity’s accounts. The sum has been spent since March 2014, putting the charity on course to spend more than £1 million on management fees by the time of the memorial’s expected completion. The money went to Morgen Thomas Limited, a company not named in the trust’s annual accounts and mentioned only once in small print on an illustration of the memorial’s design on the charity’s website. Morgen Thomas’s website says that it has a team which “directs and manages all day-to-day aspects of the charity”, covering everything from fundraising to government relations. The spending on management fees is distinct from more than £300,000 spent on the design and construction of the memorial and an associated smartphone app, according to documents filed at Companies House. Alex May, a blogger who writes about charities, said that the figures raised questions about whether funds were being used effectively. “Management is outsourced to a private company, yet both sets of charity accounts hide the

The £4 million tribute is to be built at the National Memorial Arboretum

firm and its role,” he said, adding that “management costs are excessive for a charity this size — and increasing” and called on the trust to “spend the money it raises more effectively”. The charity said that the £640,000 spent on management fees included the cost of “ongoing management of the design and build process”, with the Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen going towards paying for “specialist management of the development of the memorial”. It said that it expected to spend

£400,000 on “essential support functions such as fundraising, governance, communication and engagement, marketing and PR” over the course of the project, with three-quarters of this already Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. In a statement, Morgen Thomas Ltd said that it was “honoured to be serving the UK Police Memorial”. The company said that its services were “delivered at cost, designed to be commensurate with management costs had the trust employed staff, and strictly reflect the time required to provide the very wide range of services for which we are contracted”. It said that the salaries of its staff which were being met by the charity were “not marked up to generate profit on the assignment as would be usual practice for any similar business”. The project has proved controversial with some police officers because there is already a police memorial in central London. The National Memorial Arboretum, which is located on the edge of the National Forest, already has monuments to the armed forces, voluntary organisations and civil groups.



the times Tuesday July 18 2017

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Roger Federer posed for selfies with Whitney Osuigwe and Catherine McNally, winners of the girls’ doubles, at Sunday night’s ball, which was also attended by Heather Watson, below left, and Russia’s Elena Vesnina

Partying Federer nets a hangover

R

oger Federer would have struggled to become a Wimbledon champion for the eighth time without obeying his nutritionist’s strict regimen, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, but for one night he let himself go (Jack Malvern writes). Federer, who at 35 is the oldest man to win the singles title in the open era, admitted that he had a rare hangover, which he blamed on mixing his drinks. “My head is ringing,” he said at a press conference yesterday. “I don’t know what I did last night. I drank too many different types of drinks I guess. But after the ball we went to a bar and there were about 30 or 40 friends there.” “I got to bed at 5 and I woke up and I didn’t feel good. But we had a good time.” His routine during tournaments and training is to get ten hours of sleep. He said that he did not dance with Garbiñe Muguruza, who won the ladies’ title, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen tradition dictates. “When there’s no music whatsoever it’s hard to

and Rafa’s generation the next one hasn’t been strong enough to push all of us out really. So that’s helpful for us to be able to keep hanging around.” Leading article, page 35 Interview, page 79

get going,” he said. He declined to predict whether he would try to break his own records, either by winning Wimbledon again or by achieving a 20th grand slam. “I haven’t set a sight on a number of grand slams; I was very

Adultery site pays exposed users $11.2m

content at 17, that was a wonderful number. So was 18 and now 19 is great. I think now it’s about enjoying myself, staying healthy and playing for titles.” He suggested that the next generation of players would struggle to

break through unless they played a more aggressive game. “I wish we would see more players, more coaches, taking chances at the net because good things do happen. A slugfest from the baseline with Murray, Djokovic or

Rafa? Good luck if you are 50th in the world. The young guys could choose not to play that way, but you can be sucked into a mode where you don’t want to attack. Since mine

The end: Britain’s rudest bookseller shuts up shop

Will Pavia New York

Owners of the Canadian website Ashley Madison, which encouraged users to commit adultery, have agreed to pay $11.2 million (£8.57 million) to customers whose details were published after its database was hacked in 2015. The names and credit card details of 37 million users were leaked, including an estimated one million Britons. Among the victims was a 56-year-old pastor at a Baptist college in New Orleans who committed suicide after the attack, leaving a note for his wife in which he expressed his regret for “having his name on there”. A police captain in Texas also killed himself. Many received blackmail messages, warning that if they did not make a payment of around $1,000 in Bitcoin, their partners would be informed. Those suing have agreed a proposed settlement with Ruby Corp, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, the rebranded company which owns Ashley Madison. Ruby did not admit wrongdoing but said it reached the settlement to avoid the expense and uncertainty of continued litigation. After the attack, it was discovered that 70,000 female user profiles on the site were in fact controlled by “fembots”: computer programmes that engaged male users to encourage them to sign up for extra, paid services. The bad publicity, however, does not seem to have been bad for business. The site had 5 million users in 2015 — by September last year it had 49 million.

Gabriella Swerling Northern Correspondent

The man known as “Britain’s rudest bookseller” is closing up and few people in the little Yorkshire town where he is based will shed many tears. Stephen Bloom, 64, says that he sold his shop of his own volition, partly to escape whining customers. Nestled in the heart of the Yorkshire Dales lies Bloomindales where, for the past 15 years, Mr Bloom has plied his trade. However, residents, tourists and customers in the market town of Hawes said that they could find little charm when visiting Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen shop. A “rude and patronising little man”, “offensive” and a “discredit to your lovely town” were just some of the complaints left after encounters with him. His policy of charging 50p to enter his shop — a tactic designed to deter time-wasting browsers — also provoked rows with customers but he refused to back down. He called one customer a “pain in the arse”, a comment he regretted. His reputation attracted national attention this year, when dozens of complaints were made to the parish council. Mr Bloom said that he was the victim of a Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen witch-hunt”. When contacted by The Times yesterday to ask why he was selling up, he said: “It’s a combination of things, it’s certainly not exclusively because of the pressure I have been under. I’m 64

Stephen Bloom charged 50p entry to his shop to discourage browsers

now, that’s retirement age. I’ve been doing it for 15 years. But it also has to be said, subconsciously or more overtly, the business has sort of got to me. The fact that people don’t like me or talk to me. “I hear people say, ‘That’s that shop that was on the news, he charges you 50p’, and a lot of unpleasantness, it polarises people. People are strongly for me, saying, ‘Good on yer mate’, and a lot of people are the opposite, saying I’m a horrible, rude man and all that. I don’t need it.” This month two customers have complained to the council about Mr Bloom. One wrote that a group of visitors were shocked by “what a very unpleasant rude man this is”, adding: “I

was so taken back and shocked that my family actually left Hawes altogether.” Another added: “I won’t be wasting any time or money returning to your town, frankly I hope your tricking and fleecing of tourists bankrupts your hall.” John Blackie, who represents Hawes on Richmondshire district council, has led the campaign to force Mr Bloom to either change his ways or leave the town. In an email to one of the most recent complainants he signified the town’s delight that he would be quitting, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. He wrote that despite complaints to the council slowing since January, the two new complaints this month show that “Mr Bloom is up to his old tricks again”. He added: “It could be, though, his renewed bout of rudeness and unpleasantness he showed towards you is that it is his last stand because. . Mr Bloom has sold his business and is expected to be leaving the town for good in the next two weeks. “If so in the opinion of very many local people, the parish council and myself, it is not a moment too soon and we cannot wait to wave goodbye for ever to a trader [and] his appalling and utterly unacceptable attitude towards his customers.” Regarding his retirement plans, Mr Bloom said that “the world’s my lobster” and he was looking forward to sitting in the garden, holidaying with his family or possibly working in book fairs “if my notoriety does not preclude me”.

University Challenge’s banana slip The BBC has admitted making a blunder after Jeremy Paxman gave the wrong answer to a question about who made Sir Billy Connolly’s big banana boots during a special edition of University Challenge. A team of Kent University graduates was asked to name the Scottish artist who had designed the famous footwear which the comedian wore during his early days in stand-up. The broadcaster Paul Ross, who was part of the team and answered “Nicola Sturgeon”, was told by Paxman that the answer was John Byrne, the Tutti Frutti writer. The boots, which are now on display in Glasgow’s People’s Palace, were in fact designed and made by the Glaswegian pop artist Edmund Smith. The artist’s daughter sent in a formal complaint to BBC bosses pointing out the error and they began an investigation. The corporation’s executive complaints unit has now upheld her complaint after admitting that the maker of the boots was even mentioned in Connolly’s official biography, written by his wife, Pamela Stephenson. The programme containing the error was broadcast on December 27 last year as part of a special festive series of the long-running BBC quiz. Byrne, a playwright who also wrote The Slab Boys, is an old friend of Connolly, 74, and recently painted a portrait of him for a BBC scheme that projected three murals of the comedian on to the side of Glasgow buildings.




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NMSOP Complete

New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (NMSOP) Volume 1

Editor Peter Bormann

GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam 2002

Impressum Editor: Peter Bormann GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) Telegrafenberg D-14473 Potsdam Germany Published by: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam Telegrafenberg D-14473 Potsdam Germany Layout: Peter Bormann (GFZ) and Werbedruck Schreckhase Print: Werbedruck Schreckhase, Drnbach 22, D-34286 Spangenberg, Germany ISBN 3-9808780-0-7 IASPEI 2002 All Rights Reserved. All rights, particularly those of translation into other foreign languages, are reserved by IASPEI. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Editor who acts as the IASPEI agent. This particularly applies to the use of any original material contained in this Manual in lecture notes and other publications (see Editorial remarks).

Contents Volume 1 & 2

Contents
Volume 1
List of contents Volume 1 & 2 Preface Editorial remarks Authors (their contributions to the NMSOP and addresses) iii xix xxi xxv

CHAPTER 1: Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (P. Bormann and E. A. Bergman)
1.1 1.2 History of the Manual Scope of the NMSOP 1.2.1 Historical and general conceptual background 1.2.2 Creation of awareness 1.2.2.1 The magnitude issue 1.2.2.2 Consequences of recent technical developments 1.2.2.3 The need for secondary phase readings 1.2.2.4 New seismic sensors and sensor calibration 1.2.2.5 What has to be considered when installing new seismic networks? 1.3 Philosophy of the NMSOP 1.4 Contents of the NMSOP 1.4.1 The printed manual 1.4.2 The NMSOP website (E. A. Bergman) 1.5 Outreach of the NMSOP Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 1 3 3 7 7 9 10 12 13 13 15 15 16 17 18 18

CHAPTER 2: Seismic Waves and Earth Models (P. Bormann, E. R. Engdahl and R. Kind)
2.1 2.2 Introduction Elasticity moduli and body waves 2.2.1 Elastic moduli 2.2.2 Stress-strain relationship 2.2.3 P- and S-wave velocities, waveforms and polarization Surface waves 2.3.1 Origin 2.3.2 Dispersion and polarization 1 2 2 4 6 11 11 13

2.3

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Contents Volume 1 & 2


2.3.3 Crustal surface waves and guided waves 2.3.4 Mantle surface waves 2.4 Normal modes 2.5 Seismic rays, travel times, amplitudes and phases 2.5.1 Introduction 2.5.2 Huygens and Fermats Principle and Snells Law 2.5.2.1 Snells Law for a flat Earth 2.5.2.2 Snells Law for the spherical Earth 2.5.3 Rays and travel times in laterally homogeneous (1-D) media 2.5.3.1 Velocity gradient 2.5.3.2 Effect of a sharp velocity increase 2.5.3.3 Effect of a low-velocity zone 2.5.3.4 Refraction, reflection, and conversion of waves at a boundary 2.5.3.5 Seismic rays and travel times in homogeneous models with horizontal and tilted layers 2.5.3.6 Wiechert-Herglotz inversion 2.5.4 Amplitudes and phases 2.5.4.1 Energy of seismic waves 2.5.4.2 Wave attenuation 2.5.4.3 Phase distortions and Hilbert transform 2.5.4.4 Effects not explained by ray theory 2.6 Seismic phases and travel times in the real Earth 2.6.1 Seismic phases and travel times from local and regional seismic events 2.6.2 Seismic phases and travel times at teleseismic distances 2.7 Global Earth models (E. R. Engdahl) 2.8 Synthetic seismograms and waveform modeling (R. Kind, P. Bormann) Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 17 19 21 24 24 25 26 26 27 Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen 28 31 32 33 35 36 36 37 39 40 42 43 47 57 63 70 70

CHAPTER 3: Seismic Sources and Source Parameters (P. Bormann, M. Baumbach, G. Bock !, H. Grosser, G. L. Choy and J. Boatwright)
3.1 Introduction to seismic sources and source parameters (P. Bormann) 3.1.1 Types and peculiarities of seismic source processes 3.1.1.1 Tectonic earthquakes 3.1.1.2 Volcanic earthquakes 3.1.1.3 Explosions, implosions and other seismic events 3.1.1.4 Microseisms 3.1.2 Parameters which characterize size and strength of seismic sources 3.1.2.1 Macroseismic intensity 3.1.2.2 Magnitude and seismic energy 3.1.2.3 Seismic source spectrum, seismic moment and size of the source area 3.1.2.4 Orientation of the fault plane and the fault slip 3.1.3 Mathematical source representation 3.1.4 Detailed analysis of rupture kinematics and dynamics in space and time 3.1.5 Summary and conclusions 1 1 2 4 4 6 6 6 7 7 10 12 12 15

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3.2 Magnitude of seismic events (P. Bormann) 3.2.1 History, scope and limitations of the magnitude concept 3.2.2 General assumptions and definition of magnitude 3.2.3 General rules and procedures for magnitude determination 3.2.4 Magnitude scales for local events 3.2.4.1 The original Richter magnitude scale Ml 3.2.4.2 Other Ml scales based on amplitude measurements 3.2.4.3 Duration magnitude Md 3.2.5 Common teleseismic magnitude scales 3.2.5.1 Surface wave magnitude scale Ms 3.2.5.2 Magnitude scales for teleseismic body waves 3.2.5.3 Moment magnitude Mw 3.2.6 Complementary magnitude scales 3.2.6.1 Mantle magnitude Mm 3.2.6.2 Energy magnitude Me 3.2.6.3 Broadband and spectral P-wave magnitude scales 3.2.6.4 Short-period P-wave magnitude scale 3.2.6.5 Short-period PKP-wave magnitude 3.2.6.6 Lg-wave magnitudes 3.2.6.7 Macroseismic magnitudes 3.2.6.8 High-frequency moments and magnitudes 3.2.6.9 Tsunami magnitudes 3.2.7 Relationships among magnitude scales 3.2.8. Summary remarks about magnitudes and their perspective Radiated seismic energy and energy magnitude (G. L. Choy, J. Boatwright) 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 How is radiated seismic energy measured? 3.3.2.1 Method 3.3.2.2 Data 3.3.3 Development of an energy magnitude, Me 3.3.4 The relationship of radiated energy to moment and apparent stress 3.3.5 The relationship of Me to Mw 3.3.6 Regional estimates of radiated seismic energy 3.3.7 Conclusions Determination of fault-plane solutions (M. Baumbach, H. Grosser) 3.4.1 Introduction 3.4.2 Manual determination of fault-plane solutions 3.4.3 Accuracy of fault-plane solutions 3.4.4 Computer-assisted fault-plane solutions Source parameters and moment-tensor solutions (G. Bock !) 3.5.1 Introduction 3.5.2 Basic relations 3.5.3 An inversion scheme in the time domain 3.5.4 Decomposition of the moment tensor 3.5.5 Steps taken in moment-tensor inversion 3.5.6 Some methods of moment-tensor inversion 3.5.6.1 NEIC fast moment tensors 3.5.6.2 Harvard CMT solutions 3.5.6.3 EMSC rapid source parameter determinations 3.5.6.4 Relative moment-tensor inversion 16 16 18 19 23 24 25 27 29 30 33 36 36 36 37 38 40 42 42 43 45 46 46 49 50 50 51 51 53 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 62 69 69 71 71 71 74 77 78 79 79 79 80 80

3.3

3.4

3.5

Contents Volume 1 & 2


3.5.6.5 NEIC broadband depths and fault-plane solutions Seismic scaling relations (P. Bormann) 3.6.1 Definition and use of seismic scaling relations 3.6.2 Energy-magnitude-moment relations 3.6.3 Moment-magnitude relations 3.6.4 Scaling relations of M, M0 and ES with fault parameters 3.6.5 Similarity conditions Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 3.6 80 82 82 82 85 86 93 93 94

CHAPTER 4: Seismic Signals and Noise (P. Bormann)


Nature and presentation of seismic signals and noise 4.1.1 Seismic signals 4.1.2 Seismic noise 4.1.3 Conversion of spectral amplitudes or power densities into recording amplitudes 4.2 Peculiarities of signal appearance in seismic records 4.2.1 Influence of the seismograph response: Empirical case studies 4.2.2 Theoretical considerations on signal distortion in seismic records 4.3 Causes and characteristics of ambient seismic noise 4.3.1 Ocean microseisms and ocean bottom noise 4.3.2 Short-period seismic noise 4.3.3 Long-period seismic noise 4.4 Measures for improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) 4.4.1 Frequency filtering 4.4.2 Velocity filtering and beamforming 4.4.3 Noise prediction-error filtering 4.4.4 Noise polarization filtering 4.4.5 SNR improvement by recordings in subsurface mines and boreholes 4.4.6 Signal variations due to local site conditions Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 4.1 1 1 3 8 11 11 14 18 18 21 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 31 33 33

CHAPTER 5: Seismic Sensors and their Calibration (E. Wielandt)


