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Glossary


A

Abandonware

Abandonware is software that is shelved by its developer. As such, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, it is no longer updated nor supported so it may be rife with vulnerabilities.

Account harvesting

Account harvesting is the process of gathering user accounts from a system, service, or database using a variety of methods, such as malware or phishing.

Account hijacking

Account hijacking is the process of taking malwarebytes premium torrent Archives user online accounts, such as email and social media accounts.

Ad blocker

An ad blocker is software that blocks advertisements, including pop-ups, when a user visits websites.

Ad fraud

Ad fraud happens when advertisers pay for ads with false impressions. For more information, see this blog post on the difference between adware and ad fraud.

Synonym: Malwarebytes premium torrent Archives traffic

Ad rotator

An ad rotator allows two or more ads to alternately show in the same place on a website. The rotator triggers whenever a user refreshes or revisits a site.

Add-in

An add-in is software that gives additional functionality to a device or another software.

Address bar

An address bar is the text box in your web browser that displays the web page URL or IP address. At times, it functions as a search bar if the user entered text that is an invalid URL.

Address bar spoofing

Address bar spoofing is a technique where the legitimate URL on a browser address bar is replaced with a rogue one. This then leads to potential data or financial theft.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

An address resolution protocol (ARP) is the system or process of mapping or finding a physical address belonging to an IP address in the local network.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a block cipher that provides fast, strong, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, and secure encryption of classified data. AES was created as an alternative to the Data Encryption Standard (DES), because it became vulnerable to brute-force attacks.

Synonym(s): Rijndael Block Cipher

Advanced persistent threat (APT)

An advanced persistent threat (APT) is a prolonged, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, targeted attack on a specific entity or entities with the intention of compromising their systems and gaining information from or about them.

For more information, see our blog post on an in-depth look at advanced persistent threats and why cybersecurity professionals often groan at claims of APT attacks.

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)

The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an experimental computer network, which later on became the basis for the Internet.

Adware

Adware, or advertising-supported software, is software that displays unwanted advertising on your computer device. For more information, see this blog post on adware delivery methods.

Air gap

Air gap refers to computers that are incapable of physically connecting to a network or another computer that is connected to the internet. Air-gapped systems were believed to be more secure until Stuxnet malwarebytes premium torrent Archives this.

Other forms: Air gapping

Always-On

An always-on device, software, or network denotes that it is constantly accessible.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an encoding standard for electronic communication. Codes in the ASCII table represent text in computing devices.

Analog

In computing, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives is a term used to describe old-fashion and slow computers and other devices.

If used in the context of signals, an analog references to a mechanism or device where information is presented by variable physical quantities.

Android

Android is Google’s flagship operating system for smartphones and tablets. Manufacturers have adapted Android in televisions, smart-watches, cars, and many other electronic devices.

For an in-depth look at Android antivirus, see this page.

Android app

An Android app is a program malwarebytes premium torrent Archives for the Android OS.

Annoybot

Annoybot is software that repeats an annoying task. IRC bots, for example, are annoybots that send out unsolicited messages to participants in a channel.

Annoyware

Annoyware is software that continuously shows reminders or pop-up windows to remind users to perform a particular action, such as registering or buying software.

Synonyms: Nagware, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, Begware

Anomaly detection

Anomaly detection is identifying irregularities or deviations in patterns, data points, events, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, or observations that do not conform to the malwarebytes premium torrent Archives or the expectations of businesses or groups. Not all detected anomalies are malicious.

Synonym: Outlier detection

Anonymization

Anonymization is the action or an attempt to disable the ability to track back information or actions to a specific user.

Other forms: Anonymize

Anonymizer

An anonymizer is a tool that minimizes the amount of tracking done during surfing in an attempt to hide the true identity of the user.

Synonyms: Anonymous proxy

Anonymous

Anonymous, in computing, is to keep one’s true name and identity concealed online with the use of various applications.

Other forms: Anonymity

Anti-ransomware

Anti-ransomware is software specifically designed to combat ransomware, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. Such software could make use of specific techniques that general security tools don’t deploy.

Anti-virus (AV) killer

An AV killer is malicious code that disables the user’s anti-virus software to avoid detection. Sometimes, this term is used for malware that disables firewalls.

Synonym: Retrovirus

Antivirus

Antivirus is a term that originally described security software that checked files on a computer against a list of known malicious files. Today, “antivirus” refers much more broadly to security software that can detect, protect against, and remove malware from computers and mobile devices.

Synonyms: anti-malware

Applet

An applet is a piece of software that usually performs one specific task. Applets are often part of a more complex program.

Application programming interface (API)

An application programming interface (API), in simple terms, is a means for different software to talk to one another. It is the code that governs its server’s access points. APIs have many uses and take many forms.

Application security

Application security is the practice of applying security measures to the software application. This has to be done to defend against threats and attacks from the outside that attempt to exploit the app.

Artificial intelligence (AI)

AI is a system’s or an application’s ability to correctly interpret and learn from data to achieve specific goals and tasks. For more information, see this blog post on how AI and machine learning can impact cybersecurity.

Synonym: Machine intelligence

Astroturfing

Astroturfing is the masking of initiatives by corporations, governments, or political parties to make a campaign appear spontaneous or initiated by civilian groups. Sometimes, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, masking the origin makes a campaign more effective or less controversial.

Asymmetric cryptography

Asymmetric cryptography is a system of secure communication that uses a pair of keys: a public key and a private key. A public key can be shared with anyone and publicly known, but only a private key must be kept secret and known only by the owner.

Synonym: Public-key cryptography

Attack vector

An attack vector feres to the technique used to obtain unauthorized access to a system or malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. It is an integral part of vulnerability research to know which attack vector is or might be used.

Attribution

Attribution is the practice of taking forensic artifacts of a cyberattack and matching them to known threats against targets with a profile matching a particular organization. For an malwarebytes premium torrent Archives look, see our two-part blog series on when you should care about attribution and why one shouldn’t overthink it.

Augmented reality (AR)

AR is a cross between the physical world and virtual reality. It adds images, sounds, motion, and even smell to the physical reality.

Authentication

In computing, authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or process, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For more information, see this blog post on the basics of two-factor authentication (2FA).

Other forms: Auth

Autonomous system

An autonomous system is a group of networks managed by one large entity to ensure there’s a reliable routing policy to the internet.


B

Backdoor

A backdoor is a type of Trojan that allows a threat actor access to a system by bypassing its security. This term can also refer to the method of gaining access to user systems undetected.

For an in-depth look at backdoors, see this page.

Other forms: backdooring

Bad sector

A bad sector is a sector on a computer’s disk or flash drive that is already unusable, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. This is usually caused by physical damage.

Bait advertising

Bait advertising is an unethical advertising practice wherein customers are promised a sale or inexpensive item. However, once customers are interested, the advertiser makes the product unavailable then redirects them to a similar product that is more expensive.

Synonym: Bait and switch advertising

Banking Trojan

A banking Trojan is a type of Trojan specifically created to harvest credentials and other sensitive financial and personal information stored and processed through online banking systems.

Behavior

In the context of computer malware, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, behavior refers to the actions malware performs on an affected system once executed.