5.1 5.2 Overview Basic Theory 5.2.1 The complex notation 5.2.2 The Laplace transformation 5.2.3 The Fourier transformation 5.2.4 The impulse response 5.2.5 The convolution theorem 5.2.6 Specifying a system 5.2.7 The transfer function of a WWSSN-LP seismograph 5.2.8 The mechanical pendulum 5.2.9 Transfer functions of pendulums and electromagnetic seismometers 1 3 3 4 5 7 8 9 9 13 14

vi

Contents Volume 1 & 2


Design of seismic sensors 5.3.1 Pendulum-type seismometers 5.3.2 Decreasing the restoring force 5.3.3 Sensitivity of horizontal seismometers to tilt 5.3.4 Direct effects of barometric pressure 5.3.5 Effects of temperature 5.3.6 The homogeneous triaxial arrangement 5.3.7 Electromagnetic velocity sensing and damping 5.3.8 Electronic displacement sensing 5.4 Force-balance accelerometers and seismometers 5.4.1 The force-balance principle 5.4.2 Force-balance accelerometers 5.4.3 Velocity broadband seismometers 5.4.4 Other methods of bandwidth extension 5.5 Seismic noise, site selection and installation 5.5.1 The USGS low-noise model 5.5.2 Site selection 5.5.3 Seismometer installation 5.5.4 Magnetic shielding 5.6 Instrumental self-noise 5.6.1 Electromagnetic short-period seismographs 5.6.2 Force-balance seismometers 5.6.3 Transient disturbances 5.7 Calibration 5.7.1 Electrical and mechanical calibration 5.7.2 General conditions 5.7.3 Calibration of geophones 5.7.4 Calibration with sinewaves 5.7.5 Step response and weight-lift test 5.7.6 Calibration with arbitrary signals 5.7.7 Calibration of triaxial seismometers 5.7.8 Calibration against a reference sensor 5.8 Procedures for the mechanical calibration 5.8.1 Calibration on a shake table 5.8.2 Calibration by stepwise motion 5.8.3 Calibration with tilt 5.9 Free software 5.9.1 Programs by J. Bribach in Turbo Pascal 5.9.2 Programs by E. Wielandt in Fortran 5.9.3 Free seismic software packages from other sources Acknowledgments 5.3 17 17 18 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 41 41 42 44 45 45 45 46 46

CHAPTER 6: Seismic Recording Systems (G. Asch)


6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction Analog signal preparation 6.2.1 The Analog Signal Preparation section 6.2.2 Analog filters Analog to digital conversion 1 2 2 3 3

vii

Contents Volume 1 & 2


6.3.1 Sampling theorem 6.3.2 Oversampling 6.3.3 Digital filters 6.3.4 Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) 6.3.5 Noise test 6.3.6 The Crystal chip set 6.3.7 The Quanterra family 6.4 Time base 6.5 Data management 6.5.1 Storage Media 6.5.2 Data formats, compression and metadata 6.6 Conclusions and final remarks 6.7 Glossary of technical terms and links Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 4 6 8 8 11 12 14 14 15 15 16 18 18 20 20

CHAPTER 7: Site Selection, Preparation and Installation of Seismic Stations (A. Trnkoczy, P. Bormann, W. Hanka, L. G. Holcomb and R. L. Nigbor)
7.1 Factors affecting seismic site quality and site selection procedure (A. Trnkoczy) 7.1.1 Introduction 7.1.2 Offsite studies 7.1.2.1 Definition of the geographic region of interest 7.1.2.2 Seismo-geological considerations 7.1.2.3 Topographical considerations 7.1.2.4 Station access considerations 7.1.2.5 Evaluation of seismic noise sources 7.1.2.6 Seismic data transmission and power considerations 7.1.2.7 Land ownership and future land use 7.1.2.8 Climatic considerations 7.1.3 Field studies 7.1.3.1 Station access verification 7.1.3.2 Local seismic noise sources and seismic noise measurements 7.1.3.3 Field study of seismo-geological conditions 7.1.3.4 Field survey of radio frequency (RF) conditions 7.1.3.5 Shallow seismic profiling 7.1.4 Using computer models to determine network layout capabilities Investigation of noise and signal conditions at potential sites (P. Bormann) 7.2.1 Introduction 7.2.2 Reconnaissance noise Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen prior to station site selection 7.2.2.1 Offsite assessment of expected noise levels and measurement of instrumental self-noise 7.2.2.2 Sensor installation, measurements and logbook entries in the field 7.2.2.3 Case study of noise records in the frequency range 0.3 Hz < f < 50 Hz 1 1 2 2 4 5 5 5 8 8 8 9 10 10 12 12 12 13 15 15 16 16 18 20

7.2

viii

Contents Volume 1 & 2


7.2.3 Comparison of noise and signals at permanent seismological stations 7.2.3.1 Introduction 7.2.3.2 Data analysis 7.2.3.3 Results 7.2.4 Searching for alternative sites in a given network 7.2.4.1 Geological and infrastructure considerations 7.2.4.2 Recording conditions and data analysis of temporary noise measurements for alternative permanent broadband stations 7.2.4.3 Results of noise and signal Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen at BRNL and RUE 7.2.4.4 Results of noise and signal measurements at HAM and BSEG 7.2.4.5 Causes of spectral noise reduction at RUE and BSEG and conclusions Data transmission by radio-link and RF survey (A. Trnkoczy) 7.3.1 Introduction 7.3.2 Types of RF data transmission used in seismology 7.3.3 The need for a professional radio frequency (RF) survey 7.3.4 Benefits of a professional RF survey 7.3.5 Radio-frequency (RF) survey procedure 7.3.6 The problem of radio-frequency interference Seismic station site preparation, instrument installation and shielding 7.4.1 Introduction and general requirements (A. Trnkoczy) 7.4.2 Vault-type seismic stations (A. Trnkoczy) 7.4.2.1 Controlling environmental conditions Mitigating temperature changes Thermal tilt mitigation Lightning protection Electro-Magnetic Interference protection Water protection Protection from small animals 7.4.2.2 Contact with bedrock 7.4.2.3 Seismic soil-structure interaction and wind-generated noise 7.4.2.4 Other noise sources 7.4.2.5 Electrical grounding 7.4.2.6 Vault construction 7.4.2.7 Miscellaneous Hints Vault cover design Alternative materials Mitigating vandalism Fixing seismometers to the ground 7.4.3 Seismic installations in tunnels and mines (L. G. Holcomb) 7.4.4 Parameters which influence the very long-period performance of a seismological station: examples from the GEOFON Network (W. Hanka) 7.4.4.1 Introduction 7.4.4.2 Comparison of instrumentation and installation Which seismometer to choose? Installation of an STS1/VBB Installation of an STS2 7.4.4.3 Comparison of vault constructions, depth of burial, 25 25 26 27 31 31 32 33 35 38 39 39 39 41 42 43 45 46 46 47 48 48 53 54 55 55 57 57 58 58 59 61 62 62 62 62 62 63 64 64 65 65 66 67

7.3

7.4

ix

Contents Volume 1 & 2


geology and climate Tunnel vaults Shallow vaults Surface vaults in moderate climate Surface vaults in arctic climate 7.4.4.4 Conclusions 7.4.5 Broadband seismic installations in boreholes (L. G. Holcomb) 7.4.5.1 Introduction 7.4.5.2 Noise attenuation with depth 7.4.5.3 Site selection criteria 7.4.5.4 Contracting 7.4.5.5 Suggested borehole specifications 7.4.5.6 Instrument installation techniques 7.4.5.7 Typical borehole parameters 7.4.5.8 Commercial sources of borehole instruments 7.4.5.9 Instrument noise 7.4.5.10 Organizations with known noteworthy borehole experience 7.4.6 Borehole strong-motion array installation (R. L. Nigbor) 7.4.6.1 Introduction 7.4.6.2 Borehole array planning Location Geologic implications Coupling and retrievability issues Sensor orientation Systems issues 7.4.6.3 Borehole preparation Planning Selection of drilling contractor Permits Drilling Geotechnical sampling Casing Grouting 7.4.6.4 Geotechnical/Geophysical measurements Literature search Pre-installation geophysical studies Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen Lithology logging Laboratory testing of soil samples Borehole geophysical measurements 7.4.6.5 Installation procedure Sensor installation Orientation Operational checkout Evaluation period Coupling/Locking Documentation/Reporting 7.4.6.6 Costs 68 68 70 72 73 73 75 75 76 77 78 78 80 82 83 84 85 86 87 89 89 91 92 92 93 93 93 95 95 96 97 99 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 105 105 106 106 106 107 107 107

Contents Volume 1 & 2


Special references Acknowledgments 108 108

CHAPTER 8: Seismic Networks (A. Trnkoczy, J. Havskov and L. Ottemller)


8.1 8.2 8.3 Introduction Seismic network purpose Seismic sensors 8.3.1 General considerations 8.3.2 Seismometers and/or accelerometers? 8.3.3 One- and three-component seismic stations 8.3.4 Sensitivity of seismic sensors 8.3.5 Frequency range of seismic sensors 8.3.6 Short-period (SP) seismometers 8.3.7 Broadband (BB) seismometers 8.3.8 Very broadband (VBB) seismometers 8.3.9 Long-period (LP) passive seismometers Seismic network configuration 8.4.1 Physical and virtual seismic networks 8.4.2 Physical seismic networks 8.4.2.1 Stand alone, central-recording, and network-based seismic systems 8.4.2.2 Proprietary versus standardized off-the-shelf hardware solutions 8.4.3 Virtual seismic networks 8.4.3.1 General considerations 8.4.3.2 Examples 8.4.4 The choice between physical and virtual seismic systems Seismic data acquisition 8.5.1 Digital versus analog data acquisition 8.5.1.1 Analog seismic systems 8.5.1.2 Mixed analog/digital systems 8.5.1.3 Digital seismic systems 8.5.2 Trigger algorithms and their implementation 8.5.2.1 Continuous versus triggered mode of data acquisition 8.5.2.2 Trigger algorithm types 8.5.2.3 Coincidence trigger principle 8.5.2.4 Ring-buffer seismic systems Seismic data transmission and network examples 8.6.1 General considerations 8.6.2 Types of physical data transmission links used in seismology 8.6.3 Simplex versus duplex data transmission links 8.6.4 Data transmission protocols and some examples of their use 8.6.5 Compression of digital seismic data 8.6.6 Error-correction methods used with seismic signals 8.6.7 Seismic data transmission and timing 8.6.8 Notes on dial-up phone lines and selection of modems 8.6.9 Some network examples 8.6.9.1 International Monitoring System (IMS) 8.6.9.2 Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) 8.6.9.3 Japanese Seismic Networks (Hi-net, F-net and K-NET/KiK-net) xi 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 14 15 15 15 15 16 18 18 18 Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen 20 20 20 21 22 22 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 29

8.4

8.5

8.6

Contents Volume 1 & 2


8.6.9.4 German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) 8.6.9.5 Norwegian National Seismic Network 8.7 Seismic shelters 8.7.1 Purpose of seismic shelters and lightning protection 8.7.2 Types of seismic shelters 8.7.3 Civil engineering works at vault seismic stations 8.8 Establishing and running a new physical seismic network 8.8.1 Planning and feasibility study 8.8.1.1 Goal setting 8.8.1.2. Financial reality 8.8.1.3 Basic system engineering parameters 8.8.1.4 Determining the layout of a physical seismic network 8.8.1.5 Number of stations in a physical seismic network 8.8.1.6 Laying out a new seismic network 8.8.2 Site selection 8.8.3 VHF, UHF and SS radio-link data transmission study 8.8.3.1 The need for a professional RF network design 8.8.3.2 Problems with RF interference 8.8.3.3 Organization of RF data transmission network design 8.8.4 Purchasing a physical seismic system 8.8.4.1 The bidding process 8.8.4.2 Selecting a vendor 8.8.4.3 Equipment selection 8.8.4.4 The seismic equipment market is small 8.8.5 System installation 8.8.5.1 Four ways of physical seismic system installation 8.8.5.2 Organization of civil engineering works 8.8.6 Running a physical seismic network 8.8.6.1 Tuning of physical seismic networks 8.8.6.2 Organizing routine operation tasks 8.8.6.3 System maintenance 8.8.6.4 Sensor calibration 8.8.6.5 Archiving seismic data 8.8.6.6 Dissemination of seismic data Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 39 40 41 41 43 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 49 50 50 50 52 52 52 54 55 56 57 58 59 59

CHAPTER 9: Seismic Arrays (J. Schweitzer, J. Fyen, S. Mykkeltveit and T. Kvaerna)


9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Outline Introduction Examples of seismic arrays Array beamforming 9.4.1 Geometrical parameters 9.4.2 Apparent velocity and slowness 9.4.3 Plane-wave time delays for sites in the same horizontal plane 9.4.4 Plane-wave time delays when including the elevation of sites 9.4.5 Beamforming xii 1 1 3 7 9 11 13 14 15

Contents Volume 1 & 2


9.4.6 Examples of beamforming Beamforming and detection processing Array transfer function Slowness estimation using seismic arrays 9.7.1 Slowness estimate by f-k analysis 9.7.2 Beampacking (time domain wavenumber analysis) 9.7.3 Slowness estimate by time picks 9.7.4 Time delay corrections 9.7.5 Slowness corrections 9.7.6 The correlation method used at the UKAEA arrays 9.7.7 The VESPA process 9.7.8 The n-th root process and weighted stack methods 9.8 Array design for the purpose of maximizing the SNR gain 9.8.1 The gain formula 9.8.2 Collection of correlation data during site surveys 9.8.3 Correlation curves derived from experimental data 9.8.4 Example: A possible design strategy for a 9-element array 9.9. Routine processing of small-aperture array data at NORSAR 9.9.1 Introduction 9.9.2 Detection Processing DP 9.9.3 Signal Attribute Processing SAP 9.9.4 Event Processing EP 9.10 Operational and planned seismic arrays Acknowledgments 9.5 9.6 9.7 17 18 23 27 27 29 30 31 32 33 33 35 36 36 37 38 39 41 41 44 44 48 49 51

CHAPTER 10: Seismic Data Formats, Archival and Exchange (B. Dost, J. Zednik, J. Havskov, R. J. Willemann and P. Bormann)
Introduction (P. Bormann) Parameter formats (J. Havskov, R. J. Willemann) 10.2.1 HYPO71 10.2.2 HPOINVERSE 10.2.3 Nordic format 10.2.4 The GMS/IMS formats 10.2.5 The IASPEI Seismic Format (ISF) 10.3 Digital waveform data 10.3.1 Data archival 10.3.2 Data exchange formats 10.3.3 Formats for data base systems 10.3.4 Continuous data protocols and formats 10.4 Some commonly encountered digital data formats 10.5 Format conversions 10.5.1 Why convert? 10.5.2 Ways to convert 10.5.3 Conversion programs Acknowledgments Special references 10.1 10.2 1 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 8 9 10 10 11 Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen 17 17 17 20 20

xiii

Contents Volume 1 & 2 CHAPTER 11: Data Analysis and Seismogram Interpretation (P. Bormann, K. Klinge and S. Wendt)
Introduction 1 Criteria and parameters for routine seismogram analysis 7 11.2.1 Record duration and dispersion 7 11.2.2 Key parameters: Onset time, amplitude, period and polarity 7 11.2.3 Advanced wavelet parameter reporting from digital records 11 11.2.4 Criteria to be used for phase identification 12 11.2.4.1 Travel time and slowness 12 11.2.4.2 Amplitudes, dominating periods and waveforms 14 11.2.4.3 Polarization 19 11.2.4.4 Example for documenting and reporting of seismogram parameter readings 22 11.2.5 Criteria to be used in event identification and discrimination 24 11.2.5.1 Discrimination between shallow and deep earthquakes 24 11.2.5.2 Discrimination between natural earthquakes and man-made seismic events 28 11.2.6 Quick event identification and location by means of single-station three-component recordings 32 11.2.6.1 What is the best way of analyzing three-component seismograms? 32 11.2.6.2 Hypocenter location 34 11.2.7 Magnitude determination 38 11.2.8 Hypocenter location by means of network and array recordings 39 11.3 Routine signal processing of digital seismograms 39 11.3.1 Signal detection 39 11.3.2 Signal filtering, restitution and simulation 40 11.3.3 Signal coherency at networks and arrays 51 11.3.4 f-k and vespagram analysis 52 11.3.5 Beamforming 56 11.3.6 Polarization analysis 57 11.4 Software for routine analysis 58 11.4.1 SHM 58 11.4.2 SEISAN 60 11.4.3 PITSA 60 11.4.4 GIANT 60 11.4.5 Other programs and ORFEUS software links 60 11.5 Examples of seismogram analysis 61 11.5.1 Seismograms from near sources (0 < D 15) 63 11.5.2 Teleseismic earthquakes (15< D < 180) 72 11.5.2.1 Distance range 15< D 28 72 11.5.2.2 Distance range 28 < D 100 75 11.5.2.3 Distance range 100 < D 144 80 11.5.2.4 Core distance range beyond 144 87 11.5.3 Late and very late core phases 89 11.5.4 Final remarks on the recording and analysis of teleseismic Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen 99 Acknowledgments 100 Recommended overview readings 100 11.1 11.2

xiv

Contents Volume 1 & 2 CHAPTER 12: Intensity and Intensity Scales (R. M, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. W. Musson)
12.1 Intensity and the history of intensity scales 12.1.1 European Macroseismic Scale (EMS) 12.1.2 Modified Mercalli (MM) Scale 12.1.3 Accuracy of assessment 12.1.4 Equivalence between scales 12.2 Collection of macroseismic data 12.2.1 Macroseismic questionnaires 12.2.2 Field investigations 12.3 Processing of macroseismic data 12.3.1 Assessing intensity from data 12.3.2 Isoseismal maps 12.3.2.1 Example of an isoseismal map 12.3.3 Determination of earthquake parameters from macroseismic data 12.3.3.1 Macroseismic epicenter 12.3.3.2 Epicentral intensity 12.3.3.3 Macroseismic magnitude 12.3.3.4 Estimation of focal depth 12.3.4 Intensity attenuation 12.3.5 Relationship with ground motion parameters Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 1 2 4 5 6 7 7 10 11 11 12 15 16 16 16 17 18 19 20 20 20

CHAPTER 13: Volcano Seismology (J. Wassermann)


13.1 13.2 Introduction 13.1.1 Why a different chapter? 13.1.2 Why use seismology when forecasting volcanic eruptions? Classification and source models of volcano-seismic signals 13.2.1 Transient volcano-seismic signals 13.2.1.1 Volcanic-Tectonic events (deep and shallow) 13.2.1.2 Low-Frequency Events 13.2.1.3 Hybrid events, Multi-Phases events 13.2.1.4 Explosion quakes, very-low-frequency Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, ultra-low-frequency events 13.2.2 Continuous volcanic-seismic signals 13.2.2.1 Volcanic tremor (low-viscous two-phase flow and eruption tremor) 13.2.2.2 Volcanic tremor (high-viscous - resonating gas phase) 13.2.2.3 Surface processes 13.2.3 Special note on noise Design of a monitoring network 13.3.1 Station site selection 13.3.2 Station distribution 13.3.3 Seismic arrays in volcano monitoring 13.3.4 Network of seismic arrays Analysis and interpretation 13.4.1 One-component single station 13.4.1.1 Spectral analysis xv 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 6 7 11 11 13 15 17 18 18 18 19 19 21 21 22

13.3

13.4

Contents Volume 1 & 2


13.4.1.2 Envelope, RSAM and cumulative amplitude measurements 13.4.2 Three-component single station 13.4.2.1 Polarization 13.4.2.2 Polarization filters 13.4.3 Network 13.4.3.1 Hypocenter determination by travel-time differences 13.4.3.2 Amplitude - distance curves 13.4.4 Seismic arrays 13.4.4.1 f-k beamforming 13.4.4.2 Array polarization 13.4.4.3 Hypocenter determination using seismic arrays 13.4.4.4 Classification problem using seismic arrays 13.4.5 Automatic analysis 13.5 Other monitoring techniques 13.5.1 Ground deformation 13.5.2 Micro-Gravimetry 13.5.3 Gas monitoring 13.5.4 Meteorological parameters 13.6 Technical considerations 13.6.1 Site 13.6.2 Sensors and digitizers 13.6.3 Analog versus digital telemetry 13.6.4 Power considerations 13.6.5 Data center Acknowledgments Recommended overview readings 23 26 26 26 28 28 30 31 31 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 38 38 38 39 40 41 41 42 42

Volume 2
ANNEXES
List of contents Volume 2 xxxi number of pages 12 8 10 14 44 24 6

Datasheets
DS 2.1 DS 3.1 DS 5.1 DS 11.1 DS 11.2 DS 11.3

Global 1-D Earth Models (P. Bormann) Magnitude calibration functions and complementary data (P. Bormann) Common seismic sensors (E. Wielandt) Additional local and regional seismogram examples (K. Klinge) Additional seismogram examples in the distance range 13-100 (K. Klinge) Additional seismogram examples at distances beyond 100 (K. Klinge, S. Wendt, P. Bormann) DS 11.4 Record examples of underground nuclear explosions (K. Klinge, J. Schweitzer, P. Bormann)

xvi

Contents Volume 1 & 2 Exercises


EX 3.1 Magnitude determinations (P. Bormann) EX 3.2 Determination of fault plane solutions (M. Baumbach, P. Bormann) EX 3.3 Take-off angle calculations for fault plane solutions and reconstruction of nodal planes from the parameters of fault-plane solutions (P. Bormann) EX 3.4 Determination of source parameters from seismic spectra (M. Baumbach, P. Bormann) EX 3.5 Moment tensor determination and decomposition (F. Krger, G. Bock !) EX 4.1 Bandwidth-dependent transformation of noise data from frequency into time domain and vice versa (P. Bormann, E. Wielandt) EX 5.1 Plotting seismograph response (BODE-diagram) (J. Bribach) EX 5.2 Estimating seismometer parameters by step function (STEP) (J. Bribach) EX 5.3 Seismometer calibration by harmonic drive (J. Bribach, Ch. Teupser!) EX 5.4 Seismometer calibration with program CALEX (E. Wielandt) EX 5.5 Determination of seismograph response from poles and zeros (E. Wielandt) EX 11.1 Estimating the epicenters of local and regional seismic sources by hand, using the circle and chord method (P. Bormann, K. Wylegalla) EX 11.2 Earthquake location at teleseismic distances by hand from 3-component records (P. Bormann, K. Wylegalla) EX 11.3 Identification and analysis of short-period core phases (S. Wendt, P. Bormann) 8 8 6 6 4 8 4 6 2 4 8 8 10 16

Information Sheets
IS 2.1 IS 3.1 IS 3.2 IS 5.1 IS 5.2 IS 7.1 Standard nomenclature of seismic phases (D. A. Storchak, P. Bormann, J. Schweitzer) Theoretical source representation (H. Grosser, P. Bormann, A. Udias) Proposal for unique magnitude nomenclature (P. Bormann) Strainmeters (W. Zrn) Constructing response curves: Introduction to the BODE-diagram (J. Bribach) What to prepare and provide if seismic site selection is purchased? (A. Trnkoczy) Using existing communication tower sites as seismic sites (A. Trnkoczy) Recommended minimal distances of seismic sites from sources of seismic noise (A. Trnkoczy) Detectability and earthquake location accuracy modeling of seismic networks (M. ivi, J. Ravnik) Understanding and parameter setting Miracle Box 3.09 Crack Download Archives STA/LTA trigger algorithm (A. Trnkoczy) Seismic data transmission links used in seismology in brief (A. Trnkoczy) Retrieving data from IRIS/USGS stations (C. Peterson) Data-Type Bulletin IMS1.0: Short (R. J. Willemann) Example of station parameter reports grouped according IMS1.0 with ISF1.0 extensions (R. J. Willemann) Access to the CMR seismic/hydroacoustic/infrasonic data (X. Yang, R. North) Earthquake location (J. Havskov, P. Bormann, J. Schweitzer) xvii 18 20 6 8 6 2 2 2 4 20 4 8 8 6 16 28

IS 7.2 IS 7.3 IS 7.4 IS 8.1 IS 8.2 IS 8.3 IS 10.1 IS 10.2

IS 10.3 IS 11.1

Contents Volume 1 & 2


IS 11.2 Reports and bulletins (G. Hartmann) IS 11.3 Animation of seismic ray propagation and seismogram formation (S. Wendt, U. Starke, P. Bormann) 2 6

Program Descriptions
PD 4.1 PD 5.1 PD 5.2 PD 5.3 PD 5.4 PD 5.5 PD 5.6 PD 5.7 PD 5.8 PD 5.9 PD 11.1 PD 11.2 NOISECON (E. Wielandt) CALIBRAT (J. Bribach) CALEX (E. Wielandt) DISPCAL (E. Wielandt) DISPCAL1 (E. Wielandt) TILTCAL (E. Wielandt) SINFIT (E. Wielandt) UNICROSP (E. Wielandt) POL_ZERO (E. Wielandt) WINPLOT (E. Wielandt) HYPOSAT/HYPOMOD (J. Schweitzer) LAUFZE/LAUFPS (J. Schweitzer) 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16 14

Miscellaneous
Acronyms Glossary References Index 8 26 34 32

xviii

Preface

Preface
The New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (NMSOP or "the Manual") is an initiative of the former Commission on Practice (CoP) of the International Association of Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen and Physics of the Earth Interior (IASPEI). At its meeting in conjunction with the IASPEI General Assembly in Wellington, New Zealand, January 1994, the CoP established a Working Group on the Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice. Peter Bormann agreed to chair the group. A first concept for the NMSOP was put forward at the General Assembly of IASPEIs European Seismological Commission (ESC) in Athens, Greece, September Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen (Bormann, 1994). At subsequent meetings and through correspondence, Working Group members were found, willing to contribute major chapters, topical sections or complementary annexes to the Manual. Over the course of time the original conception of the organization of the Manual evolved, in response to the material that authors actually provided. The authorship itself changed as well, as some people dropped out and replacements emerged. This has delayed the completion of the NMSOP. In support of the NMSOP the Manual Working Group organized six open workshop sessions in conjunction with IASPEI and ESC assemblies, with oral and poster presentations as well as Internet presentations of the Manual website under development, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. The history of the Manual and its forerunners, the activities of the Working Group, as well as the scope, philosophy and expected outreach of the NMSOP, are outlined in more detail in Chapter 1. In total, 40 authors and contributors from nine countries have collaborated in producing about 1250 pages of new drafts (see list of authors and contributors). These were reviewed extensively both within the Working Group and by 35 external reviewers from 10 countries. Thus we hope to have produced a Manual that will be considered useful not only for the daily work of Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen at seismological observatories and centers for data analysis, but which may also find interest in a broader context of education in Earth sciences and training at universities and secondary schools. In order to engage the broadest possible user community, the Working Group has decided to make the NMSOP available both in printed and electronic form. We have refrained from issuing the NMSOP as a voluminous bound book produced by a commercial publisher, in order to assure that the NMSOP will be affordable for all its intended users, particularly in developing countries, and so that it can be easily and quickly up-dated without waiting years for a costly new edition. Rather, it will be printed as a loose-leaf collection in two clampfolders, Vol. I for the 13 main chapters and Vol. II for annexed complementary data and information sheets, program descriptions and exercises with solutions. All documents have their individual page numbers. Thus, any chapter or section/sheet requiring up-dating can be further developed individually and circulated as an E-mail attachment or downloaded from a website, replacing the old version. New chapters and annexes will be circulated as soon as they have passed the review process by the IASPEI Commission on Seismological Observation and Interpretation (CoSOI), the successor to CoP. Therefore, although the Working Group realizes that the first edition of the NMSOP is missing some intended sections (e.g., treatment of strong-motion instrumentation and data processing, ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) installations and data, CTBTO1)-related applications and procedures, data exchange procedures with World Data Centres (WDCs) in seismology, etc.), we decided not to withhold any longer what is already completed. ______
1)

CTBTO Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

xix

Preface
Besides the printed version, the NMSOP will also be made available as a CD-ROM and on the Internet. The CD-ROM, which comes together with Volume 2 of the Manual, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, additionally offers animations of seismic ray propagation and the formation of seismic recordings in the local and teleseismic range up to an epicentral distances of 167. A preliminary version of the Manual has also been included in the complementary CD-ROM which accompanies Part B of the International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology (Lee et al., 2002). Since 1996 parts of the old MSOP (Willmore, 1979) and preliminary versions of NMSOP chapters and worksheets were already put on the website of Global Seismological Services (http://www.seismo.com/msop/msop_intro.html). This website will be completed and updated during 2003, providing the Manual with hyperlinks between the many chapters and annexes. This will ease the search for specific items, instructions and related publications. It will also allow retrieving self-tailored education and training modules. In the case of open questions about material in the Manual, users are invited to consult the authors directly (with copy to the editor). Their full addresses have been given in the list of authors and contributors. Any piece of information contained in the NMSOP will be made freely available for noncommercial use, provided that full reference is given to the NMSOP publication as a whole and to the author(s) and title of any specific chapter, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, section or annex. However, reproduction of any piece of information, figures in particular, in other publications will require copyright permission by IASPEI through the Editor who has been designated as the Associations agent. The Manual is the result of a cooperative international effort. It should be maintained under the auspices of IASPEI/CoSOI to assure that the seismological community can always refer to up-to-date and IASPEI-authorized guidance in observatory practice. Anyone with suggestions about important pieces of information which should be added to the Manual or who feels fit to make a related contribution himself should inform the editor. All suggestions for further improvement and eliminating errors and typos are very welcome. The members of the Manual Working Group would like to express their gratitude to Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen for entrusting this important task to them and for the continuous encouragement provided by CoP/CoSOI. Particular thanks go to the many external reviewers2). Their constructive criticism and suggestions have greatly facilitated the completion of this work and helped to improve the original drafts. Specific acknowledgments are given at the end of individual chapters. Special thanks go to Ms. Margaret Adams (UK/USA) for final English proofreading of the whole manuscript and to the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) for its support given to the printing of the Manual. The Editor also acknowledges the valuable technical assistance provided by Ms. J. Suckale, Ms. A. Sachse, Ms. U. Borchert, Ms. R. Stromeyer, Mr. Ch. Nerger and Mr. L. Gabrysch. Without their help in consistent formatting, drawing of figures and compiling the lists of acronyms, the glossary and the index, the Manual would not have been completed in due time. IASPEI and NORSAR provided grants to make Manual copies available to users most in need, particularly in developing countries. Potsdam, October 2002 _____
2)

P. Bormann (on behalf of the IASPEI WG NMSOP)

Names of external reviewers (in alphabetic order together with the numbers of the reviewed chapters/sections in brackets): R. D. Adams (IS 2.1, 11; EX 3.1; EX 11.1-11.3); Ye. A. Babkova (11.5); W. Brstle (3); L. S. epkunas (11.5); J. W. Dewey (3.1-3.3); A. Douglas (11; IS 11.1; EX 3.1; EX 11.1-11.3); A. Elgamal (7.4.6); V. K. A. Fogleman (8); I. P. Gabsatarova (11.2; 11.5); G. Grnthal (12); A. A. Gusev (3.1-3.3); E. Hjortenberg (4); C. R. Hutt (7.4.4); K.-H. Jckel (6); B. L. N. Kennett (9; 11); F. Klein (13); M. B. Kolomiyez (11.2; 11.5); J. Lahr (8); P. Malischewski (2), D. Mayer-Rosa (7); A. Pleinger (5); S. G. Poygina (11.2; 11.5); B. Presgrave (10); R. Scarpa (13); F. Scherbaum (9); P. Shearer (2); S. A. Sipkin, (11), J. Steidl (7.4.6); R. Stewart (7); D. Theophylaktov (11.2; 11.3); R. Tilling (13); A. Udias (3); K. Veith (3.1-3.3); D. H. Weichert; P. Zweifel (7).

xx

Editorial remarks

Editorial remarks
The New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice is published in two volumes. Volume 1 comprises the 13 topical Chapters while Volume 2 contains annexes. Annexed to most of the Chapters are complementary Datasheets (DS), Exercises (EX), Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Information Sheets (IS) and Program Descriptions (PD). Each Chapter or annexed piece of information is individually page-numbered, thus it can be replaced or complemented on its own without restructuring and/or renumbering the whole Manual. Each Chapter has sub-chapters that are broken down into sections and sub-sections, e.g., Chapter 5, sub-chapter 5.1, section 5.1.2 and sub-section 5.1.2.3 so that the first number always relates unambiguously to the Chapter to which the referred text belongs. The same applies to figures, tables and equations in Volume 1 (for examples see below). The Datasheets, Exercises, Information Sheets, Program Descriptions and Miscellaneous in Volume 2 are collected in separate sub-folders (registers), which are named accordingly. Usually, these annexes correspond with the Chapter numbers to which they refer and to the sequence number, e.g., DS 3.1 is the first Data Sheet belonging to Chapter 3 whereas EX 5.4 is the Exercise number 4 related to Chapter 5. However, the annexes collected under Miscellaneous are not numbered and relate to the Manual as a whole. The name(s) of the author(s) and co-author(s) are given below the title of each chapter and their full addresses are contained in the list of authors. Several chapters are the collaborative work of all the named authors, making it difficult to single-out individual contributions. The name of the main contributor and/or chapter coordinator is always first. Questions or comments by users should be addressed to the first author with a copy to the Editor. Some coauthors have contributed specific sub-chapters or sections; in those cases their name(s) is (are) given in the list of contents immediately following the title of the respective subchapter/section. Questions or comments may then be addressed directly to them, with copies for information to the Editor and main author of the chapter. The same applies to all annexes given in Volume 2. The Manual contains many cross-references to figures, tables and equations contained in both volumes. In an effort to make these references short and unambiguous and to assure that they are easily found we have adopted the following format and nomenclature: the shaded head-lines on each even-numbered (left-side) page in Volume 1 repeats the Chapter number and title of the Chapter, and on each odd-numbered (right-side) page the respective number and title of the sub-chapter dealt with on the given page; the shaded head-lines on each page in the Annex Volume 2 give both the full name of the sub-folder (e.g., Datasheet, Exercise, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Information Sheet or Program Description) as well as its acronym (DS, EX, IS or PD) followed by the related Chapter number and the sequence number, e.g., IS 2.1 or PD 5.3; when referring to any sub-division of any Chapter of Volume 1 we only give its respective number, e.g., see 4.2, or see 11.2.3.4; when referring to any Annex in Volume 2 we refer to its acronym and number, e.g., see DS 11.2, or see EX 3.2; equations, figures and tables are numbered separately within each Chapter or Annex; equation numbers are always given in brackets; equation numbers in Volume 1 give the Chapter number first, followed by the sequence number of the equation within the given Chapter, e.g., (5.7) or (3.83), xxi

Editorial remarks
whereas equations in Volume 2 are given only a sequence number within the given document, e.g. (6); the same applies to figure and table numbers in Volume 1 and 2, respectively, with the exception that these numbers are not put in brackets; accordingly references to figures, tables or equations in Volume 1 are made as follows: e.g., see Fig. 5.3, or see Tab. 3.1, or see Eq. (9.25); references to figures, tables or equations in Volume 2 are made as follows: e.g., see Figure 4 in DS 11.2, or see Table 1 in EX 3.2, or see Equation (12) in IS 3.1.