Behavioral biometrics

Behavioral biometrics is malwarebytes premium torrent Archives biometric modality that dynamically analyzes and quantifies unique identifiers and measurable human patterns. For more information, see this post on the use of behavioral biometrics in the financial sector.

Big data

Big data pertains to huge datasets that can be analyzed computationally to reveal trends, patterns, and associations. Companies use big data to improve their operations and make more intelligent decisions.

Big-game hunting (BGH)

Originally used within hunting circles, the term “big-game hunting (BGH)” in cybersecurity refers to the criminal tactic of going after high-earning organizations across industries in often sophisticated cyber attack campaigns.

BGH could also be used to describe the process of focusing on high-value data or assets within a business.

Binary

A binary is a numerical system with only two different values: 0 and 1, or True and False. Binary is popular in both electronics and in computing.

Biohacking

In computing, biohacking is a form of hacking that refers to the application of IT concepts to biological systems, usually the human body.

Biohacking can include the modification of the human body, such as introducing implants and other wearable computing tech.

Biometrics

Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people’s physical and behavioral characteristics. In biometrics authentication, personally identifiable and unique features are stored in order to give the holder access to certain resources.

BIOS

BIOS stands for “basic input/output system”. It is firmware used by the computer’s microprocessor to initialise the computer when the user physically turns it on.

Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a type of digital currency, or cryptocurrency, which is a payment medium that is not tied to a central bank or regulated by a governing body. Instead, it relies on secure storage of transactions on a technological platform known as blockchain.

Bitcoin is a popular payment method among Internet criminals, as it uses a fast, reliable, and verifiable system.

Black Friday

Black Friday is regarded as the unofficial start of the Christmas shopping season. Starting from midnight on the Friday after US Thanksgiving, retailers open their doors and offer numerous specials and deep discounts. Because of this, consumers often go online or to brick-and-mortar retail shops en masse. Malwarebytes is offering Black Friday deals on Malwarebytes Premium and Malwarebytes Privacy VPN.

Blacklist

In computing, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, a blacklist usually refers to a list of domains and/or IP addresses that are known or suspected malicious servers and/or domains. These lists are used to protect users from receiving mail from the blacklisted servers or from browsing to dangerous sites hosted on these domains/IP addresses.

Blended threat

A blended threat is an attack that makes use of multiple vectors to gain leverage on a target. This could include malware, phishing, social engineering and more.

Block cipher

A block cipher is one of two methods of encryption. With this method, the plaintext is broken down into fixed-sized blocks before combining them with a key.

Also see stream cipher.

Blue Screen of Death (BSoD)

A Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) occurs on Windows systems when a full blue screen appears to the user after encountering a fatal error.

Bluejacking

Bluejacking is the act of sending messages between mobile devices via Bluetooth wireless connection.

Bluesnarfing

Bluesnarfing refers to the unauthorized access and theft of information through a Bluetooth connection. Mobile devices, such as smartphones, laptops, and tablets that are Bluetooth-enabled can be affected by this.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a wireless technology mainly used for short distance connections between devices due to its low power signal. Communication is done at a bandwidth around 2.45 GHz. It doesn’t need a line of sight to establish a connection.

Boot

In computing, to boot a system is to turn the device or machine on and load the OS into RAM. The boot-up process is made up of different stages, depending on the setup of the system and the OS that has to be loaded.

Boot sector

A boot sector is part of a physical information carrier (usually a hard drive) that contains the code that has to be loaded into a system’s RAM to start the actual boot process and load the OS. The boot sector is created when a volume is formatted.

Boot sector virus

A boot sector virus is malware that infects the boot sector of a drive or other storage device. During a boot, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, this sector is automatically located and loaded into memory, making them harder to remove, as they will load before normal removal software.

 

Learn more:

Computer virus

Antivirus

Bootkit

A bootkit is a type of rootkit that alters or replaces the bootloader of the affected system in order to take control. To remove a bootkit, you need a bootable medium, which has the necessary tools to undo the changes made by the bootkit.

Bot

The word “bot” is a derivative of “robot.” It usually pertains to (1) one or more compromised machines controlled by a botmaster or herder to spam or launch DDoS attacks, or (2) an automated program coded with particular instructions to follow, which includes interacting with websites and humans via web interfaces (e.g., IMs).

A collective of bots is called a botnet.

Synonym: zombie machine

 

Learn more:

Bot

Botnet

DDoS

Botnet

A botnet is a collection of bots. The term also refers to the malware run on a connected device to VR Games Archives it into a bot.

Synonym: zombie network

 

Learn more:

Bot

Botnet

DDoS

In computing, breadcrumbs are navigation aids that tell users exactly where they are while surfing on a site or in a set of folders. Breadcrumbs show the hierarchy of links on a site or the steps in the folder structure.

Consider, for example, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, the address bar in a Windows explorer window, which contains breadcrumbs from a file to the folders in which it is contained.

Bricking

Bricking refers to the practice or act of rendering an electronic computing device—often a smartphone—useless or inoperable. Bricking usually happens by accident, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, such as when a firmware update gets interrupted.

Bring your own device (BYOD)

Bring your own device, abbreviated as BYOD, is a trend wherein employees bring their personal malwarebytes premium torrent Archives devices, usually a smartphone or laptop, to be used in the workplace. These devices are then connected to the company’s internal network, which may introduce additional risks to the company.

Synonym: bring your own technology (BYOT)

Browlock

Browlock is a portmanteau of “browser” and “lock”. This term is used either (1) to describe the state of an internet browser when the user is unable to perform certain actions or (2) to pertain to a malware’s malicious control over browser windows. A browlock can close the open tab or window, block access to the desktop of the system, and stop you from navigating to another site. For more information, see this blog post on browser lockers.

Browser helper object (BHO)

A browser helper object (BHO) is a DLL component of Internet Explorer (IE) that provides added functionality to the browser.

Brute force attack

A brute force attack is a method wherein an application attempts to decode encrypted data, such as a password, by trial and error. A dictionary attack, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives example, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, is a type that falls under this attack.

See also password cracking application

 

Buffer

In computing, a buffer refers to the amount of data stored and shared between applications to compensate for the difference in speed with which these can handle the data. Consider, for example, your browser buffering (part malwarebytes premium torrent Archives a movie while downloading it and, at the same time, while your movie player plays it.

Buffer overflow

A buffer overflow is a computer anomaly wherein a program writes to a block of memory (or buffer) more than what malwarebytes premium torrent Archives is allocated to hold.

Synonym: Buffer overrun

Bug bounty

A bug bounty is a rewards program through which individuals can receive monetary compensation and/or recognition for finding flaws or vulnerabilities in a company’s software or system.

Bundler

A bundler is an assemblage of two or more software offered in one combined package. It usually contains (1) the main program a user is after and (2) bundleware. Many bundlers are found in freeware download sites. In some cases, these “free” software are actually trial versions of programs one commonly pays for.

Bundleware

Bundleware is a term used to collectively describe one or more software that comes in bundles as extra. This isn’t necessarily malicious.

Bundleware that are dodgy at best have a few types:

  • Programs that are considered adware and PUPs. These may or may not offer users the option to opt malwarebytes premium torrent Archives of the extra programs.
  • Programs that are useful but nobody wants to pay for their functionality, so the developer enters some monetization program that incorporates adware into his/her program.
  • PUPs that offer to install other PUPs from the same manufacturer during the installation.
  • Programs that also install software packages they need to run on the affected system.

Malwarebytes detects these types.

Burn

In computing, to burn is to write data to a drive malwarebytes premium torrent Archives a recordable disc (i.e, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. burn a CD or DVD). The data is written onto the disc using a laser and, until the invention of rewritable discs (RW), this was considered a one-time-only process.

Business continuity management (BCM)

Business continuity management is a term used to describe the holistic process of identifying an organization’s risk of exposure to potential threats found internally and/or externally and the impacts these may cause. Its goal is to prepare the organization to effectively respond to threats, protect the business’s interests, and ensure the continuity of the company in the event of such threats.

Business email compromise (BEC)

A business email compromise (BEC) is an attack wherein an employee, who is usually the CFO or someone from the Finance department, is socially engineered into wiring a large sum of money to a third-party account.

Business process compromise (BPC)

A business process compromise (BPC) is an attack wherein the threat actor targets weaknesses in an organization’s malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, systems, and loopholes in its operations to manipulate or alter them to their advantage. Unlike in business email compromise (BEC), malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, BPC doesn’t rely on social engineering tactics.


C

Cache

In computing, a cache is a temporary storage that is used to speed up future requests. For example, a browser cache stores contents of websites so they can be displayed faster the next time the user visits them, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For information about DNS cache poisoning, have a look at the blog post, DNS hijacks: what to look for.

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, or COPPA, is a privacy law that protects children under the age of 13. It was first passed in 1998. The Federal Trace Commission (FTC) manages COPPA. To read more, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, go here.

Cipher

In cryptography, a cipher is the method of hiding text with encryption. The machine can hide text by replacing original letters with other letters and by substituting or transposing numbers and symbols.

A cipher also refers to the encryption key that reveals the plaintext.

Ciphertext

A ciphertext is the encrypted form of a plaintext.

Click fraud

Click fraud is the practice of artificially inflating statistics of online advertisements by using automated clicking programs or hitbots.

Synonym: Pay-per-click fraud

See also ad fraud

Clickbait

Clickbait is content (especially a headline) that uses exaggeration and sensationalism to entice you into clicking on a link to a particular web page. Clickbait often leads to content of questionable value.

Clickjacking

Clickjacking is a type of attack that tricks a user into clicking a website element that is either invisible or disguised malwarebytes premium torrent Archives another element. This hijacks a user’s click meant for one thing but leads to another. For example: instead of clicking a button to reply, a clickjacking attack malwarebytes premium torrent Archives a Twitter user can make them re-tweet a malicious domain to followers instead.

This is typically seen as browser security issue. However, such an attack can also take place in mobile applications.

Clickjacking has different types, such as likejacking.

Synonyms: User interface (UI) redress attack, UI redressing

Cloud computing

Cloud computing refers to the delivery of services that are hosted over the internet to computers and other computing devices. For more information, see this blog post on the cloud.

See also Anything-as-a-Service (XaaS)

Cloud phishing

Cloud phishing refers to a phishing trend that uses the guise of cloud computing services to get users to click malicious links, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. Campaigns of this kind usually start off in emails and social media posts.

Cobalt Strike

Cobalt Strike is a legitimate tool used in malwarebytes premium torrent Archives testing and threat emulation. While it is popular among pen testers, underground criminals are notorious for abusing the tool. They do this by making the tool a part of their attack campaigns.

For more information, see this blog post on our take on Cobalt Strike, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, what it can do, and the problem it causes.

 

Cold boot

In computing, a cold boot happens when a system is powered up from its off state. Cold booting is sometimes used to remedy certain system hiccups.

Other forms: Cold booting

Command & control (C&C)

Command & control, also called C&C or C2, is a centralized server or computer that online criminals use to issue commands to control malware and bots as well as to receive reports from them.

 

Learn more:

Hacking

Malware

Bots

Botnet

 

Companion virus

A companion virus is an old type of virus that poses as a legitimate file by copying its file name but uses a different extension. It doesn’t modify files.

Compromised

Compromised sites (or servers) are malwarebytes premium torrent Archives legitimate sites that are being used by hackers without the owner’s knowledge. Compromised sites are often used to house and spread malware.

 

Computer ethics

Computer ethics is a philosophy concerned with how professionals in the field of computing should make decisions. Examples would be rules for disclosing of compromised information and vulnerabilities, copying of electronic content, and the impact of computers—AI, for example—on human lives.

Computer science (CS)

Computer science, abbreviated as CS, is a multi-disciplinary collection of studies in the fields that are malwarebytes premium torrent Archives to digital information. Computer systems, the internet, programming, and data storage are some of the best-known fields.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Computer-Aided Design, or CAD, is the use of computer technology to help with the malwarebytes premium torrent Archives of two- or three-dimensional objects. This specialized type of software helps to design, modify, analyze, optimize, and even create objects in many fields, including architecture, mechanics, engineering, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, and art.

Consumer fraud protection

Consumer fraud protection is a law designed to shield consumers against goods and services that didn’t perform as advertised. Consumers are also protected against unfair trade (overcharging) and fraudulent credit practices.

Cookie

In the context of computing, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, a cookie is a text file that a website puts into a visitor’s computer to recognize them and keep track of their preference. A cookie can be stored temporarily (session cookie) or permanently on the hard disk (persistent cookie).

For more information, see these blog articles:

Crack

A crack is either used as a:

  1. noun: A piece of software used to figure out passwords using a dictionary attack. It can also be a piece of software or tool used to illegally bypass certain software security features, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, such as copy protection.
  2. verb: The act of breaking into a secured computer system. The person doing the crack is called a cracker, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. Some argue that there are distinctions between a cracker and a hacker.

Credential stuffing

Credential stuffing is a popular tactic of attempting to access online accounts using username-password combinations acquired from breached data. This is usually done using an automated tool.

Crimeware

Crimeware is sophisticated software designed specifically for certain criminal acts, such as data theft, ransom, network poisoning, and communications monitoring.

Cross-site scripting (XSS)

Cross-site scripting is a type of injection attack wherein a vulnerability in web applications is exploited that allows a threat actor to inject malicious script into the site’s content. Affected trusted sites are made to deliver the malicious script malwarebytes premium torrent Archives visitors.

Crypter

In malware research, this refers to a program that makes malware hard to malwarebytes premium torrent Archives by researchers. The crudest technique for crypters is usually called obfuscation. A more elaborate blog post on that is Obfuscation: Malware’s best friend.

Obfuscation is also used often in scripts, like JavaScript and VBScript. But malwarebytes premium torrent Archives of the time, these are not difficult to bypass or de-obfuscate. More complex methods use actual encryption. More information about this and related subjects can be found in our blog post, Explained: Packer, Crypter, and Protector

Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency is a decentralized digital currency, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. It is the preferred payment method of ransomware authors, and it can be generated by mining scripts embedded on websites.