We have tried to use American English as consistently as possible, however some modifications may occur and hopefully Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen tolerated. Experts from many nations have contributed both to the Manual drafts and the review process, thus different opinions about correct style, grammar and punctuation have been unavoidable. For example, there are pros and cons for writing either Earth, or earth depending on whether it refers to the whole planet or only parts. We decided on Earth, as used in the old Manual and in the program announcement for the IUGG 2003; accordingly, we speak of Earth models, Earth tides, etc. We have avoided using the term Earth when Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen referring to the Earths crust, mantle, or core. No consensus could be reached between American, Australian and English reviewers as to when to use the apostrophe (e.g., as in Earths Interior) and when not (as now common in Earth models or Earth systems). Therefore, we have tried to avoid its use. Despite all efforts, and taking into account that the majority of authors including the Editor do not have English as their mother tongue, typos, misnomers and occasional clumsy phrasing may still be found. Some references to figures, equations, tables, publications or sub-sections may still be missing or incorrect; the Editor will be grateful for any suggestions and/or corrections. Please note that an IASPEI Working Group on Phase Names has only very recently proposed a comprehensive list, which contains both additional and partially changed old phase names. This list is reproduced in Volume 2, IS 2.1 and is expected to be officially approved by IASPEI in Sapporo 2003. As far as possible we have applied these new phase names, e.g., Pdif instead of Pdiff and PKPdf instead of PKIKP. However, some of the figures have been reproduced from other sources or have been printed by programs for seismogram analysis, which continue to use the old terminology. Therefore, there are some inconsistencies in the Manual with respect to phase names. This notwithstanding, users of the Manual are encouraged, when exchanging data and/or reporting them to international data centers, to use only the new IASPEI phases names as given in IS 2.1. With respect to magnitude symbols we have followed the preliminary recommendations by the current IASPEI WG on Magnitude determination, which are given in IS 3.2. In this context please note that we have generally used the symbol D for the epicentral distance instead ofwhich is more common in older literature. However, in the magnitude formulas and tables with magnitude calibration values we have kept as originally given. In the NMSOP we consistently use physical units according to the International System (SI units). Only occasionally reference is made to equivalent American units. The Manual is complemented in the sub-folder Miscellaneous of Volume 2 by an extended list of Acronyms, a Glossary of terms, a detailed Index and References. A more specific glossary of technical terms related to data acquisition systems is attached to Chapter 6. There is only one summary list of References for the whole Manual. Common acronyms in the Manual refer to institutions, organizations or programs that have their own web site; in those xxii

Editorial remarks
cases we have added the web addresses in the list of acronyms. It is expected that Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen Manual will also be utilized by beginners, high-school students, teachers, disaster managers and others who are not sufficiently familiar with seismological terminology. At a later stage we plan to integrate some modules into a larger package of electronic learning for a broader public. Therefore, the glossary to this Manual includes terms that are common knowledge to seismologists but require a simple explanation for lay users. A CD-ROM with the Manuals pdf-files is attached to Volume 2 of the printed version. This will allow a flexible and mobile use of the Manual even under field conditions. In addition this CD-ROM contains animations of seismic ray propagation through the Earth and the formation of seismic recordings at different epicentral distances from very local up to 167. An introduction to the use of these animations is given in IS 11.3. All information contained in the Manual will be made freely available, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. However, educators and others, using original figures or other data in their lectures, public talks or scientific presentations should acknowledge the source by quoting: Author(s), NMSOP (2002, Editor: P. Bormann). Reproduction of any material from the Manual in printed or electronic publications requires copyright permission. The copyright for the NMSOP rests with IASPEI with the Editor, P. Bormann, acting as the IASPEI agent. Copyright requests should be addressed to the Editor (e-mail: [email protected]). For figures derived from other sources the appropriate copyright holders are given with the figures. Generally, for figures or tables reproduced or modified from the Manual the following acknowledgement is required for assuring credit to the proper source: a) for figures from Volume 1: (figure (redrawn) (modified) from Author(s), Fig. No. in NMSOP, Vol. 1, Bormann (Ed.), 2002; IASPEI); b) for figures from Volume 2: (figure (redrawn) (modified) from Author(s), DS No., or EX No., or IS No. in NMSOP, Vol. 2, Bormann (Ed.), 2002, IASPEI ). General references in publication texts should be either to the Editor when reference is made to Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen NMSOP as a whole or to the author(s) of the respective Manual chapter or section (the latter only if specified in the list of contents) and the year, e.g., Musson (2002), or Bormann and Bergman (2002), or Trnkoczy et al. (2002). In the list of references the full information has to be given as follows: Author(s) (2002). Chapter/Section (or DS/EX/IS/PD) No.: Title. In: Bormann, P. (Ed.) (2002). IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Vol. 1 (or Vol. 2), Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, number of pages. Since all chapters in Vol. 1 or annexed information items in Vol. 2 are individually pagenumbered, only the total number of pages can usually be given. However, in the case of individual contributions of authors to a specific section of a Manual chapter, the respective page numbers within the chapter should be given, e.g.:

xxiii

Editorial remarks
Wielandt, E. (2002). Chapter 5: Seismic sensors and their calibration. In: Bormann, P. (Ed.) (2002). IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Vol. 1, 46 pp. Holcomb (2002). Section 7.4.5: Broadband seismic installations in boreholes. In: Bormann, P. (Ed.) 2002. IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Vol. 1, Chapter 7, 75-85. Storchak, D. M., Bormann, P., and Schweitzer, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, J. (2002). IS 2.1: Standard nomenclature of seismic phases. In: Bormann, P. (Ed.) (2002). IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Vol. 2, 18 pp. A Manual website can be accessed at Global Seismological Services (http://www.seismo.com/msop/msop_intro.html) and at the GFZ Potsdam (http://www.gfzpotsdam.de/pb2/pb21/index_e.html). There are differences in structure and formatting in the web version of the Manual. The HTML version is designed to allow easy surfing through the Manual through hyperlink navigation. Note, however, that the printed version is the authoritative and most up-to-date version of the Manual, thus, in publications reference should be made always to the print version of the NMSOP. Peter Bormann Potsdam, October 2002

xxiv

Authors

Authors
(their contributions to the NMSOP and addresses)
Note 1: The abbreviations stand for annexed Datasheets (DS), Exercises (EX), Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Information Sheets (IS) and program descriptions (PD). Note 2: Numbers not in brackets mean sole or main authorship, those in brackets coauthorship. Requests, proposals or comments should be addressed the main author of a chapter, section or any annexed complementary information, with copy to the editor. Name, given name Asch, Gnter Address GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam Division 2: Solid Earth Physics and Disaster Research, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: [email protected] GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Division 2: Solid Earth Physics and Disaster Research, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Germany Fax: +49 331 288 1204 E-mail: [email protected] U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, MS 977 Menlo Park, CA 94025, U.S.A. E-mail: [email protected] Global Seismological Services, 601 16th Street, #C390 Golden, Colorado 80401, USA Phone/Fax: +1 (303) 278 4089 E-mail: [email protected] Chapter Section 6 DS ANNEXES EX IS PD

Baumbach, Michael

(3) (3.4)

(3.2) (3.4)

Boatwright, John

(3.3)

Bergmann, Eric A.

(1)

Bock, Gnter ! Bribach, Jens

(GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam) 3.5 Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam, Division 2: Solid Earth Physics and Disaster Research, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: [email protected]

(3.5) 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.1

xxv

Authors
Name, given name Bormann, Peter Address GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Division on Solid Earth Physics and Disaster Research, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Germany Phone: +49-331 288 1202 Fax: +49-331 288 1204 E-mail: [email protected] Chapter Section 1 2 3 4 (7) (8) (10) 11 3.1 3.2 (3.4) 3.6 7.2 (8.6.9) (8.8.2) 10.1, (11.1) 11.2 (11.3) (11.5) (3) 3.3 3.5.6.5 DS 2.1 3.1 ANNEXES EX IS PD (2.1) (3.1) 3.2
(11.1) (11.3)

3.1 (3.2) (11.4) 3.3 (3.4) (4.1) 11.1 11.2


(11.3)

Choy, George L.

U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center MS 967, Denver, CO 80225, U.S.A. E-mail: [email protected]

Dost, Bernard

ORFEUS Data Center, Seismology 10 Division KNMI, P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands Fax: +31 30 2201 364 E-mail: [email protected] Univ. of Colorado, Dept. of Physics, Campus Box 390, Boulder, CO, 80309-0390, U.S.A. Phone: +1 (303) 735-4853 Fax: +1 (303) 492-7935 E-mail: [email protected] NORSAR, Instituttveien 25, N-2007 Kjeller, P.O. Box 53, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway Phone: +47-63805927 Fax: +47-63818719 E-mail: [email protected] 2.7

Engdahl, Eric R.

Fyen, Jan

(9)

xxvi

Authors
Name, given name Hanka, Winfried Address GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: [email protected] Bundesanstalt fr Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, Germany Phone: +49 (511) 643 3227 E-mail: [email protected] University of Bergen, Institute of Solid Earth Physics, Allgaten 41, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, N-5007 Bergen, Norway Fax: +47 55 589669 E-mail: [email protected] U.S. Geological Survey, Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory, Building 10002, KAFB E, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87115, U.S.A. E-mail: [email protected] GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam Division 2: Solid Earth Physics and Disaster Research, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: [email protected] Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Seismological Central Observatory Grfenberg (SZGRF), Mozartstrasse 57, D-91052 Erlangen, Germany Fax: +49 9131 8104 099 E-mail: [email protected] Potsdam University, Institute of Geosciences, D-14415 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: [email protected] (8) (10) Chapter Section (7) 7.4.4 DS ANNEXES EX IS PD

Hartmann, Gernot

11.2

Havskov, Jens

11.1

Holcomb, L. Gary

(7) 7.4.3 7.4.5

Kind, Rainer

(2.8)

Klinge, Klaus

(11) 11.1 (11.2) 11.3 11.4 (11.5)

11.1 11.2
(11.3) (11.4)

Krger, Frank

(3.5)

xxvii

Authors
Name, given name Kvrna, Tormod Address NORSAR, Instituttveien 25, N-2007 Kjeller; P.O. Box 53, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway Phone: +47-63805941 Fax: +47-63818719 E-mail: [email protected] British Geological Survey, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA, UK E-mail: [email protected] Phone: +44 (131) 650-0205 Fax: +44 (131) 667-1877 NORSAR, Instituttveien 25, N-2007 Kjeller, P.O. Box 53, N-2027 Kjeller, Norwey Phone: +47-63805942 Fax: +47-63818719 E-mail: [email protected] University of Southern California, Civil Engineering Department, University Park, KAP210, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2531, U.S.A E-mail: [email protected] Center for Monitoring Research, 1300 N. 17th Street Arlington, VA 22209, U.S.A. British Geological Survey, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA, UK E-mail: [email protected] USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory, 801 University SE, Suite 300, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA E-mail: [email protected] (8) (8.4) Chapter Section (9) DS ANNEXES EX IS PD

Musson, Roger M. W.

12

Mykkeltveit, Svein

(9)

Nigbor, Robert L.

(7) 7.4.6

North, Robert Ottemller, Lars

(10.3)

Peterson, Caryl

8.3

xxviii

Authors
Name, given name Ravnik, Jure Address Ecological Engineering Institute, Ltd, Ljubljanska 9, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia E-mail: [email protected] NORSAR, Instituttveien 25, N-2007 Kjeller, P.O. Box 53, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway Phone: +47-63805940 E-mail: [email protected] Computer Center, Univ. Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10-11 D-04109 Leipzig, Germany E-mail: [email protected] International Seismological Centre, Pipers Lane, Thatcham, Berkshire RG19 4NS, UK, E-mail: [email protected] Kinemetrics SA, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, ZI Le Trsi 3, CH-1028 Prverenges, Switzerland Fax: +41 21 803 2829, E-mail: [email protected] Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geofisica y Meteorologia, 28040 Madrid, Spain E-mail: [email protected] 7 8 7.1 7.3 7.4.1 7.4.2 9
(11.4)

Chapter Section

DS

ANNEXES EX IS PD (7.4)

Schweitzer, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Johannes

(2.1)

11.1

(11.1) 11.2

Starke, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Ute

(11.3)

Storchak, Dmitry A.

(2.1)

Trnkoczy, Amadej

7.1 7.2 7.3 8.1 8.2 (3.1)

Udias, Agustin

Wassermann, Universitt Potsdam 13 Joachim Institut fr Geowissenschaften Postfach 601553 D-14415 Potsdam, Germany Phone: +49 331 977 5411 E-mail: [email protected] Wendt, Siegfried Geophysical Observatory Collm, University of Leipzig, D-04779 Wermsdorf, Germany Phone: +49-3435-929474 E-mail: [email protected] xxix (11) (11.5) 11.3 11.3 + CD

Authors
Name, given name Wielandt, Erhard Chapter Section Institute of Geophysics, University 5 of StuttgartRichard-Wagner-Strae 44, D- 0184 Stuttgart, Germany E-mail: [email protected] Address DS 5.1 ANNEXES EX IS PD (4.1) 5.4 5.5 4.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 10.1 10.2

Willemann, Raymond J.

International Seismological Centre, Pipers Lane, Thatcham, Berkshire RG19 4NS, UK Phone: +44 1635-861-022, Fax: +44-1635-872-351 E-mail: [email protected] GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Division 2: Solid Earth Physics and Disaster Research, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: [email protected] Center for Monitoring Research, 1300 N. 17th Street Arlington, VA 22209, U.S.A. E-mail: [email protected] Geophysical Institute AS CR, Bocni II/1401, 141 31 Prague 4 Czech Republic Fax: +420 2 72761549 E-mail: [email protected] Geophysical Survey of Slovenia, Dunajska 47/VI, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: [email protected] Black Forest Observatory (BSF) Universities Karlsruhe/Stuttgart, Heubach 206, D-77709 Wolfach, Germany E-mail: [email protected]

(10) 10.2.5

Wylegalla, Kurt

(11.1) (11.2)

Yang, Xiaoping

10.3

Zednik, Jan

(10)

ivi, Mladen

7.4

Zrn, Walter

5.1

xxx

CHAPTER

1
Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (NMSOP)
Peter Bormann and Eric Bergman

1.1 History of the Manual


Most of what we know today about the internal structure and physical properties of the Earth, and thus about the internal forces which drive plate motions and produce major geological features, has been derived from seismological data. Seismology continues to be a fundamental tool for investigating the kinematics and dynamics of geological processes at all scales. With continued advances in seismological methods we hope to better understand, predict Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen use our geological environment and its driving processes with their diverse benefits as Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen as hazards to human society. Geological processes neither know nor care about human boundaries. Accordingly, both the resources and the hazards can be investigated and assessed effectively only when the causative phenomena are monitored not only on a local scale, but also on a regional and global scale. Moreover, geological phenomena typically must be recorded with great precision and reliability over long time-spans corresponding to geological time-scales. Such data, which are collected in different countries by different research groups, have to be compatible in subtle ways and need to be widely exchanged and jointly analyzed in order to have any global and lasting value. This necessitates global co-operation and agreement on standards for operational procedures and data formats. Therefore, it is not surprising that the international seismological community saw the need many decades ago to develop a Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (MSOP). This matter was taken up by the scientific establishments of many nations, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, finally resulting, in the early 1960s, in a resolution of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). In response, the Committee for the Standardization of Seismographs and Seismograms of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) specified in 1963 the general requirements of such a Manual as follows: act as a guide for governments in setting up or running seismological networks; contain all necessary information on instrumentation and procedure so as to enable stations to fulfil normal international and local functions; and not to contain any extensive account of the aims or methods of utilizing the seismic data, as these were in the province of existing textbooks. The first edition of the Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice was published in 1970 by the International Seismological Centre (ISC) with the financial assistance of the United 1

1. Aim and Scope of the New IASPEI Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). A sustained demand for copies and suggestions for new material prompted the Commission on Practice of IASPEI in 1975 to prepare a second edition. The authors worked to achieve balance between western and Soviet traditions of seismological practice. This resulted in the 1979 version of the Manual, edited by P. L. Willmore, in which the basic duties of seismological observatories were envisaged as follows: maintain equipment in continuous operation, with instruments calibrated and adjusted to conform with agreed-upon standards; produce records which conform with necessary standards for internal use and international exchange; and undertake preliminary readings needed to meet the immediate requirements of data reporting. The "final" interpretation of seismic records was considered to be an optional activity for which the Manual should provide some background material, but not attempt a full presentation. On the other hand, the Manual did provide more detailed guidance for observatory personnel when Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen are occasionally (but most importantly) required to collect and classify macroseismic observations. In general the international team of authors ". sought to extract the most general principles from a wide range of world practice, and to outline a course of action which will be consistent with those principles." Even Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen the 1979 Edition of the Manual was published, it was obvious that there existed significant regional differences in practice and that the subject as a whole was rapidly advancing. Since this implied the need for continuous development it was decided to produce the book in loose-leaf form and to identify chapters with descriptive code names so as to allow for easy reassembling, updating and insertion of new chapters. This useful concept was not achieved, however, and no updating or addition of new chapters happened after the 1979 edition. Nevertheless, the old MSOP is still a valuable reference for many seismologists, especially those who still operate classical analog stations, and for those in developing countries where the MSOP is a valuable text for basic seismological training. The general aims of the MSOP are still quite valid, although the scope of modern practice has broadened significantly and old analog stations are now being rapidly replaced by digital ones. Fortunately, in conjunction with the preparations for the IASPEI Centennial publications such as the International Handbook on Earthquake and Engineering Seismology (2002), the complete 1979 edition of the MSOP has now been made available as a pdf-file (images of each page) on CD-ROM and on the Internet, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. It can be viewed and retrieved from the website http://www.216.103.65.234/iaspei.html via the links Supplementary Volumes on CDs, Literature in Seismology and then MSOP). Major parts of the 1979 Edition of the Manual are also available at the website http://www.seismo.com/msop/msop_intro.html in which the Manual has been converted to text by optical character recognition, so that the text is searchable and can be cut and pasted. Since the last edition of the MSOP, seismology has undergone a technological revolution. This was driven by cheap computer power, the development of a new generation of seismometers and digital recording systems with very broad bandwidth and high dynamic range, and the advent of the Internet as an effective vehicle for rapid, large-scale data exchange. As the seismological community switches from analog to digital technology, more and more sections of the 1979 Manual have become obsolete or irrelevant, and the old MSOP 2

1.2 Scope of the NMSOP provides no guidance in many new areas which have become of critical importance for modern seismology. In a workshop meeting organized in late 1993 by the International Seismological Observing Period (ISOP) in Golden, Colorado, entitled "Measurement Protocols for Routine Analysis of Digital Data", it was acknowledged that existing documents and publications are clearly inadequate to guide routine practice in the 1990s at seismological observatories acquiring digital data. It was concluded that a new edition of MSOP is needed as well Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen tutorials showing examples of measuring important seismological parameters (Bergman and Sipkin, 1994). This recommendation prompted the IASPEI Commission on Practice (CoP) at its meeting in Wellington, New Zealand, January 1994, to establish an international MSOP Working Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen (WG) entrusted with the elaboration of an IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (NMSOP). Peter Bormann was Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen to assemble and chair the working group and to elaborate a concept on Halo Infinite herunterladen Archives aims, scope and approach for a new Manual. The first concept for the NMSOP was put forward at the XXIV General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission (ESC) in Athens, September 19-24, 1994 (Bormann, 1994) and at the meeting of the IASPEI CoP on the occasion of the XXI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) in Boulder, Colorado. The concept was approved and both an IASPEI and an ESC Manual WG were formed. Most of the members met regularly at ESC and IASPEI Assemblies (ESC: 1996 in Reykjavk, 1998 in Tel Aviv and 2000 in Lisboa; IASPEI: 1997 in Thessaloniki, 1999 in Birmingham and 2001 in Hanoi) while others corresponded with the group and contributed to its work via the Internet. At these assemblies the Manual WG organized special workshop sessions, open to a broader public and well attended, with oral and poster presentations complemented by Internet demonstrations of the Manual web site under development. With a summary poster session at the IASPEI/IAGA meeting in Hanoi, 2001, the work of the IASPEI Manual WG was formally terminated and the WG chairman was entrusted with the final editorial work and the preparations for the publication of the Manual. IASPEI offered to attach a pre-publication CD-ROM version of the NMSOP to volume II of the International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology and provided some financial support for a printed Manual version. The latter is scheduled for publication by the end of 2002. Part of the material contained in the NMSOP has already been made available piecewise since 1996 on the website of Global Seismological Services (http://www.seismo.com). Some of the contributions are still in a pre-review stage. The NMSOP website will be updated and completed (in a "first edition" sense) during 2002 and 2003.

1.2

Scope of the NMSOP

1.2.1 Historical and general conceptual background


Emil Wiechert (1861-1928), professor of geophysics in Gttingen, Germany, and designer of the famous early mechanical seismographs named after him, had the following motto carved over the entrance to the seismometer house in Gttingen: Ferne Kunde bringt Dir der schwankende Boden - deute die Zeichen. (The trembling rock bears tidings from afar read the signs!). He also considered it as the supreme goal of seismology to "understand each wiggle" in a seismic record. Indeed, only then would we understand or at least have developed a reasonable model to explain the complicated system and information chain of 3

1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Practice seismology with its many interrelated sub-systems such as the seismic source, wave propagation through the Earth, the masking and distortion of "useful signals" by noise, as well as the influence of the seismic sensors, recorders and processing techniques on the seismogram (see Fig. 1.1).

Fig. 1.1 Diagram illustrating seismology as the analysis of a complex information Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen linked to a diversity of specialized and interdisciplinary task of research and applications, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Despite the tremendous progress made since Wiechert in understanding the most prominent features in seismic records, long-period ones in particular, we are still well short of reaching the goal he set. In fact, most operators and analysts at seismological observatories, even those who work with the most modern equipment, have not advanced much beyond the mid 20th century with respect to their capability to "understand each wiggle" in a seismic record. There are several reasons for this lack of progress in the deeper understanding of seismogram analysis by station operators. Early seismic stations were mostly operated or supervised by broadly educated scientists who pioneered both the technical and scientific development of these observatories. They took an immediate interest in the analysis of the data themselves and had the necessary background knowledge to do it. After World War II the installation of new seismic stations boomed and rapid technological advance required an increasing specialization. Station operators became more and more technically oriented, focusing on equipment maintenance and raw data production with a minimum of effort and interest in routine data analysis. Thus, they have tended to become separated from the more comprehensive scientific and application-oriented use of their data products in society. Also 4

1.2 Scope of the NMSOP the seismological research community has become increasingly specialized, e.g., in conjunction with the monitoring and identification of underground nuclear tests. This trend has often caused changes in priorities and narrowed the view with respect to the kind of data and routine analysis required to better serve current scientific as well as public interest in earthquake seismology, improved hazard assessment and risk mitigation. Hwang and Clayton (1991) published a revealing analysis of the phase reports to the International Seismological Centre (ISC) by all the affiliated seismological stations of the global seismic network. Most of them, even those equipped with both short- and long-period or broadband seismographs, reported only the first P-wave onset even though later energy arrivals in teleseismic records of strong events are clearly discernable. Even secondary phases with much larger amplitudes than P (e.g., Figs. 1.2 and 1.4, Fig. 2.23 in Chapter 2 and Figure 10c in DS 11.2) are usually not analyzed.

Fig. 1.2 Long-period filtered vertical-component broadband records of station CLL, Germany, of shallow earthquakes in the distance range 18 to 157. Note the strong later longitudinal (PP) and transverse energy arrivals (S, SS) that are recognizable in the whole distance range, and the dispersed surface wave trains with large amplitudes. The record duration increases with distance (courtesy of S. Wendt, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, 2002). Between 1974 and 1984, the first S-wave arrivals were reported on average to the ISC about twenty times less frequently than P, and other secondary phases are reported hundreds to thousands of times less often (Bergman, 1991), Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. These differences reflect operations practice 5

1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice at least as much as the observability of secondary phases. For example, U.S. stations reported very few S phases in this period because the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) did not normally use them in its routine processing and station operators knew that such readings would be "wasted". Conversely, a heavy proportion of all S Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen came from European stations, especially those in former Soviet Bloc countries, where standards of practice included an emphasis on complete reading of seismograms. The "classical" seismological observatory, for example, Moxa (MOX) in former East Germany, is now an endangered species. They depended on a social and political system that was prepared to devote relatively large numbers of personnel and other resources to station operation and analysis, with the goal of extracting the maximum amount of information out of a limited number of recordings. One can think of this as the "observatory-centered" model for observational seismology. Beginning in the 1960s, seismology in the west favored deployment of global networks (e.g., the WWSSN - World-wide Standard Seismograph Network) with relatively less attention given to individual stations or records, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, making up in quantity what they gave away in quality. This "network model" of observational seismology now dominates global seismology, but some balance between quantity and quality must still be found. This Manual is explicitly intended to support the side of quality in the acquisition, processing, and analysis of seismic data. The accelerating advancement of computer capabilities during the last few decades is a strong incentive to automate more and more of the traditional tasks that need to be performed at seismological observatories. Despite significant progress made in this direction, automated phase identification and parameter determination is still inferior to the results achievable by a well-trained analyst. For this reason, and because this is more an area of research than of operational considerations, automated procedures are not considered in the Manual. Of course it will be easy to add such material to the web-based Manual whenever it is appropriate. The Manual focuses on providing guidance and advice to station operators and seismologists with less experience and to countries which lack specialists in the fields that should be covered by observatory personnel and application-oriented seismologists. In designing the Manual for a global audience, we have tried to take into account the widely varying circumstances of observatory operators worldwide. While in developing countries proper education and full use of trained manpower for self-reliant development has (or should have) priority, highly advanced Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen often push for the opposite, namely the advancement of automatic data acquisition and analysis. The main reasons for the latter tendency, besides the desire to limit personnel costs in high-wage countries, are: special requirements to assure most rapid and objective data processing and reporting by the primary (mostly array) stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) (see 8.6.9.1) or coping with the huge data rates at dense digital seismic networks and arrays in areas of high seismicity. Seismologists in highly industrialized countries can usually address their special concerns with national resources. They typically need no guidance with respect to high-tech developments from a Manual like this. Even so, specialists in program development and automation algorithms in these countries often lack the required background Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen in seismology and/or the practical experience of operational applications in routine practice. A

1.2 Scope of the NMSOP similar argument applies to young scientists, beginning careers in seismological research, who often remain ignorant of the long history of operational seismology that produces the data available for their research. A typical graduate program in seismology gives scant attention to the historical development of measurement standards, which can lead either to neglect of valuable older data, or its misuse. In this sense, the NMSOP also aims at addressing the educational needs of this advanced user community with a view to broaden both their historical perspective and their ability to contribute to interdisciplinary research.

1.2.2 Creation of awareness


The subject of standards of practice at seismological observatories normally stays well below the active consciousness of most seismologists, yet it sometimes plays a central role in important research and policy debates. 1.2.2.1 The magnitude issue Earthquake magnitude is one of the most widely used parameters in seismological practice, and one that is particularly subject to misunderstanding, even by seismologists. Examples of the way in which changing operational procedures have contaminated a valuable data set have recently been put forward and discussed in the Seismological Research Letters. After reexamining the earthquake catalogue for southern California between 1932 and 1990, Hutton and Jones (1993) concluded: ML magnitudes (in the following termed Ml with l for local) had not been consistently determined over that period; amplitudes of ground velocities recorded on Wood-Anderson instruments and thus Ml were systematically overestimated prior to 1944 compared to present reading procedures; in addition, changes from human to computerized estimation of Ml led to slightly lower magnitude estimates after 1975; these changes contributed to an apparently higher rate of seismicity in the 1930s and 1940s and a later decrease in seismicity rate which has been interpreted as being related to the subsequent 1952 Kern County (Mw = 7.5) earthquake; variations in the rate of seismic activity have often been related to precursory activity prior to major earthquakes and therefore been considered suitable for earthquake prediction; the re-determination of ML in the catalogue for southern California, however, does not confirm any changes in seismicity rate above the level of 90% significance for the time interval considered.

Similar experiences with other local and global catalogues led Habermann (1995) to state: ". the heterogeneity of these catalogues makes characterizing the long-term behavior of seismic regions extremely difficult and interpreting time-dependent changes in those regions hazardous at best. . Several proposed precursory seismicity behaviors (activation and quiescence) can be caused by simple errors in the catalogues used to identify them, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. . Such mistakes have the potential to undermine the relationship between the seismological community and the public we serve. They are, therefore, a serious threat to the well-being of our community." 7

1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice Another striking example of the consequences of neglecting changes in observatory practice (and mixing in some political priorities as well) is the following: Classical seismology was based on the recordings of medium-period instruments of relatively wide bandwidth such as Wiechert, Golizyn, Mainka, and Press-Ewing seismographs. Gutenbergs (1945 b and c) and Gutenberg and Richters (1956 a-c) work on earthquake body-wave magnitude scales for teleseismic event scaling and energy determination was mainly based on records of such seismographs, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Then, with the introduction of the WWSSN short-period instruments, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, bodywave magnitudes were determined routinely in the United States only from amplitudemeasurements of these short-period narrowband records, which have better detection performance for weaker events than medium- and long-period seismographs and yield a better discrimination between earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions on the basis of the mb-Ms criterion (see 11.2.5.2). However, American seismologists calibrated their amplitude measurements with the Gutenberg-Richter Q-functions for medium-period body waves. This resulted in a systematic underestimation of the P-wave magnitudes (termed mb). In contrast, at Soviet "basic" stations, the standard instrument was the medium-period broadband Kirnos seismometer (displacement proportional between about 0.1 s to 10(20)s). Accordingly, Russian medium-period body-wave magnitudes mB are more properly scaled to GutenbergRichters mB-Ms and logEs-Ms relations. It happens that the corresponding global magnitudefrequency relationship logN-mB yields a smaller number of annual m = 4 events than the U.S. WWSSN-based mb data (Riznichenko, 1960). Accordingly, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, in the late 1950s at the Geneva talks to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty, the US delegation assumed a much more frequent occurrence of non-discriminated seismic events when only teleseismic records were available. This prompted them to demand some 200 to 600 unmanned stations on Soviet territory at local and regional distances as well as on-site inspections in case of uncertain events (Gilpin, 1962). Thus, a biased magnitude-frequency assessment played a significant role in the Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen of these early negotiations aimed at achieving a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT); underground testing continued for several more decades. In 1996 the CTBT was finally agreed upon, and signed by 71 States as of 2002. The United Nations CTBT Organization in Vienna runs an International Data Centre (IDC) which also determines body-wave magnitudes from records of the International Monitoring System (IMS). However, in the interest of best possible discrimination between natural earthquakes and underground explosions by means of the body-wave/surface-wave magnitude ratio mb/Ms, they measure P-wave amplitudes after filtering the broadband records with a displacement frequency-response peaked around 5 Hz instead of around 1 Hz or 0.1 Hz. However, they calibrate their amplitude readings with a calibration function developed for 1 Hz data. Finally, they measure the maximum amplitudes for mb determination not, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, as recommended by IASPEI in the 1970s, within the whole P-wave train but within the first 5 seconds after the P-wave onset. These differences in practice result in systematically smaller mb(IDC) values as compared to the mb(NEIC). Although this difference is negligible for explosions it is significant for earthquakes. The discrepancy grows with magnitude and may reach 0.5 to 1.5 magnitude units. Nonetheless, the IDC magnitudes are given the same name mb, although they sample different properties of the P-wave signal. Users who are not aware of the underlying causes and tricky procedural problems behind magnitude determination, may not realize this incompatibility of data and come to completely different conclusions when using, e.g., the mb data of different data centers for seismic hazard assessment. In order to throw light onto the fuzzy practice of magnitude determinations and to push for standardization of procedures of magnitude estimation and unique magnitude names, the new Manual goes into great detail on this crucial issue. As a consequence, the magnitude subchapter 3.2 covers more pages than two of the smaller main Chapters.

1.2 Scope of the NMSOP 1.2.2.2 Consequences of recent technical developments When assembling the NMSOP we took into account that: modern seismic sensors, in GTA San Andreas PC crack serial keygen with advanced digital data acquisition, allow recording of seismic waves in a very broad frequency band with extremely high resolution and within a much larger dynamic range than was possible in the days of analog seismology (see Fig. 1.3 below and Fig. 7.48); modern computer hardware and versatile analysis software tremendously ease the task of comprehensive and accurate seismogram analysis, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. This allows one to determine routinely parameters which were far beyond the scope of seismogram analysis a few decades ago; precise time-keeping and reading is much less of a problem than it was in the preGPS (Global Positioning System) and pre-computer era; the rapid global spread of high-speed communications links largely eliminates any technical barrier to widespread data exchange of full waveform data in near real time.

Fig. 1.3 Frequency range, bandwidth and dynamic range of modern seismology and related objects of research. The related wavelength of seismic waves vary, depending on their propagation velocity, between several meter (m) and more than 10,000 kilometer (km). The amplitudes to be recorded range from nanometer (nm) to decimeter (dm).

1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice At the same time, these new possibilities carry new risks: analysts who only use ready-made computer programs for solving a diversity of tasks, by feeding in the data and pressing the button, tend to lose a deeper understanding of the underlying model assumptions, inherent limitations and possible sources of error so that the quality of the results may be judged by the attractiveness of the graphic user interface; readily calculated and displayed standard deviations for all conceivable solutions often seem to indicate a reliability of the results which is far from the truth. Therefore, an understanding of the difference between internal, computational and also model-dependent precision on the one hand, and accuracy of the solutions with reference to reality on the other hand, has to be encouraged; specialist are increasingly required to operate and properly maintain modern seismic equipment and software. They usually lack a broader geoscientific background and thus an active interest in the use of the data which could result in declining concern for long-term data continuity and reliability, which is the backbone for any geoscientific observatory practice. In consideration of these factors, the authors took as prime aims of the new Manual the creation of: interdisciplinary problem understanding; and motivation of observatory personnel to overcome boring routines by developing curiosity and an active interest in the use of the data they produce both in science and society. 1.2.2.3 The need for secondary phase readings The currently dominant practice of reporting mainly first-arriving seismic phases, together with the inhomogeneous distribution of seismic sources and receivers over the globe, results in a very incomplete and inhomogeneous sampling of the structural features and properties of the Earths interior. The consequences are not only ill-constrained Earth models of inferior resolution but also earthquake locations of insufficient accuracy to understand their seismotectonic origin and to identify the most likely places of their future occurrence. In the late 1980s, this prompted seismologists (e.g., Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Doornbos et al., 1991) to conceive a plan for an International Seismological Observing Period (ISOP) aimed at: maximum reporting of secondary phases from routine record readings aimed at improved source location and sampling of the Earth (see, e.g., Fig. 1.4); taking best advantage, in the routine analysis, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, of the increasing availability of digital broadband records and easy-to-use data preprocessing and analysis software; improved training of station operators and analysts; improved communication, co-ordination and co-operation between the stations of the global and regional seismic networks. Ultimately, the ISOP plan for an international observational experiment focused on expanded reporting of secondary body wave phases collapsed in the face of entropy and inertia, but the issues raised in the ISOP project have remained important to many seismologists. The need for the NMSOP grew out of discussions within the ISOP project, and many seismologists who were active in ISOP went on to contribute to the NMSOP which has been developed in the spirit of ISOP It is largely based on training material and practical exercises used in international training courses for station operators and analysts (see Bormann, 2000). 10

1.2 Scope of the NMSOP

Fig. 1.4 Detailed interpretation of long-period (LP) and short-period (SP) filtered broadband records of the stations of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN). Note the clearly recognizable depth phases pP, pPP and sS, which are extremely important for more accurate depth determination of the event, and the rare but well developed multiple core phases PKPPKP, SKPPKP and SKPPKPPKP which sample very different parts of the deep Earths interior than the direct mantle phases (courtesy of S. Wendt).