Cryptocurrency mining

Cryptocurrency mining, popularly known as cryptomining, is the process of adding new transactions to a public ledger of previous transactions (called the blockchain) and introducing new cryptocurrencies into the malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For more information, see this blog post on the dangers of drive-by mining and online malwarebytes premium torrent Archives is the knowledge of sending and storing encrypted data. For more information, see this blog post on how to encrypt files Adobe muse cc 2021 v1.1.6 crack full x 64 keygen,pre-activated folder.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) refers to software that makes organizations work better. A CRM collects, keeps, and manages data of customer interactions from across all channels. Data is then analyzed and used to streamline processes, automate tasks, improve services, and make these services more personal (to name a few).

Some of the benefits for using CRM includes employees becoming highly more efficient, knowledge sharing is improved among peers, and a greater understanding is achieved due to increased transparency in tasks and processes.

CVE identifier

A Common Vulnerabilities and Exposure (CVE) identifier is a unique number assigned to publicly known software vulnerabilities. It follows the format:

Vendors and researchers alike consider CVE identifiers as standard for identifying vulnerabilities. For example, CVE-2014-0160 is the CVE ID for the vulnerability commonly known as Heartbleed.

Synonyms: CVE names, CVE IDs, CVE numbers, CVEs, vulnerability identifier

Cyber Monday

Cyber Monday is the marketing term given to the Monday after the Thanksgiving holidays in the United States. For more information, see this blog post on safe online shopping on Cyber Monday.

Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is the act of threatening and intimidating others via electronic and digital means.

 

Learn more:

Internet safety

Cyberbullying 101

Cybercrime

Cybercrime is the term referring to crimes that are related to computers and networks, including traditional crimes like fraud, blackmail, and identity theft that are done over the Internet or by using computing devices.


D

Data breach

A data breach happens when data deemed sensitive, protected, or confidential were illegally accessed or disclosed. Individuals may have viewed, copied, transmitted, stolen, or used such data accidentally or deliberately. For an in-depth look at data breaches, see: What is a data breach?

Data exfiltration

Data exfiltration is an act of retrieving, copying, and transferring data, such as user credentials, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, about individuals or organizations without authorization.

Synonym: Siphoning

Data mining

Data mining is the process of sifting through large data sets to identify patterns or generate new information.

Data Privacy Day (DPD)

Data Privacy Day (DPD) is an annual, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, international event that occurs every January 28. Its purpose is to raise awareness about privacy and encourage internet users to follow data protection practices.

DPD is observed by the USA, Canada, Israel, and Europe.

In Europe, DPD is also known as Data Protection Day.

For more information, see our blog post on why Data Privacy Day matters.

Decryptor

A decryptor is a tool used to transform unreadable data back to its original, unencrypted form. This is typically used by those affected by ransomware to restore their files.

Deepfake

A “deepfake” refers to recreated media of a person’s appearance (on a video or image) or voice by an artificial intelligence (AI).

Definition

In computer security, a definition is code written into a database that enables cybersecurity software programs to identify and detect specific, known families of malware. Definitions are used in signature-based detection methodology and therefore cannot be used to detect new or unknown forms of malware.

Defragmentation

Defragmentation is malwarebytes premium torrent Archives process of reorganizing a file system so that files that were split up when saved and changed are put back together again. This removes pointers to and from the fragments and optimizes the speed with which these files can be used.

Other forms: Defrag, defragment

Destruction of service (DeOS)

Destruction of service is an attack using IoT botnets that aim to destroy an organization’s backups and safety nets, which are used to recover critical systems and data after a cyber attack.

Dialer

A dialer can mean (1) a program or app that initiates the best connection for the number chosen by the user, (2) a program that connects a system to the internet over a telephone or ISDN line, or (3) malware that connects a system to a network or phone number with the intent to fraud.

Other forms: Dialler

Dictionary attack

A dictionary attack is an act of penetrating password-protected computer systems or servers using large sets of words in a dictionary. This attack usually works as many users still use ordinary words for their passwords.

See also brute force attack

A digital footprint is the term used to describe the recorded—thus, traceable—internet or device activities of a particular person.

Synonym: digital shadow

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is a network attack wherein threat actors force numerous systems (usually infected with malware) to send requests to a specific web server to crash, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, distract, or disrupt it enough that users are unable to connect to it.

For a more in-depth look, see this page: DDoS attacks.

DNS over HTTPS (DoH)

DNS over HTTP (DoH) is an alternative to DNS over TLS (DoT). It is a work-in-progress, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, network security protocol wherein DNS requests and responses are encrypted and sent via HTTP or  HTTPS protocols instead of directly over UDP. This is to increase user privacy and security.

DNS over TLS (DoT)

DNS over TLS (DoT) is a network security protocol wherein DNS requests and responses are encrypted and not tampered with using the TLS security protocol. This is done to increase user security and privacy. DNS over HTTPS (DoH) is an alternative to DoT.

Domain

In computer security, a domain can refer to:

  1. A group of computers that are under the control of a common operator and administered as one unit, or
  2. The name of a Web resource following the rules of the Domain Name System (DNS), which translates the domain name into an IP address

Domain administrator privileges

Domain administrator privileges refer to administrator access to all machines within a network.

Domain Name System (DNS)

A Domain Name System, abbreviated as DNS, is an Internet malwarebytes premium torrent Archives that translates user-friendly, readable URLs, such as malwarebytes.com, to their numeric IP addresses, allowing the computer to malwarebytes premium torrent Archives a web server without the user having to remember and input the actual IP address of the server.

Name Servers, or Domain Name Servers, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, host these translations. They are part of the overall Domain Name System.

To learn how threat actors can abuse DNS protocols, read up on DNS hijackers, a type of malware that modifies users’ DNS settings.

Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC)

Domain Name System Security Extensions, abbreviated as DNSSEC, is a set of extensions that add extra security to the DNS protocol. For more information, see this blog post on why we need DNSSEC.

Downloader

A downloader, or Trojan downloader, is malware with the sole intention of downloading other programs—usually more malware—to the affected system as soon as an Internet connection is available.

Dox

Dox is an informal abbreviation of the word “documents”. The term is used to describe the act of researching and disseminating private information about a person or organization. Many doxxers—those who dox—employ a number of techniques to gather information, such as searching the internet, hacking, and social engineering.

Other form(s): doxing, doxxing

 

Learn more:

What is doxxing?

Internet safety

Drive-by download

A drive-by download is the unintended download of one or more files, malicious or not, onto the user’s system without their consent or knowledge. It may also describe the download and installation of files bundled with a program that users didn’t sign up for.

 

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Pharming

Malvertising

Trojan

Drive-by mining

Drive-by mining is a malwarebytes premium torrent Archives coined to describe a method in which a piece of JavaScript code is embedded into a Web page to perform cryptocurrency mining on user machines that visit this page. For more information, see this blog post on drive-by mining and ads.

Dropper

A dropper, or Trojan downloader, is a type of malware that installs other malware on the affected system. The other malware is part of the same executable, which is usually in compressed form.

Dwell time

Dwell time refers to the amount of time passed from when malware has initially infiltrated a system to when it has been detected and removed.


E

Electronic sports (eSports)

Electronic sports, or eSports, are basically video games competitions. Any computer- or console-game that has a multi-player competition qualifies as an eSport.

Encryption

Encryption is the process of changing data in a way that can not (easily) be undone (or decrypted) by parties that don’t have the decryption key. For more information, see this blog post on encryption and types of secure communication and storage.