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1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice Accordingly, Chapter 11 on Data Analysis and Seismogram Interpretation (101 pages) is, together with its extended annexes with seismogram examples (79 pages), event location and related software (45 pages), and several exercises on magnitude determination, event location and phase identification (40 pages) the most extensive part of the NMSOP. 1.2.2.4 New seismic sensors and sensor calibration Modern broadband seismographs record ground motions with a minimum of distortion and it is possible to restore true ground motion computationally with high accuracy. Seismic waveforms carry much more information about the seismic source and wave-propagation process than simple parameter readings of onset times, amplitudes and prevailing periods of seismic phases. Therefore, waveform modeling and fitting has now become a major tool both of advanced seismic research and increasingly also of routine processing and analysis. Seismic waveforms and amplitudes, however, strongly depend on the transfer function and gain of the seismograph, which must be known with high accuracy if the full potential of waveform analysis is to be exploited. Also reliable amplitude-based magnitude estimates, most of them determined from band-limited recordings, require accurate knowledge of the recording systems frequency-dependent magnification. Consequently, instrument parameters that control the instrument response must be known and kept stable with an accuracy of better than a few percent. Unfortunately, at many seismic stations the seismographs have never been carefully calibrated, the actual gain and response shape is not precisely known and their stability with time is not regularly controlled. Some station operators rely on the parameters given in the data sheets of the manufacturers or those determined (possibly) by the primary installer of the stations. However, these parameters, instrumental gain in particular, are often not accurate enough. Therefore, station operators themselves should be able to carry out an independent, complete calibration of their instruments. Long-period seismographs are strongly influenced by changes in ambient temperature and ground stability. However, for modern feedback-controlled broadband seismographs the basic parameters, eigenperiod and gain, are rather stable, provided that the seismometer mass is kept in the zero position. This should be regularly controlled, more frequently (e.g., every few weeks) in temporary installations and every few months in more stable permanent installations. Although short-period instruments are generally considered to be much more robust and stable in their parameters, experience has shown that their eigenperiod and attenuation may change with time up to several tens percent, especially when these instruments are repeatedly deployed in temporary installations. Parameter changes of this order are not tolerable for quantitative analysis of waveform parameters. Therefore, more frequent control and absolute determination of these critical sensor parameters are strongly recommended after each reinstallation. Therefore, the NMSOP presents a rather extensive chapter on the basic theory of seismometry and the practice of instrument calibration and parameter determination, which is complemented by exercises and introductions to freely available software for parameter determination and response calculations. Additionally, in other chapters, the effects of different seismograph responses, post-record filtering or computational signal restitution on the appearance of seismograms and the reliability and reproducibility of parameter readings is demonstrated with many examples.

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1.3 Philosophy of the NMSOP

1.2.2.5 What has to be considered when installing new seismic networks More and more countries now realize the importance of seismic monitoring of their territories for improved seismic hazard assessment and the development of appropriate risk-mitigation strategies. Installation and long-term operation of a self-reliant modern seismic network is quite a demanding and costly undertaking. Cost-efficiency largely depends on proper project definition, instrument and site selection based on a good knowledge of the actual seismotectonic and geographic-climatic situation, the availability of trained manpower and required infrastructure, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen many other factors. Project-related funds are often available only within a limited time-window. Therefore, they are often spent quickly on high-tech hardware and turnkey installations by foreign manufacturers without careful site selection and proper allocation of funds for training and follow-up operation. If local people are not involved in these initial efforts and capable of using and maintaining these new facilities and data according to their potential, then the whole project might turn out to be a major investment with little or no meaningful return, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. These crucial practical and financial aspects are usually not discussed in any of the textbooks in seismology that mostly serve general academic education or research. Therefore, the NMSOP dedicates its largest chapter (108 pages) to just these problems. What can be achieved with modern seismological networks, both physical and virtual ones, and how they relate with respect to aperture, data processing and results to specialized seismic arrays, is extensively dealt with in complementary chapters of the NMSOP.

1.3 Philosophy of the NMSOP


The concept for the NMSOP was developed with consideration of the benefits and drawbacks of the old Manual, taking into account the technological developments and opportunities which have appeared during the last 20 years, as well as the existing in-equalities in scientifictechnical conditions and availability of trained manpower world-wide (Bormann, 1994). Seismological stations and observatories are currently operated by a great variety of agencies, staffed by seismologists and technicians whose training and interests vary widely, or they are not staffed at all and operated remotely from a seismological data or analysis center. They are equipped with hardware and software ranging from very traditional analog technology to highly versatile and sophisticated digital technology. While in industrialized countries the observatory personnel normally have easy access to up-to-date technologies, spare parts, infrastructure, know-how, consultancy and maintenance services, those working in developing counties are often required to do a reliable job with very modest means, without much outside assistance and usually lacking textbooks on the fundamentals of seismology or information about standard observatory procedures. To ensure that data from observatories can be properly processed and interpreted under these diverse conditions, it is necessary to establish protocols for all aspects of observatory operation that may effect the seismological data itself. In addition, competent guidance is often required in the stages of planning, bidding, procurement, site-selection, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, and installation of new seismic observatories and networks so that they will later meet basic international standards for data exchange and processing in a cost-effective and efficient manner.

13

1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice One drawback of the old Manual appeared to us to be that its chapters were organized purely according to components or tasks of observatory practice, namely: Organization of station networks; Instruments; Station operation; Record content; The determination of earthquake parameters; Reporting output; Macroseismic observations; International services. A consequence of this structuring was that the seismological fundamentals required to understand the relevance and particulars of the various observatory tasks were sometimes referred to in various chapters and dealt with in a Scanner Archives s manner. This approach makes it difficult for observatory personnel to comprehend the interdisciplinary problems and aims behind observatory practice and to appreciate the related, often stringent requirements with respect to data quality, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, completeness, consistency of procedures etc. Further, this approach puts together in the same chapters basic scientific information, which is rather static, with technical aspects which evolve quickly. This makes it difficult to keep the Manual up-to-date without frequent rewriting of entire chapters. The IASPEI WG on MSOP agreed, therefore, to structure the new Manual differently: the body of the Manual should have long-term character, outlining the scope, terms of reference, philosophy, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, basic procedures as well as the scientific-technical and social background of observatory practice. It should aim at creating the necessary awareness and sense of responsibility to meet the required standards in observatory work in the best interests of scientific progress and social service. this main body or backbone of the NMSOP (Volume 1) should be structured in a didactically systematic way, introducing first the scientific-technical fundamentals underlying each of the main components in the "information chain" (see Fig. 1.1) before going on to major tasks of observatory work. the core Manual should be complemented Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen annexes of complementary information (Volume 2) which can stand alone. Some of these topics are too bulky or specific to be included in the body of the Manual while others may require more frequent updating than the thematic Manual chapters. Therefore, they should be kept separate and individualized. Some annexes give more detailed descriptions of special problems (e.g., event location or theory of source representation); others provide data about commonly-used Earth models, shareware for problem solving, seismic record examples, calibration functions for magnitude determination, widelyused sensors and their key parameters, or job-related exercises with solutions for specific observatory tasks such as phase identification, event location, magnitude estimation, fault-plane determination, etc. With this structure it is hoped to produce a new Manual which is a sufficiently complete, selfexplanatory reference source ("cook and recipe book") with an aim to provide awareness of complex problems, basic background information, and specific instructions for the self-reliant execution of all common "routine" or "pre-research" jobs by the technical and scientific staff at seismological stations, observatories, and network centers. This includes system planning, site investigation and preparation, instrument calibration, installation, shielding, data 14

1.4 Contents of the NMSOP UFO Extraterrestrials crack serial keygen, processing and analysis, documentation and reporting to relevant national and international agencies, data centers or the public, and occasionally, also assessing and classifying earthquake damage. The NMSOP will not cover the often highly automated procedures now in use at many international seismological data centers. These normally neither record nor analyze seismic records themselves but rather use the parameters or waveforms reported to them by stations, networks or arrays. Such centers usually have the expertise and the scientific-technical environment and international connections needed to carry out their duties effectively. Rather, the Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen should mainly serve the needs of the majority of less experienced or too narrowly specialized operators and analysts in both developing and industrialized countries, so as to assure that all necessary tasks within the scope and required standards for national and international data acquisition and exchange can be properly performed. Worldwide there is no formal university education or professional training available for seismic station operators and data analysts. Observatory personnel usually acquire their training through learning by doing. The formal educational background of observatory personnel may be very Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen Physicists, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, geologists, electronic or computer engineers, rarely geophysicists. Accordingly, the NMSOP tries to be comprehensible for people with different backgrounds, to stimulate their interest in interdisciplinary problems and to guide the development of the required practical skills. The method of instruction is mainly descriptive. Higher mathematics is only used where it is indispensable, e.g., in the seismometry chapter. The NMSOP should, however, also be a contribution, at least in part, to public, high school and university education in the field of geosciences. It is hoped that many components, practical exercises in particular, will be useful for students of geophysics. The NMSOP will therefore be made available in different forms: as a loose-leaf collection of printed chapters and annexes, which can easily be updated and complemented in accordance with changing job requirements and new developments without the need to re-edit and re-print the whole Manual. Also, these updates and complements can be disseminated to Manual owners as E-mail attachments and some Manual users may order only those parts which are relevant for them.; on a website with hyperlinks for convenient searches, linking external complementary resources, and easy extraction of problem-tailored educational modules (see 1.4.2); as a CD-ROM which will be affordable for everybody.

1.4
1.4.1

Contents of the NMSOP


The printed Manual

The IASPEI and ESC Working Groups for the NMSOP agreed on the following topical Manual chapters (for details see List of Contents): Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Aim and scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (NMSOP) Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth Models Seismic Sources and Source Parameters Seismic Signals and Noise 15

1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Chapter 11: Chapter 12: Chapter 13. Seismic Sensors and their Calibration Seismic Recording Systems Site Selection, Preparation and Installation of Seismic Stations Seismic Networks Seismic Arrays Data Formats, Storage, and Exchange Data Analysis and Seismogram Interpretation Intensity and Intensity Scales Volcano Seismology

These chapters form Volume 1 of the printed NMSOP and cover either the fundamental aspects of the main sub-systems of the "Information Chain of Seismology" as presented schematically in Fig. 1.1, or related specific tasks, technologies or methodologies of data acquisition, formatting, processing and application. Volume I is complemented by Volume 2. The latter contains annexes in the following categories: Datasheets (DS): Lists of sensor parameters; record examples, travel-time curves, Earth models, calibration functions, etc.; Information Sheets (IS): They contain more detailed treatments of special topics or condensed summaries of special instructions/recommendations for quick orientation, present the standard nomenclature of seismic phase and magnitude names, give examples for parameter reports and bulletins, etc.; Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen Exercises (EX): Practical exercises with solutions on basic observatory tasks such as event location, magnitude estimation, determination of fault-plane solutions and other source parameters, instrument calibration and response construction. For educational purposes, most of these exercises are carried out Manually with very modest technical and computational means, however links are given to related software tools; Program Descriptions (PD): Short descriptions of essential features of freely available software for observatory practice and how to access it; Miscellaneous: Contains a list of acronyms, an extensive index, the list of authors with complete addresses and the list of references for Volume 1. Other items may be added later.

1.4.2 The NMSOP website


Very early in the discussions about a New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice, it was decided that the usefulness and longevity of the project could be maximized by adapting it to the World Wide Web, which was only then becoming widely appreciated as a medium for exchanging information among scientists. Working scientists, especially older ones, are more oriented to the discipline of paper publication, with near-total control and permanence. The flexibility and unpredictability of the hyperlinked experience of a large technical document such as the NMSOP requires a different attitude on the part of the author, the editor, and the reader. The web-based Manual should be experienced more like a conversation than a prepared lecture; the reader must always evaluate the material for self-consistency and use common sense to evaluate apparent discrepancies.

16

1.5 Outreach of the NMSOP Compared to the printed version, the main advantages of the web-based Manual are the ease with which it can be updated and expanded, navigation via hyperlinks (both within the Manual and to external data and information resources), and the ease with which the user may copy portions of the Manual for use in other computer-based documents, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, lecture notes, etc. In designing the NMSOP website, we have been very conservative, employing only basic and standardized HTML constructs. This is done to ensure the greatest possible compatibility with web browsers in use world-wide, and to make maintenance and expansion of the website as simple as possible. In this first edition of the HTML version of the Manual, the degree to which hyperlinks are exploited is minimal. This has been dictated by the fact that much of the material to which hyperlinks might be made was not in place when the editing was done, and due to time constraints. Multiple passes with a fairly fixed body of content are required to take Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen advantage of the possibilities of hyperlinks. We expect future editions to make more use of hyperlinks. A major difference between the printed and HTML version of the Manual is the use of multilevel section numbering. In the HTML version, numbering ends at the sub-chapter level. This preserves Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen major structure of chapters, which is fairly stable. By avoiding extensive section numbering at deeper levels, we hope it will be easier to make changes and add new material in the future. Each chapter or subchapter has a hyperlinked table of contents to aid navigation. Because many users will be connecting to the website over slow connections, we have made design decisions in favor of faster downloads. Some examples are: breaking up larger chapters into several subchapters with their own web pages, reducing resolution of graphics as much as possible without losing critical information, and typing simple equations rather than adding additional inline graphic images. We have tried to develop a consistent style (both in language and HTML encoding) for the Manual, but the seemingly endless rounds of revisions make it difficult. Moreover the varying style of presentation of the different authors sometimes leads us to modify some design elements. The HTML version of the Manual is very much an organic creature that defies full control. Because of the complex paths these chapters followed in the process of being written, edited, reviewed, and set in HTML, the intention of the authors may have been distorted or even completely lost in some cases. One can think of this as a "noise process" underlying an otherwise information-rich and fascinating seismogram. Any issues of this sort should be first brought to the attention of the webmaster, Eric Bergman, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, then the editor, Peter Bormann, and finally the authors.

1.5

Outreach of the NMSOP

The authors and the webmaster of the NMSOP will strive to keep both the printed Manual and the NMSOP home page in tune with the most recent developments and needs. It is intended that the maintenance and regular updating of the NMSOP be a permanent obligation of the IASPEI Commission on Seismological Observation and Interpretation (CoSOI) and its relevant Working Groups. Production of an inexpensive printed loose-leaf collection of the Manual, complemented by a CD-ROM, will assure general availability of the Manual at every

17

1. Aim and Scope of the IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observ. Practice manned seismological station, network center, seismological institution or geoscience department at universities all over the world. It is expected, therefore, that the user community of the NMSOP will not be limited to observatory personal. Many chapters and sections will be of general interest to lecturers and students in seismology, geophysics or geosciences in general. They will find both suitable lecture and exercise material. With the NMSOP on the Internet, special training institutions in the field of applied seismology may make use of this resource. They can retrieve self-tailored training modules from it according to their specific requirements, provided that the data source and the individual authors of the related Manual contribution are properly cited. The copyright rests with IASPEI (see Editorial remarks). We hope that the NMSOP will be of long-term and far-reaching benefit to a rather diverse user community.

Acknowledgments
Our thanks go to all members of the IASPEI Manual Working Group who have actively contributed to the development of the Manual concept and the currently available drafts. We also acknowledge the valuable comments and suggestions received on the draft of Chapter 1 from B. L. N. Kennett and S. A. Sipkin. Special thanks go to Ms. Margaret Adams (UK/USA) who took the trouble to do the final English proof-reading of the whole Manual and its Annexes. We also acknowledge with thanks the efforts by Ms. Ute Borchert and Ms. Regina Stromeyer of the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam who produced many of the figures contained in the Manual.

Recommended overview readings (see References under Miscellaneous in Volume 2)


Aki and Richards (2002) Bth (1979) Bolt (1982, 1993, 1999) Havskov and Alguacil (2002) Kennett (2001 and 2002) Kulhnek (1990) Lay and Wallace (1995) Lilie (1998) Scherbaum (2001) Shearer (1999) Udias (1999) Willmore (1979)

18

CHAPTER

2
Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models
Peter Bormann, Bob Engdahl and Rainer Kind

2.1 Introduction
The key data to be recorded by means of seismic sensors (Chapter 5) and recorders (Chapter 6) at seismological observatories (stations Chapter 7, networks Chapter 8, arrays Chapter 9) are seismic waves, radiated by seismic sources (Chapter 3). Weak signals may be masked or significantly distorted by seismic noise (Chapter 4), which is usually considered disturbing and unwanted. Only in some special engineering-seismological applications is seismic noise also appreciated as a useful signal, from which some information on the structure, velocity and fundamental resonance frequency of the uppermost sedimentary layers can be derived (e.g. Bard, 1999). But most of what we know today of the structure and physical properties of our planet Earth, from its uppermost crust down to its center, results from the analysis of seismic waves generated by more or less localized natural or man-made sources such as earthquakes or explosions (Figs. 3.1 to 3.4). Either (repeatedly) solving the so-called forward (direct) or the inverse problem of data analysis (Fig. 1.1) achieves this. It is not the task of the New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (NMSOP), to provide an in-depth understanding of the theoretical tools for this kind of analysis. There exist quite a number of good introductory (Lillie, 1999; Shearer, 1999) and more advanced textbooks (e.g., Aki and Richards, 1980 and 2002; Ben-Menahem and Singh,1981; Bullen and Bolt, 1985; Dahlen and Tromp, 1998; Lay and Wallace, 1995; Kennett, 2001), and a variety of special papers and monographs related to specific methods (e.g. Fuchs and Mller, 1971; erven et Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, 1977; Kennett, 1983; Mller, 1985; erven, 2001), types of seismic waves (e.g., Malischewsky, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, 1987; Lapwood and Usami, 1981) or applications (e.g., Gilbert and Dziewonski, 1975; Sherif and Geldart, 1995). Rather, we will take here a more phenomenological approach and refer to related fundamentals in physics and mathematical theory only as far as they are indispensable for understanding the most essential features of seismic waves and their appearance in seismic records and as far as they are required for: identifying Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen discriminating the various types of seismic waves; understanding how the onset-times of these phases, as observed at different distances from the source, form so-called travel-time curves; understanding how these curves and some of their characteristic features are related to the velocity-structure of the Earth and to the observed (relative) amplitudes of these phases in seismic records; using travel-time and amplitude-distance curves for seismic source location and magnitude estimation; understanding how much these source-parameter estimates depend on the precision and accuracy of the commonly used 1-D Earth models (see IS 11.1); 1

2, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models appreciating how these source parameter estimates can be improved by using more realistic (2-D, 3-D) Earth models as well as later (secondary) phase onsets in the processing routines; and being aware of the common assumptions and simplifications used in synthetic seismogram calculations that are increasingly used nowadays in seismological routine practice (see 2.5.4.4, 2.8, 3.5.3).

2.2 Elastic moduli and body waves


2.2.1 Elastic moduli
Seismic waves are elastic waves. Earth material must behave elastically to transmit them. The degree of elasticity determines how well they are transmitted. By the pressure front expanding from an underground explosion, or by an earthquake shear rupture, the surrounding Earth material is subjected to stress (compression, tension and/or shearing). As a consequence, it undergoes strain, i.e., it changes volume and/or distorts shape. In an inelastic (plastic, ductile) material this deformation remains while elastic behavior means that the material returns to its original volume and shape when the stress load is over, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. The degree of elasticity/plasticity of real Earth material depends mainly on the strain rate, i.e., on the length of time it takes to achieve a certain amount of distortion. At very low strain rates, such as movements in the order of mm or cm/year, it may behave ductilely. Examples are the formation of geologic folds or the slow plastic convective currents of the hot material in the Earths mantle with velocity on the order of several cm per year. On the other hand, the Earth reacts elastically to the small but rapid deformations caused by a transient seismic source pulse. Only for very large amplitude seismic deformations in soft soil (e.g., from earthquake strong-motions in the order of 40% or more of the gravity acceleration of the Earth) or for extremely long-period free-oscillation modes (see 2.4) does the inelastic behavior of seismic waves have to be taken into account. Within its elastic range the behavior of the Earth material can be described by Hookes Law that states that the amount of strain is linearly proportional to the amount of stress, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Beyond its elastic limit the material may either respond with brittle fracturing (e.g., earthquake faulting, see Chapter 3) or ductile behavior/plastic flow (Fig. 2.1).

Fig. 2.1 Schematic presentation of the relationship between stress and strain.

2.2 Elastic moduli and body waves

Elastic material resists differently to stress depending on the type of deformation. It can be quantified by various elastic moduli: the bulk modulus is defined as the ratio of the hydrostatic (homogeneous all-sides) pressure change to the resulting relative volume change, i.e., = P / (V/V), which is a measure of the incompressibility of the material (see Fig. 2.2 top); the shear modulus (or rigidity) is a measure of the resistance of the material to shearing, i.e., to changing the shape and not the volume of the material. Its value is given by half of the ratio between the applied shear stress xy (or tangential force F divided by the area A over which the force is applied) and the resulting shear strain exy (or the shear displacement L divided by the length L of the area acted upon by F)that is = xy/2 exy or = (F/A) / (L/L) (Fig. 2.2 middle). For fluids = 0, and for material of very strong resistance (i.e. L 0) ; the Youngs modulus E (or stretch modulus) describes the behavior of a cylinder of length L that is pulled on both ends. Its value is given by the ratio between the extensional stress to the resulting extensional strain of the cylinder, i.e., E = (F/A) / (L/L) (Fig, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. 2.2 bottom); the Poissons ratio is the ratio between the lateral contraction (relative change of width W) of a cylinder being pulled on its ends to its relative longitudinal extension, i.e., = (W/W) / (L/L) (Fig. 2.2 bottom).

Fig. 2.2 Deformation of material samples for determining elastic moduli. Top: bulk modulus ; middle: shear modulus ; bottom: Youngs modulus E and Poissons ratio. a original shape of the volume to be deformed; b volume and/or shape after adding pressure P to the volume V (top), shear force F over the area A (middle) or stretching force F in the direction of the long axis of the bar (bottom). 3

2. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models

Youngs modulus, the bulk modulus and the shear modulus all have the same physical units as pressure and stress, namely (in international standard (SI) units): 1 Pa = 1 N m-2 = 1 kg m-1 s-2 (with 1 N = 1 Newton = 1 kg m s-2). (2.1)

2.2.2 Stress-strain relationship


The most general linear relationship between stress and strain of an elastic medium is governed in the generalized Hooks law (see Eqation (10) in the IS 3.1) by a fourth order parameter tensor. It contains 21 independent moduli. The properties of such a solid may vary with direction. Then the medium is called anisotropic. Otherwise, if the properties are the same in all directions, a medium is termed isotropic. Although in some parts of the Earths interior anisotropy on the order of a few percent exists, isotropy has proven to be a reasonable first-order approximation for the Earth as a whole. The most common models, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen which data processing in routine observatory practice is based, assume isotropy and changes of properties only with depth. In the case of isotropy the number of independent parameters in the elastic tensor reduces to just two. They are called after the French physicist Lam (1795-1870) the Lam parameters and. The latter is identical with the shear modulus. does not have a straightforward physical explanation but it can be expressed in terms of the above mentioned elastic moduli and Poissons ratio, namely

= - 2 /3 =

E. (1 + )(1 2 )

(2.2)

The other elastic parameters can also be expressed as functions of and/or : E= and (3 + 2 ) ( + ) (2.3)

3 2 =. 2(3 + ) 2( + )

(2.4)

For a Poisson solid = and thus, according to (2.4), = 0.25. Most crustal rocks have a Poissons ratio between about 0.2 and 0.3. But may reach values of almost 0.5, e.g., for unconsolidated, water-saturated sediments, and even negative values of are possible (see Tab. 2.1). The elastic Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen govern the velocity with which seismic waves propagate. The equation of motion for a continuum can be written as

2ui = j ij + f it 2

(2.5)

2.2 Elastic moduli and body waves with - density of the material, ui displacement, ij stress tensor and fi the body force term that generally consists of a gravity term and a source term. The gravity term is important at low frequencies in normal mode seismology (see 2.4), but it can be neglected for calculations of body- and surface-wave propagation at typically observed wavelengths. Solutions of Eq. (2.5) which predict the ground motion at locations some distance away from the source are called synthetic seismograms (see Figs. 2.54 and 2.55). In the case of an inhomogeneous medium, which involves gradients in the Lam parameters, Eq. (2.5) takes a rather complicated form that is difficult to solve efficiently. Also, in case of strong inhomogeneities, transverse and longitudinal waves Cool Edit Pro 3.1 Crack Free + Serial Key Activation Full Download Latest Version 2021 below) are not decoupled. This results in complicated particle motions. Therefore, most methods for synthetic seismogram computations ignore gradient terms of and in the equation of motion by modeling the material either as a series of homogeneous layers (which also allows to approximate gradient zones; see reflectivity method by Fuchs and Mller, 1971; Kennett, 1983; Mller, 1985) or by assuming that variations in the Lam parameters are negligible over a wavelength and thus these terms tend to zero at high frequencies (ray theoretical approach; e.g., erven et al., 1977; erven, 2001). In homogeneous media and for small deformations the equation of motion for seismic waves outside the source region (i.e., without the source term fs and neglecting the gravity term fg) takes the following simple form:

= ( + 2)u - u

(2.6)

where u is the displacement vector and its second time derivative. Eq. (2.6) provides the basis for most body-wave, synthetic seismogram calculations. Although it describes rather well most basic features in a seismic record we have to be aware that it is an approximation only for an isotropic homogeneous linearly elastic medium.

2.2.3 P- and S-wave velocities, waveforms and polarization


The first term on the right side of Eq. (2.6) contains a gradient of displacement (the scalar product grad u = u). It describes a volume change (compression and dilatation), which always contains some (rotation free!) shearing too, unless the medium is compressed hydrostatically (as in Fig. 2.2 top). The second term is a vector product (rot u = u) corresponding to a curl (rotation) and describes a change of shape without volume change (pure shearing). Since both the gradient of a curl and the rotation of a gradient are zero, we get two independent solutions for Eq. (2.6) by forming its gradient (scalar product) and rotation (vector product), respectively:
2 ( u) + 2 2 = ( u) 2t

(2.7)

and
2 ( u) 2 = ( u)Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. 2t

(2.8)

Eqs. (2.7) and (2.8) are solutions of the wave equation for the propagation of two independent types of seismic body waves, namely longitudinal (compressional - dilatational) P waves and transverse (shear) S waves. Their velocities are

2. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models

vp =

+ 2 =

+ 4 / 3

(2.9)

and vs =

(2.10)

Accordingly, for a Poisson solid with = vp/vs = 3. This comes close to the vp/vs ratio of consolidated sedimentary and igneous rocks in the Earths crust (see Tab. 2.1). Eqs. (2.9) and 2.10) also mean that P (primary) waves travel significantly faster than S (secondary) waves and thus arrive ahead of S in a seismic record (see Fig. 2.3). The Poissons ratio is often used as a measure of the vp/vs ratio, namely

= (vp2/vs2 2)/2(vp2/vs2 1)

(2.11)

Fig. 2.3 The three components of ground-velocity proportional digital records of the P and S waves from a local event, an aftershock of the Killari-Latur earthquake, India (18.10.1993), at a hypocentral distance of about 5.3 km.

Note the simple transient waveform (wavelet) of P in the Z-component of Fig. 2.3. The waveform and duration of the primary body wave is related to the shape and duration of the source-time function. It is for an earthquake shear rupture usually a more or less complex displacement step (see Figs. 2.4 and 3.4) which can be described by the moment-release function M(t) (see 3.5). In the far-field, i.e., at distances larger than the source dimension and several wavelengths of the considered signal, the related displacement u(t) looks, in the & idealized case, bell-shaped and identical with the moment-rate M (t ) (or velocity source-time) function (see Fig. 2.4 middle). The base-width of this far-field displacement source pulse u(t) corresponds to the duration of displacement at the source (for examples see Fig. 3.7). & However, usually broadband seismometers record ground velocity u (t ) instead of ground displacement. The recorded waveform then looks similar to the ones seen in Fig, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. 2.3 and Fig. & 2.4 bottom. The period of the wavelet u (t ) corresponds to the duration of the displacement of
6

2.2 Elastic moduli and body waves

the source, s. This waveform of primary body waves will be slightly changed due to frequency-dependent attenuation and other wave-propagation effects, e.g., those that cause phase shifts. But the duration of the body-wave ground-motion wavelet (or wave-group) will Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen essentially that of the source process, independent of the observational distance, unless it is significantly prolonged and distorted by narrowband seismic recordings (see 4.2). We have made this point in order to better appreciate one of the principal differences in the appearance in seismic records of transient body waves on the one hand and of dispersed surface waves (see 2.3 and, e.g., Figs. 2.14 and 2.23) on the other hand.

Fig. 2.4 Relationship between near-field displacement, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, far-field displacement and velocity from isotropic or double-couple source earthquake shear sources (modified from Shearer, Introduction to Seismology, 1999; with permission from Cambridge University Press).

Tab. 2.1 gives some approximate average values for the elastic moduli anthe density and the seismic velocities vp and vs for air, water, ice and some selected Earth materials. The following general conclusions can be drawn from it: For the same material, shear waves travel always slower than compressional waves; The higher the rigidity of the material, the higher the P- and S-wave velocities; The rigidity usually increases with densitybut more rapidly than. This explains why denser rocks have normally faster wave propagation velocities although v2 1/ ; Fluids (liquids or gasses) have no shear strength ( = 0) and thus do not propagate shear waves; For the same material, compressional waves travel slower through its liquid state than through its solid state (e.g., water and ice, or, in the Earths core, through the liquid outer and solid inner iron core, respectively).

Seismic energy is usually radiated from localized sources with linear dimensions much smaller than the distance of observation. Therefore, seismic wavefronts from such point sources, i.e., the surfaces along which the propagating waves are oscillating in phase, are generally Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen and the seismic rays, perpendicular to the wavefronts, are oriented in the

2. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models

radial directions of wave propagation. However, when the distance is large enough, the curvature of the wavefronts becomes so small that we can approximate them locally (e.g., within the aperture of a local seismic network or an array; see Chapters 8 and 9) by plane waves with parallel seismic rays.
Tab. 2.1 Typical values (averages and/or approximate ranges) of elastic constants, density, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, Poisson's ratio and seismic wave velocities for some selected materials, unconsolidated sediments, sedimentary rocks of different geologic age and igneous/plutonic rocks. Values for granite relate to 200 MPa confining pressure, corresponding to about 8 km depth, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, for basalt to 600 MPa (about 20 km depth), and for Peridotite, Dunite and Pyroxenite to1000 MPa (about 30 km depth) (compiled from Hellwege, 1982; Lillie, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen and other sources). Material or Geologic Formation Air Water Ice Clastic sedimentary rocks Sandstone Salt Bulk Modulus in 109 Pa 0.0001 2.2 3.0 Shear Modulus in 109 Pa 0 0 4.9 Density Poisson Ratio

vp
in km s-1 0.32 1.5 3.2 (1.4-5.3) 4.3 4.6
(3.8-5.2)

vs
in km s-1 0 0 2.3 2.6 2.9 2.9 3.6
(3.4-3.7)

vp/vs
1.39

in kg m-3 1.0 1000 920 2500 2200 2700 2610


(2340-2670)

0.5 0.5 -0.034 0.21 0.17 0.19 0.25 0.28


(0.26-0.29)

24 24 38 56
(47-69)

17 18 22 34
(30-37)

1.65 1.59 1.62 1.73


(1.65-1.91)

Limestone Granite Basalt

4.7
(2.9-5.6)

6.2 6.4
(6.1-6.7)

(0.20-0.31) (5.8-6.4)

71
(64-80)

38
(33-41)

2940
(2850-3050)

3.6
(3.4-3.7)

1.80
(1.76-1.82)

Peridotite, 128 (113-141) Dunit, Pyroxenite Metamorphic& igneous rocks Ultramafic rocks Cenozoic Cenozoic water saturated Cretaceous & Jurassic Triassic Upper Permian Carboniferous

63
(5272)

3300
(3190-3365)

0.29

8.0 (3.8-6.4) (7.2-8.7)

4.4
(4.04.7)

1.8
(1.76-1.91)

(0.26-0.29) (7.58.4)

1500-2100 0.38-<0.5 (0.2-1.9) 1950 0.48 1.7 0.34 2400-2500 0.28-0.43 2500-2700 0.28-0.40 2000-2900 0.23-0.31 0.31-0.35

2.3 - 8 5 1.8 2.8 1.8 2.5 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.1

Fig. 2.5 depicts (exaggerated) the kind of displacements occurring from harmonic plane P and S waves. One clearly recognizes that P waves involve both a volume change and shearing (change in shape) while S-wave propagation is pure shear with no volume change. The Pwave particle motion is back and forth in the radial (R) direction of wave propagation 8

2.2 Elastic moduli and body waves

(longitudinal polarization) but that of the S wave is perpendicular (transverse) to it, in the given case oscillating up and down in the vertical plane (SV-wave). However, S waves may also oscillate purely in the horizontal plane (SH waves) or at any angle between vertical and horizontal, depending on the source mechanism (Chapter 3), the wave propagation history, and the incidence angle io at the seismic station (see Fig. 2.27).

Fig. 2.5 Displacements from a harmonic plane P wave (top) and SV wave (bottom) propagating in a homogeneous isotropic medium. is the wavelength. 2A means double amplitude, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. The white surface on the right is a segment of the propagating plane wavefront where all particles undergo the same motion at a given instant in time, i.e., Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, they oscillate in phase. The arrows indicate the seismic rays, defined as the normal to the wavefront, which points in the direction of propagation (modified according to Shearer, Introduction to Seismology, 1999; with permission from Cambridge University Press).