End-user

The end-user is the person that a specific product is designed, developed, and created for. For this intended user, the product should be suitable (ease of use), and it should be a finished product.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

An ERP is a suite of business management software that allows companies to collect, store, manage, and interpret data coming from multiple departments.

EternalBlue

EternalBlue is one of the handful of “exploitation tools” leaked by a group called The Shadow Brokers (TSB) that take advantage of weaknesses in how Windows implemented the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. The WannaCry and NotPetya ransomware strains used this exploit to target unpatched systems.

For more information, see this blog post malwarebytes premium torrent Archives how threat actors are using SMB vulnerabilities in their attack campaigns.

 

Learn more:

WannaCry

Ransomware

 

Ethernet

Ethernet is a networking technology commonly used in various networks, such as LAN, Malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, and WAN. It is so commonplace that most PC motherboards have a built-in Ethernet interface.

Executable and Link format (ELF)

An ELF file is an executable file format for the Linux and Unix platforms. Its known file extensions are .axf, .bin, .elf, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, .o, .prx, .puff, .ko, .mod, and .so.

Exploit

Exploits are a type of malware that takes advantage of bugs and vulnerabilities in a system in order to allow the exploit’s creator to take control.

For an in-depth look at exploits, see this page.

Exploit kit

An exploit kit is a packaged collection of exploits for use by criminal gangs in spreading malware.

Synonym: Exploit pack

Extended Validation SSL Certificate (EV SSL)

An Extended Validation SSL Certificate is an identity authentication solution used in HTTPS websites that tells users that the owner or operator of the site they’re interacting with is legitimate. A green bar displayed in the address bar denotes the presence of an EV SSL.


F

Family

In computer security, a family refers to a group of malwarevariants that all exhibit at least one base characteristics.

Fear, uncertainty, and doubt (FUD)

Fear, uncertainty, and doubt is a disinformation strategy that is used as a weapon against competitors.

In hacking, FUD could also mean “fully undetected,” which means (1) that data that is made to appear like random noise due to encryption, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, or (2) a piece of software that cannot be detected by AV tools and scanners.

File type

A file type is a name given to a specific kind of file, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For example, a Microsoft Excel sheet file and a Python script file are two different file types. A file type is not the same as a file format.

 

File-based attack

A file-based attack is an attack where threat actors use certain file types, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, usually those bearing document file extensions like .DOCX and .PDF, to entice users to open them. The file in question is embedded with malicious code; thus, once opened, this code is also executed.

Fingerprinting

Fingerprinting refers to the process of gathering information about a system at first contact. It is commonly used by malware to determine whether a system is vulnerable to certain attacks.

Firmware

Firmware is software that is written to a hardware device’s memory. It is used to run user programs on said devices.

 

Learn more:

What is RAM?

What is a hard drive?

Foothold expansion is the act of creating backdoors that are used to re-enter a network after its initial infiltration.

Fraud

Fraudulent websites appear to be one thing, like a tech support site, a dating site, or a shopping site with illegal products or great deals, but they’re really scams to try to steal your information or credit card details.

Freeware

Freeware is software that comes without a cost. Some freeware may give the option of voluntary payments to the developer, which is typically be called donationware.

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

Frequently asked questions, or FAQ, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, is a list drawn up around a particular subject of commonly asked questions and their answers. This list is often the first line of support for many products and answers many of the issues that users may have.


G

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The General Data Protection Regulation is the standard data protection law affecting the European Union and its citizens that puts strict regulations on organizations on how personally identifiable information (PII) are to be controlled, processed, and stored. For more information, see this post on how businesses can adequately assess their readiness to GDPR.

Globally unique identifier (GUID)

A globally unique identifier is a unique number created by Microsoft applications to identify components, hardware, files, user accounts, etc.

Graphical user interface (GUI)

A graphical user interface, or GUI, is a type of interface that helps a user to control and manipulate software. The alternative is command line programs, which is generally perceived as challenging to understand and learn.

Graymail

Graymail is bulk solicited email that users opted-in to receiving at first, but after losing interest, just accumulates in the inbox until recipients decide to opt-out or report them as spam.

Greyware

Greyware is a classification of software that generally does annoying, disruptive, or undesirable tasks but not to the point of being malicious.

Other forms: Grayware

 

Learn more:

Malware

Computer virus

Griefing

In video gaming, particularly in MMORPG circles, griefing is the deliberate act of annoying, irritating, and generally causing other players grief. This is done by attacking and terminating other characters and destroying player property among others.


H

Hacker

A hacker is a person that has a profound understanding of particular systems or processes. Their knowledge enables them to use those subjects for other purposes than what they were initially designed for.

For an in-depth look at hackers, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, see this page.

Hacktivism

Hacktivism is a portmanteau of “hacking” and “activism”. Hacktivism is the defacement of a website where the compromise isn’t as significant as the statement the hackers make through it.

Hacktivist

Hacktivist is a combination of “hack” and “activist.” A hacktivist is someone who breaks into computer systems (hacking) for the purpose of political or social activism. Hacktivists may work alone or in groups.

Hash value

A hash value is an alphanumeric string that uniquely identifies data or files. MD5, SHA-1, and SHA-2 are three of its known algorithms.

Synonym: Hash code

Heap spray

In the context of computer security, a heap spray is an old technique that allows vulnerable systems to be taken advantage of easily. This happens when threat actors write to the heap—a predetermined location in the computer’s memory—for a running program. This task of writing is often referred as “spraying the heap”. And then, at a later time, these same attackers will take advantage malwarebytes premium torrent Archives a vulnerability to cause the exploit code to call commands in the heap.

Other form(s): Heap spraying

 

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Exploits

Heap spraying

Heap spraying is a technique wherein code is written in various places in the heap (memory allocated for the use of programs) for malicious software to refer to at a later date, giving exploits a higher chance of success.

Other forms: Heap spray, “spraying the heap”

Heartbleed

Heartbleed is the term used to refer to a vulnerability in some OpenSSL implementations. This vulnerability’s official identifier is CVE-2014-0160, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For more information, see this blog post on systems still unpatched five years after Heartbleed’s discovery.

Heuristic analysis

Heuristic analysis is a scanning technique used by many antivirus programs wherein they look for certain malicious behaviors from potentially new and undetected variants.

Other forms: Heuristics

 

Learn more:

Antivirus

Zero-day

Hibernation

Is a state of inactivity to save energy. In computing this expression is used for powering down a computer while preserving the state it is in. The content of the RAM (Random Access Memory) is saved to a drive (usually the main hard disk of the system) and will be restored in RAM as soon as the system is brought back out of hibernation. Not to be confused with sleep mode, which is another energy saving method that uses a little energy to keep the data in RAM. The advantage of sleep mode is that the system is ready for use almost instantaneously where waking from hibernation takes some time.

Hijacker

A hijacker is a type of malware that modifies a web browser’s settings without malwarebytes premium torrent Archives permission, usually to inject unwanted ads into the browser or redirect to scam sites.

Synonyms: browser hijacker

 

Learn more:

SQL injection

Pharming

Safe browser

Hoax

A hoax is a term we use to generally describe a fake or false warning. For more information, see this blog post on a more in-depth look at hoaxes.

Synonyms: scams and shams

Homograph

A homograph is, by definition, a word of the same written form as another but of different meaning and usually origin, whether pronounced the same way or not. But in cybersecurity, this is expanded to include words that look the same.

Homograph attacks

A homograph attack is a method of deception wherein a threat actor leverages on the similarities of character scripts to create and register phony domains of existing ones to fool users and lure them into visiting. For more information, see this blog post on an in-depth look at homograph attacks.

Synonym: homoglypth attacks, Punycode attack, script spoofing, homograph domain name spoofing

Host Intrusion Prevention System (HIPS)

A Host Intrusion Prevention System, or HIPS, is a software package that monitors for suspicious activities occurring within a host machine. For more information, see this blog post on how HIPS work.

Host-based solution

A host-based solution refers to software that is installed in end-point systems as opposed to a centralized solution.

Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol is a set of underlying rules used in the World Wide Web, defining how files are transferred and formatted, and how web servers and internet browsers should respond to specific commands.

Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)

In a nutshell, Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol Secure is secure HTTP. This means that file transference and communication over the network is protected due to encryption on both the server side and the client side.


I

Identity and access management (IAM)

Identity and access management (IAM) is a collective term pertaining to processes, services, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, and technologies that allow the right individuals and groups to access the right resources within a network.

Identity theft

Identity theft is an electronic and real-world crime of deliberately using someone else’s information to commit fraud. Usually, identity thieves are  financially motivated, consequently disadvantaging their target.

Incident scope

In a malware attack against enterprises, an incident scope generally refers to the extent of damage against the organization, how much data has been stolen, what the attack surface is, and how much it’d cost them to resolve the attack and prevent it from happening again in the future.

Indicator of compromise (IOC)

Indicators of compromise, or IOC, can be found after a system intrusion. These indicators can be IP addresses, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, domains, hashes of malware files, virus signatures, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, and similar artifacts.

Infection vector

In cybersecurity, an infection vector refers to the transmission channel of a malware. To know this, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, ask “How did the malware arrive on my computer/network?”

 

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Malware

Antivirus

 

Information Technology (IT)

Information Technology, or IT, is the study or the use of systems for storing, retrieving, and sending information.

Injection attacks

Injection attacks is a broad term referring to a certain attack vector. Usually, malicious code is used in such attacks; but generally speaking, attackers provide input that, once interpreted, alters the execution or outcome of a program. Injection attacks have several types. They include:

 

Learn more:

SQL injections

Hacking

Malware

Input/Output (I/O)

Input/Output, or I/O, is an expression used to describe any information exchange between a computer system and the outside world. Usually, an I/O is illustrated (but are not limited to) as the traffic between a system and peripheral devices.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property refers to creations of the mind, whether they are inventions, art, designs, names, or commercial images. Laws on intellectual property differ from one country to the other, but they usually protect the rights of the person or company that first successfully claims coming up with the creation.

Internationalized domain names (IDN)

Internationalized domain names, or IDN, is a domain name containing at least one non-ASCII character. They enable internet users from all over the world can create and register domain names using their own native malwarebytes premium torrent Archives of things (IoT)

The internet of things, or IoT, represents a host of internet-connected devices that do not require direct human input, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For more information, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, see this blog post on what an IoT security is and what it should never be.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

An ISP is a company that provides users with internet services, such as basic connections, broadband, web hosting, and a range of other services.

Intranet

An intranet is a private network with restricted access. It is usually set up by or for a company that only to the members of the company can access.

Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)

An Intrusion Prevention System, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, or IPS, monitor network traffic to determine whether a security breach or malware infection has taken place. When applicable, they can intervene in such cases as pre-determined by the network administrator to avoid further damage.

IP address

An IP address is a number assigned to each system that is participating in a network using the Internet Protocol, such as the World Wide Web.

 


J

Jailbreak

In computing, to jailbreak means to modify a device, usually a smartphone, by removing any restrictions imposed by the device manufacturer, such as the downloading and installation of unauthorized software or apps from third-party markets.

Other forms: jailbreaking

Joke programs

A joke program is a file that may not have a malicious payload but may inconvenience the user in another way. For example, it might play loud audio files, or pop up a funny video, or move the mouse cursor around the desktop.

 

Learn more:

Malware

Keylogger

 

Juice jacking

Juice jacking is a cyberattack against unsuspecting targets via their mobile devices. This happens when the target plugs their device into a USB port to charge; however, the charging port also functions as a data connection, so threat actors can abuse this. Malware could be introduced to the device via the USB port or the USB cable itself, or sensitive information could be quietly retrieved from the device.

 

Junk mail

Junk mail is, essentially, email spam.

 

Learn more:

What is spam?


K

Key generator

A key generator, or popularly known as keygen, is a piece of software that generates random keys—usually software product keys—for the purpose of letting the user activate and operate a program malwarebytes premium torrent Archives them actually purchasing it.

Keylogger

In the context of malware, a keylogger is a type of Trojan spyware that is capable of stealing or recording user keystrokes. Malwarebytes premium torrent Archives can learn more at our dedicated keylogger page.

For an in-depth look malwarebytes premium torrent Archives keyloggers, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, see this page.

Other forms: keylogger, keylogging

Synonyms: keystroke logger, system monitor

Keystream

In cryptography, a keystream is a stream of random or pseudorandom characters you combine with plaintext to make a cyphertext.

Keystroke

A keystroke is one stroke of any key on a machine operated by a keyboard, such as a typewriter or a computer terminal. Sometimes keystrokes per hour (KSPH) or keystrokes per minute (KSPM) are used as a standard of typing speed.


L

Latency

In computing, latency generally means a time delay from system input to desired output. This can be defined differently, depending on context.

 

Lateral movement

Lateral movement refers to various techniques and/or tactics that threat actors use that allow them to move through a network to access or search for critical assets and data within a network. At times, they employ this to control remote systems.

Layered Service Provider (LSP)

A Layered Service Provider (LSP) is a Windows feature that allows software to tap into data flowing through the network. It can intercept, filter, and even modify all the traffic between the internet and a system’s malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For more information, see this blog post for an overview on how legit and illegitimate programs use LSPs.

Linux

Linux is a favorite and most used free, open-sourced operating system to date. This term also Pinnacle Studio Plus,Dolby 5.1 Professional Encodi 9.3.0 keygen a family of OS distributions (or distro) built around the Linux kernel.

Local administrator privilege

A local administrator privilege refers to administrator privileged access to a specific machine within a network, allowing an owner to make system configurations, install and uninstall software, and use other OS components.

Local administrator privileges

Refers to administrator access to a specific machine within a network, allowing an owner to make system configurations, install and uninstall software, and use other privileged OS components, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. The owner of the machine is usually (and by default) the administrator.

Local Area Network (LAN)

A Local Area Network, or LAN, is a network of computers and other devices spread over a relatively small space, e.g., a building or group of buildings. Usually, these devices all connect to a server or group of servers by ethernet or Wi-Fi.

Localhost

On any given system, the localhost refers to “This computer.” It uses the IP address127.0.0.1 to use the loopback function to reach the resources stored on the system itself.


M

MAC address

A MAC address is your computer hardware’s unique number. MAC stands for Media Access Control.