The wavelength is defined by the distance (in km) between neighboring wave peaks or Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen or volumes of maximum compression or dilatation (see Fig. 2.5). The wave period T is the duration of one oscillation (in s) and the frequency f is the number of oscillations per second (unit [Hz] = [s-1]). The wavelength is the product of wave velocity v and period T while the wavenumber is the ratio 2/, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Tab. 2.2 summarizes all these various harmonic wave parameters and their mutual relationship.
Tab. 2.2 Harmonic wave parameters and their mutual relationship. Name Period Frequency Angular frequency Velocity Wavelength Wavenumber Symbol T f v k Relationships T = 1/f = 2/ = /v f = 1/T = /2 = v/ = 2f = 2/T = vk v = /T = f = /k = v/f = vT = 2/k k = /v = 2/ = 2f/v

In any case, the polarization of both P and S waves, when propagating in a homogenous and isotropic medium, is Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. This is confirmed rather well by particle motion analysis of real seismic recordings, if they are broadband (or long period). But higher frequencies, which are more strongly affected by local inhomogeneities in the Earth, show a more elliptical or irregular particle motion, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Fig. 2.6 shows an example. While the rectilinearity of P is almost 1

2. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models

(0.95) in the BB record it is significantly less (0.82 as an average over 5 oscillations and down to 0.68 for some single oscillations) for the short-period filtered record.

Fig. 2.6 3-component records at station MOX (top traces) and related plots of particle motion in the horizontal (N-E) plane and two vertical planes (Z-N and Z-E, respectively) of the Pwave onset from a local seismic event (mining collapse) in Germany (13.03.1989; Ml = 5.5; epicentral distance D = 112 km, backazimuth BAZ = 273). Upper part: broadband recording (0.1-5 Hz); lower part: filtered short-period recording (1- 5 Hz). Note: The incidence angle is 59.5 for the long-period P-wave oscillation and 47.3 for the high-frequency P-wave group.

10

2.3 Surface waves

S waves are also linearly polarized when propagating in homogeneous isotropic medium. However, in the presence of anisotropy, they split into a fast and slow component. These split waves propagate with different velocity that causes some time delay and related phase shift. Accordingly, the two split S-wave components superimpose to an elliptical polarization (Fig. 2.7). The orientation of the main axis and the degree of ellipticity are controlled by Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen fast and slow velocity directions of the medium with respect to the direction of wave propagation and the degree of anisotropy. Therefore, shear-wave splitting is often used to study S-wave velocity anisotropy in the Earth.

Fig, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. 2.7 Examples of SKS and SKKS recordings and plots of particle motion at three stations of the German Regional Seismograph Network. The horizontal radial (R) and transverse (T) components are shown. They were derived by rotation of the N-S and E-W horizontal components with the backazimuth angle. The T component at BFO has the same scale as the R component, while T is magnified two-fold relative to R at BRG and MOX. The top panels show the polarization in the R-T plane. Anisotropy is manifested in all three cases by the elliptical polarization, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Linear polarization is obtained by correcting the R-T seismograms for the anisotropy effect using an anisotropy model where the direction of the fast shear wave is sub-horizontal and given by the angle measured clockwise from north, and the delay time (in seconds) between the slow and the fast shear wave is given by t (courtesy of G. Bock).

2.3 Surface waves


2.3.1 Origin
So far we have considered only body-wave solutions of the seismic wave equation. They exist in the elastic full space. However, in the presence of a free surface, as in the case of the Earth, other solutions are possible. They are called surface waves. There exist two types of surface waves, Love waves and Rayleigh waves. While Rayleigh (LR or R) waves exist at any free surface, Love (LQ or G) waves require some kind of a wave guide formed by a velocity increase with depth (gradient- or layer-wise). Both conditions are fulfilled in the real Earth. SH waves are totally reflected at the free surface. Love waves are formed through constructive interference of repeated reflections of teleseismic SH at the free-surface (i.e., S3, S4, S5, etc.; see Fig. 2.42 and overlay to Figs. 2.48 and 2.49). They can also result from constructive interference between SH waves, which are postcritically reflected (see 2.5.3.5) within a homogeneous layer (or a set of i layers with increasing vsi) overlaying a half-space 11

2. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models

with higher velocity. The latter is the case of crustal layers, overlaying the upper mantle with a significant velocity increase at the base of the crust, called the Mohorovii-discontinuity or Moho for short. The Moho marks the transition between the usually more mafic (often termed basaltic) lower crust and the peridotitic uppermost mantle (for related velocities see Tab. 2.1) and may, together with other pronounced intra-crustal velocity discontinuities give rise to the formation of complex guided crustal waves (see 2.3.3). Generally, destructive interference of the upgoing and downgoing reflected SH waves will occur, except at certain discrete frequencies and n multiples of it (with n as an integer). The values of given for n = 0 are termed the fundamental modes while larger values of n define the higher modes or overtones. Fig. 2.8 (top) shows the horizontal (SH type) of displacement and linear polarization of the fundamental Love-wave mode as well as the exponential decay of its amplitudes with depth. When a P (or SV) wave Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen at the surface the reflected wave energy contains (because of mode conversion, see 2.5.3.4) both P and SV waves. Lord Rayleigh showed more than 100 years ago that in this case a solution of the wave equation exists for two coupled inhomogeneous P and SV waves that propagate along the surface of a half-space. While Rayleigh waves show no dispersion in a homogeneous half-space, they are always dispersed in media with layering and/or velocity gradients such as in the real Earth. Rayleigh waves travel - for a Poisson solid - with a phase velocity c = 2 2 / 3 vs 0.92 vs, i.e., they are slightly slower than Love waves. Therefore, they appear somewhat later in seismic records. The exact value of c depends on vp and vs. Since Rayleigh waves originate from coupled P and SV waves they are polarized in the vertical (SV) plane of propagation and due to the phase shift between P and SV the sense of their particle motion at the surface is elliptical and retrograde (counter clockwise). Fig. 2.8 (bottom) shows schematically the displacements for the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves. They also decay exponentially with depth. The short-period fundamental mode of Rayleigh type in continental areas is termed Rg.

Fig. 2.8 Displacements caused by horizontally propagating fundamental Love (top) and Rayleigh waves (bottom). In both cases the wave amplitudes decay strongly with depth (from Shearer, Introduction to Seismology, 1999; with permission from Cambridge University Press).

12

2.3 Surface waves

2.3.2 Dispersion and polarization


The penetration depth below the surface increases with. This is comparable with the frequency-dependent skin effect of electromagnetic waves propagating in a conducting medium with a free surface. Since the types of rocks, their rigidity and bulk modulus change (usually increase) with depth, the velocities of surface waves change accordingly since the longer waves sense deeper parts of the Earth. This results in a frequency dependence of their horizontal propagation velocity, called dispersion. Accordingly, while body-wave arrivals with no or negligibly small dispersion only (due to intrinsic attenuation) appear in seismic records as rather impulsive onsets or short transient wavelets (with the shape and duration depending on the bandwidth of the seismograph; see Chapter 4.2), Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, the dispersion of surface waves forms long oscillating wave trains. Their duration increases with distance. Usually, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, the more long-period surface waves arrive first (normal dispersion). But in some regions of the Earth low-velocity layers exist (e.g., the asthenosphere in the upper mantle; see the PREM model in 2.7, Fig. 2.53, in the depth range between about 80 and 220 km). This general trend may then be reversed for parts of the surface wave spectrum. Presentations of the propagation velocity of surface waves as a function of the period T or the frequency f are called dispersion curves. They differ for Love and Rayleigh waves and also depend on the velocity-depth structure of the Earth along the considered segment of the travel path (Fig. 2.9). Thus, from the inversion of surface wave dispersion data, information on the shear-wave velocity structure of the crust, and, when using periods up to about 500 s (mantle surface waves), even of the upper mantle and transition zone can be derived.

Fig. 2.9 Group-velocity dispersion curves as a function of period for Love and Rayleigh waves (fundamental modes and overtones) (from Bullen and Bolt, An Introduction to the Theory of Seismology, 1985; with permission from Cambridge University Press).

The large differences in crustal thickness, composition and velocities between oceanic and continental areas (Fig. 2.10) result in significant differences between their related average group-velocity dispersion curves (Fig. 2.9). They are particularly pronounced for Rayleigh 13

2. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models

waves. While the velocities for continental Rayleigh waves vary in the period range from about 15 and 30 s only from 2.9 to 3.3 km/s, they vary much more in oceanic areas (from about 1.5 to 4.0 km/s within the same period range. Consequently, LR wave trains from travel paths over continental areas are shorter and look more clearly dispersed because the various periods follow each other at shorter time differences (e.g., Figures 1d and 5a in DS 11.2). In contrast, LR wave trains with dominatingly oceanic travel paths are much longer with almost monochromatic oscillations over many minutes (Fig. 2.11). Actually, the discovery of different surface-wave velocities along continental and oceanic paths were in the 1920s the first indication of the principle structural difference between oceanic and continental crust.

Fig. 2.10 Cross-section through the crust along 40 northern latitude. Note the different signatures for the upper (granitic), intermediate (dioritic) and lower (mafic) continental crust and the basaltic oceanic crust. The crustal base is termed Moho (according to its discoverer, the Croatian seismologist Andrija Mohorovii). The P-wave velocity increases at the Moho from about 6.5-6.8 km/s to 7.8-8.2 km/s. The continental crust is about 25 to 45 km thick (average about 35 km) and has roots under young high mountain ranges which may reach down to nearly 70 km. The oceanic crust is rather thin (about 8 to 12 km) with a negligible upper crust (courtesy of Mooney and Detweiler, 2002).

Fig. 2.11 Record of Rayleigh waves in the long-period vertical component at the station Toledo, Spain, from an earthquake in the Dominican Republic (D = 6,622 km; travel-path through the Atlantic Ocean) (courtesy of G. Payo, 1986).

14

2.3 Surface waves

Strictly speaking, when dealing with dispersive waves, one has to discriminate between the group velocity U(T), with which the energy of the wave group moves and the phase velocity c(T), with which the wave peaks and troughs at a given frequency travel along the surface. As seen from Fig. 2.12, c(T) is always larger than U(T), Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. When comparing Figs. 2.9 and 2.12 the significant differences between dispersion curves calculated for a global 1-D Earth model like PREM (see 2.7, Fig. 2.53 and DS 2.1) and averaged measured curves for different types of crust or mantle models become obvious.

Fig. 2.12 Fundamental mode Love- and Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves computed for the PREM model with anisotropy (courtesy of Gabi Laske).

As shown in Fig. 2.13, the horizontal component of the fundamental Rayleigh wave mode will vanish in a uniform half-space at a depth of about /5 and thus the particle motion becomes vertical linear. At larger depth the particle trajectories will be elliptical again, but with a prograde (clockwise) sense of motion. The amplitudes decay rapidly with depth. At a depth of /2, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, the horizontal particle motion is about 10% of that at the surface while the vertical particle motion at the surface is reduced to about 30%. Because of the strong decay of surface wave amplitudes with depth, earthquakes deeper than the recorded wavelengths will produce significantly reduced or no surface waves. The amplitude ratio between body and surface waves in broadband records is thus a reliable quick discriminator between shallow and deep earthquakes. For shallow teleseismic earthquakes the surface wave group has generally by far the largest amplitudes in broadband and long-period records (see Fig. 2.23). This is because of their 2-D propagation along the surface of the Earth and energy decay 1/r as compared to the 3-D propagation of body-waves and energy decay 1/r2. Also, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, the local maxima and minima in the group-velocity curves (Figs. 2.9 and 2.12) imply that surface wave energy in a wider period range around these extremes will travel with nearly the same velocity and arrive at a seismic station at about the same time, thus superimposing to large amplitudes. These amplitude maxima in the dispersive surface wave train are called Airy phases. For continental travel paths a pronounced Rayleigh wave Airy phase with periods around 20 s occurs which is rather stable and used for estimating the standard surface wave magnitude Ms (see 3.2.5.1). An example is given in Fig. 2.23. Longperiod mantle Rayleigh waves have an Airy phase around T 220 s (see Fig. 2.9).

15

2. Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models

Fig. 2.13 Particle Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen for the fundamental Rayleigh mode in a uniform Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. Shown is one horizontal wavelength. At the surface the vertical motion is about 1.5 times larger than the horizontal motion. Note the change from retrograde to prograde sense of elliptical particle motion at a depth larger about /5, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. The wave propagates from left to right. The dots show the position of the same particle at a fixed distance with time increasing from the right to the left (modified from Shearer, Introduction into Seismology, 1999; with permission from Cambridge University Press).

Fig. 2.14 3-component broadband records (top traces) and related plots of particle motion in the horizontal (N-E) plane and two vertical planes (Z-N and Z-E, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen, respectively) of the surfacewave group of the same event as in Fig. 2.6 (D = 112 km; backazimuth BAZ = 273).

Fig. 2.14 above shows, for the event in Fig. 2.6, the 3-component broadband record of the Rayleigh-wave group and the related particle motion trajectories in three perpendicular planes. There exists indeed a strikingly clear retrograde elliptical motion in the vertical-east 16

2.3 Surface waves

(Z-E) plane, which is in this case almost identical with the vertical plane of wave propagation (backazimuth 273). Also the amplitude ratio vertical/horizontal component is 1.5, as theoretically expected. In the horizontal N-E plane, however, there is also some transverse energy present in this wave group, Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen. It is due to some SH energy present in the N-S component. Generally, one should be aware that the theoretically expected complete separation of LQ and LR waves in a homogeneous isotropic (horizontally layered) half-space is not absolutely true in the real Earth because of heterogeneity and anisotropy. This may cause the coupling of some Rayleigh-wave energy into Love waves and vice versa (see e.g., Malischewsky (1987) and Meier et al. (1997)), similar to S-wave splitting in the presence of anisotropy (see Fig. 2.7). Higher mode surface waves have a different depth dependence than fundamental modes and sample deeper structure than that probed by fundamental modes of the same period.

2.3.3 Crustal surface waves and guided waves


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Billions of pounds of British aid is lying unused by international development organisations, a public spending watchdog says. The amount of money pledged by Britain to overseas bodies but left uncashed has doubled to £8.7 billion in two years, the National Audit Office (NAO) has discovered. The auditors warn that the growing trend risks undermining the credibility of the government’s commitment to spend 0.7 per cent of national income on aid, a figure now exceeding £13 billion. Lord Lipsey, a Labour peer, said yesterday: “These tales, now with the Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen backing of the NAO, discredit Britain’s aid spending and hand yet more live ammunition to the antiaid brigade.” Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen a fifth of aid spending is done through “promissory notes”, a form of IOU that provides a legally binding commitment by Britain to pay an international organisation in the future. The practical advantage is that this enables bodies such as the World Bank to embark on long-term projects, confident that the finance will be available. Recipients include the Commonwealth Development Corporation, the African Development Fund and the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Critics fear that promissory notes make it easier for civil servants to reach their aid target for official development assistance (ODA) without actually finding enough schemes to support. “The continued growth in the balance of outstanding promissory notes could undermine the credibility of the ODA target,” the NAO states in its report, published today. In March 2014, uncashed promissory notes stood at £4.3 billion. By the end of last December, that figure had more than doubled. A spokeswoman for the Department for International Development (Dfid) said: “Promissory notes allow us to make Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen long-term funding commitments that are needed for life-saving

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Rail chaos to increase as strikes spread Graeme Paton Transport Correspondent

Strikes are to spread to the Greater Anglia rail network, causing chaos for hundreds of thousands of commuters. The Rail, Maritime and Transport union (RMT) announced yesterday that it would ballot guards and drivers over strike action as part of an escalating row over the operation of doors on trains by guards. It said that it had failed to win assurances from Greater Anglia that guards

would be retained in full — including maintaining responsibility for closing train doors at stations — for the duration of its nine-year contract. The network carries 82 million passengers a year across London, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk. The RMT said last week that it might stage action on South West Trains, Britain’s busiest rail network. It is already engaged in a rolling wave of strikes on three other networks — Southern,

Northern and Merseyrail — over the role of guards. The Southern action has proved particularly disruptive, with staff walking out for the equivalent of more than a month in the past year. Britain’s rail network is involved in a modernisation programme, including the delivery of thousands of new trains to cope with rising passenger numbers. Almost all new trains are equipped with driver-control systems in which doors are operated from within the cab. HS2 route confirmed, pages 20-21

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London’s fire authority, which Dynamic-CD Standard License/750 CDs 2.9.5.6 crack serial keygen £6 million from the government for specialist equipment after the Grenfell Tower disaster, underspent its budget by £9.9 million last year, The figure was published yesterday as councils were warned against increasing the fire risk to buildings by hastily removing tower block cladding. Despite concerns about a shortage of firefighters in the capital almost half the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority (LFEPA) underspending was due to a failure to recruit staff, leaving it with a wage bill surplus of £4.2 million in 2016-17. Documents for the authority’s resources committee said recruitment policies aimed at increasing the diversity of fire service personnel had caused

the number of applicants to fall. The papers also revealed that the authority, appointed by Sadiq Khan, the mayor of London, had £37 million in reserves, more than double the £14 million it is required to hold. The scale of the underspending and financial reserves are embarrassing for Mr Khan who told Amber Rudd, the home secretary, last week that the Grenfell tragedy exposed London Fire Brigade’s need for “a new range of specialist equipment at an estimated cost of £6 million”. The brigade’s shopping list is thought to be headed by ladders taller than the 32m aerial platform available last month to firefighters called to the 70m block. At least 80 people died in the blaze which swept through the building in west London. Mr Khan’s letter to Ms Rudd warned that the fire service faced “financial pressures” that could create a

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Andrew Ellson Consumer Affairs Correspondent

Organisers of fantasy football leagues have been warned not to ask others to join their competition on social media in case they breach gambling laws. The Gambling Commission has issued a statement saying that promoting fantasy football on Facebook or Twitter may require a licence. The regulator said: “Advertising, when it comes to gambling, includes doing anything that encourages someone to gamble or provides information about gambling facilities so that it will increase use. This also includes Twitter or Facebook posts, whether public, or private or within groups. Promoting a

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3 comments

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