Machine code

Machine code is the basic or fundamental language of computers. It is composed of binary numbers.

Synonym: machine language

Machine learning (ML)

Machine learning is a form or subset of artificial intelligence (AI) where computers make use of large data sets and statistical techniques to improve at specific tasks without being manually reprogrammed.

Macro

Macro is a set of commands that application users group together and save, so they can execute it with a single command or keystroke.

Macro virus

A macro virus is malware written in the same macro language used in software applications, examples of which are Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel.

 

Learn more: 

Antivirus

Computer virus

Madware

Madware is aggressive advertising on mobile devices, particularly tablets and smartphones.

 

Learn more:

Malware

Adware

Malvertising

Magecart

Magecart is the collective name given to several groups of online criminals who engage in web skimming. They usually target the Magento system, a highly popular e-commerce platform, of online shops to steal customer payment card information.

Mail bomb

“Mail bomb” is a verb pertaining to the act of sending too much malwarebytes premium torrent Archives to a person, group, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives systems.

Other form(s): Mail bombing

Malspam

Malspam, short for malware spam or malicious spam, is spam email that delivers malware. While regular spam is simply any unsolicited email, malspam contains infected attachments, phishing messages, or malicious URLs. It can also deliver a myriad of malware types, including ransomware, Trojans, bots, info-stealers, cryptominers, spyware, and keyloggers.

Malware

Malware, or “malicious software,” is an umbrella term that refers to any malicious program or code that is harmful to systems.

For an in-depth look at malware, see this page.

Man-in-the-Browser (MitB)

A man in the browser is a form of Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attack wherein malware—usually a Trojan—is used to intercept and manipulate communication between the internet browser malwarebytes premium torrent Archives its mechanisms or libraries to commit fraud.

Other forms of abbreviation include: MIB, MiB, MITB

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM)

In cybersecurity, a Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attack happens when a threat actor manages to intercept and forward the traffic between two entities without either of them noticing. In addition, some MitM attacks alter the communication between parties, again without them realizing.

To pull malwarebytes premium torrent Archives off, the attacker should not only be convincing in their impersonation  but also be able to follow and influence the conversation between two or more parties.

A MitM attack can be done between browser and Internet, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, for example, or between a Wi-Fi hotspot and an Internet user.

Managed service provider (MSP)

A managed service provider (MSP) is a company that proactively offers remote support to a client’s IT infrastructure or endpoints. Oftentimes, this term is used interchangeably with “cloud service provider”.

Master Boot Record (MBR)

Typically, the Master Boot Record (MBR) is the first sector on a startup drive or other partitioned media. It contains a bootloader, an executable code that works as a loader for the OS. For more information, see this blog post for a deep dive on MBRs.

Synonyms: partition sector, master partition table

Memory dump

A memory dump is content of a system’s RAM (random access memory) created at a specific point in time. This is usually done at the moment of a program crash or system failure and used to diagnose the problem. However, this can also be made manually for memory forensics, such as investigating advanced malware (e.g. fileless).

A memory resident program possesses the ability to remain in memory, and can be a common trait of certain pieces of malware.

Metadata

Metadata is data about data. It gives background information, such as origin, relevance, and creation, about data. Examples are geotags in media files (say, where was a photograph taken) and author and data modified in document files.

Metropolitan area network (MAN)

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network of LANs. It spans an entire campus or an entire city, but it’s smaller than a WAN.

Middelware

Middleware is software that sits between the OS and the software it runs, thus the name. Middleware provides additional services to these software that the OS cannot. For example, middleware allows users to submit a form on a web browser, or allows a server to return results based on user queries.

Miner

Miner is also known as cryptocurrency miner. This is a form of malware that uses the resources of an infected system to mine cryptocurrency (e.g. Bitcoins) for the threat actor.

Mitigation

In computing, mitigation is the process malwarebytes premium torrent Archives act of containing the impact and/or risk from an attack. Remediation usually follows mitigation.

Money mule

A money mule is someone who is tricked into accepting money from scammers, keeping it in their account for a period of time, and then forwarding it on to a second account. For more information, see this blog post on children and young adults as the next generation money mules.

Other forms: Money muling, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, muling

Multi-factor authentication (MFA)

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) suggests using two or more authentication protocols. The most well-known MFA is two-factor authentication (2FA). Both represent the combination of more than one method of gaining access to a resource, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For more information, see this blog post on the basics of 2FA.

Multi-tenancy

Muti-tenancy refers to a software architecture in which a single instance of software running in a server can cater to multiple users. A tenant is referred to here as the user.

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is an enhancement of the Short Message Service (SMS), malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, which allows users to send longer messages (SMS malwarebytes premium torrent Archives limited to 160 characters) accompanied by pictures, short videos, and audio over a cellular network.

Multiplatform

Multiplatform, or cross-platform, is an expression to describe software that has been developed to work on multiple operating systems.

Mumblehard malware

Mumblehard malware is a type of malware that specifically targets Linux and BSD servers, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, using spambots to compromise systems. It derived its name from the spam being “mumbled” out of affected systems and servers.


N

National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC)

The National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) is an organization in the United Kingdom that gives cyber security guidance and support to the public and private sectors. Its headquarters is in London.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a unit of the US Commerce Department that promotes and maintains malwarebytes premium torrent Archives standards. It was formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards.

National Security Agency (NSA)

The National Security Agency (NSA) is an intelligence agency of the US Department of Defense that monitors, processes, and collects information and data malwarebytes premium torrent Archives the purpose of foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence.

Near-field communication (NFC)

Near-field communication (NFC) is a short-range communication standard co-developed by Sony and Philips. Like Bluetooth, NFC is also a wireless means of doing peer-to-peer (P2P) data transfer without an internet connection. For NFC to work, two devices must either be touched together or be a few centimeters away of each other. A majority of modern smartphones come with NFC.

Net neutrality

Net neutrality is a concept, principle, or idea that ISPs must treat all internet data equally, regardless of its kind, source, or destination. The term was first coined in 2002 by Tim Malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, a professor at Columbia Law School.

Other form(s): network neutrality

Synonym: internet neutrality

Network

In computing, the definition of a network is a group of two or more computers or systems linked together. For example, your home network might consist of several devices that connect to a central router, including your desktop, gaming consoles, laptops, phones, and other Internet-connected gadgets.

A prime property of networks is their topology, or the way they are laid out, connect to one another, and communicate with one another. The main topologies of networks are:

  • Mesh: every device, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, or node, is connected to one another. This is the most secure network that can handle the highest amount of traffic, but it’s also the most expensive.
  • Star: every device connects through a central hub. This allows for other nodes to malwarebytes premium torrent Archives online if one goes down, but if the central hub/server goes down, the entire network goes with it.
  • Bus: every device is connected by one cable that acts as the backbone of the network. This also allows for other nodes to stay online if one goes down, but any problems with the cable render the entire network useless. It’s the cheapest option, but not optimal for large networks.
  • Ring: every device is connected in a circular fashion, and the data travels in one direction. This configuration is easy to install and manage, and can handle large volumes of traffic, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. Expanding the network is time-consuming, however, and if one computer goes down, so does the network.
  • Tree: a hybrid topology that connects clusters of star networks to a single bus line. This helps to divide and manage a larger network, but can be just as easily taken malwarebytes premium torrent Archives as a bus configuration.

Network perimeter

A network perimeter refers to the boundary between a private network and a public network, such as the World Wide Web.

Network segmentation

In computer networking, network segmentation is the practice of dividing a network into subnetworks to boost performance and improve security.

NewTab

NewTab is software that changes the default page of a new tab on the browser. This can result in similar negative effects and behavior to browser toolbars or browser hijackers. NewTab can manipulate browser(s) to change their home page or search provider in order to hijack Internet traffic and inject advertisements.


O

Obfuscation

Obfuscation is when malware deliberately tries to obscure its true intent to potential victims, and/or attempts to hide portions of code from malware researchers performing analysis.

 

Learn more:

Malware

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) is a model that defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers:

  1. Physical
  2. Data Link
  3. Network
  4. Transport
  5. Session
  6. Presentation
  7. Application

This model was designed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) malwarebytes premium torrent Archives a design template for building network systems. The lower layers deal with electrical signals, chunks of binary data, and routing of these data across networks. Higher levels cover network requests and responses, representation of data, and network protocols as seen from a user’s point of malwarebytes premium torrent Archives system (OS)

An operating system (OS) is software that supports a computer’s basic functions, such as executing applications, controlling peripherals, and scheduling tasks. The most well-known operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple macOS and iOS, Android, and Google’s Chrome OS.

Opportunistic attack

In contrast to a targeted attack, an opportunistic attack involves malware that is distributed in large numbers for anyone to download or injected into websites for anyone to access. Well-known methods are email and exploit kits.

Synonym: mass malware


P

Packer

Packer is usually short for runtime packers. It is also known as self-extracting archives, which is software that unpacks itself in memory when the “packed file” is executed. Finally, this technique is also called executable compression.

This type of compression was invented to make files smaller so that users wouldn’t have to unpack them manually before they could be executed. However, given the current size of portable media and faster Internet speeds, the need for smaller files is not that urgent anymore. So when you see some packers being used nowadays, it is almost always for malicious purposes: to make reverse engineering more difficult, with the added benefit of a smaller footprint on the infected machine. For more information about this subject, have a look at the blog post Explained: Packer, Crypter, and Protector.

Passcode

A passcode is essentially a short and simple password. This could be the four-digit numerical code to unlock a smart phone or a banking PIN number, for example.

Passphrase

A passphrase is essentially a complex password made malwarebytes premium torrent Archives of a sequence Jogos de Assaltos de Graça para Baixar words. The difference between a passphrase and a regular password is that passphrases are more complex because of the presence of spaces and their longer lengths.

Password

In cybersecurity, a password is a method of authentication used to gain entry into an online account. Passwords are typically made up of a combination of letters and numbers, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, sometimes with special characters included. It’s generally understood that the longer a password is, the more secure it is.

Username and password combinations have become popular modes of authentication due to their relative ease of use, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. However, the growing need for longer and more complex passwords, each one unique for each online account, has diminished that ease of use a bit.

Password cracking

Password cracking, like password guessing, is another “brute force” method of attack against encrypted accounts or systems. However, it’s less about guessing and more about working with an acquired list of passwords hashes or the database itself. These hashes can be obtained via network sniffing.

Password cracking application

A password cracking application is typically a tool designed to recover a password from a system, or brute force its way in by manner of guessing the right password.

Password guessing

Password guessing is a “brute force” method of gaining access to an encrypted account or system by systematically guessing its password. Typically, a dictionary type scheme is used to do this. Guessing a password successfully is only possible in the event that weak passwords are used.

Password guessing shouldn’t be confused with password cracking.

Synonym: PG-ing

 

Learn more: 

What is a password manager?

Brute force attack

Password manager

A password manager is a software application designed to store and manage online credentials. It also generates passwords. Usually, these passwords are stored in an encrypted database and locked behind a master password. For more information, see this blog post for a longer brief on password managers, and what to do if you’re opposed to using one.

Payload

In cybersecurity, a payload is malware that the threat actor intends to deliver to the victim, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. For example, if a cybercriminal sent out an email with a malicious Macro as the attachment and the victim gets infected with ransomware, then the ransomware is the payload (and not the email or document).

 

Learn more:

Malware

Ransomware

Computer virus

Peer-to-peer (P2P)

Peer-to-peer, sometimes abbreviated as P2P, involves the sharing of files and/or resources between two computers connected to each other through a network. Each of these computers become a file server to the other.

Penetration testing

Penetration testing, or pen testing, is the practice of running controlled attacks on a computer system, network, software, or other application in an attempt to find unpatched vulnerabilities or flaws. By performing pen tests, an organization can find ways to harden their systems against possible future real attacks, and thus make them less exploitable.

Peopleware

Peopleware is the term used to refer to the role of humans/people in information technology, such as the creation of hardware and software.

Personal identification number (PIN)

A personal identification number (PIN) is a set of numeric or alphanumeric characters used for authentication. While typically used in ATMs and point-of-sale card transactions, PINs are also used by operating systems like Windows and macOS.

Personally Identifiable Information malwarebytes premium torrent Archives Identifiable Information (PII) is the term used for data that can be tracked back to one specific user. Examples of PII are names, social security numbers, biometrics, and other information that, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, in combination with other data, could be enough to identify a user.

“Personally Identifiable Information” also has a legal definition, depending on the country and its laws. Personally Identifiable Information in one state may not include the same type of information as “personal information” or “personal data” in another malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, but the purpose of these laws is often the same—to protect the types of data that could reveal a person’s identity.

Pharma

Pharma is short for “pharmacy.” In cybersecurity, the expression refers to spam or websites that traffic in fake or illegal medication. These sites may also sell legal medication, but in violation of local laws.

Phishing

Phishing scams attempt to obtain your information by presenting themselves as legitimate websites, then asking for your password, credit card details, or other sensitive information.

 

Learn more: 

Phishing

Social engineering

Spam

 

Phishing kit

A phishing kit is a set of materials and tools that allows scammers with little technical ability to create a convincing phish. Someone malwarebytes premium torrent Archives need of a large-scale attack also uses a kit to deploy a phishing campaign at short notice.

 

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Phishing

Social engineering

Spam

Phreaking

Phreaking is the act of hacking into telecommunication malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, primarily to obtain free phone calls.

Plaintext

Before, plaintext just refers to any text, text file, or document containing text with no special formatting. The definition of the word has expanded to include any data that can be viewed in its original, plain form as opposed to its encrypted form.

Other form(s): plain text, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, plain-text

Platform

A platform is most commonly the software used to operate a PC, such as an operating system.

Point-of-sale (PoS) malware

Point-of-sale (PoS) malware usually targets payment terminals and card readers to compromise payment data and send it to criminals.

Polymorphism

In the context of malware terminology, polymorphism is the ability of code to change its identifiable features while maintaining its functionality. Because of this ability, polymorphic malware like Emotet are difficult to detect.

Portable device

A portable device is a device that can easily be carried around, such as a laptop, notebook, tablet, or phone.

The Portable Executable (PE) file header contains the metadata about the executable file itself. At its bare minimum, it comprises of the following: a DOS stub, a signature, the architecture of the file’s code, a time stamp, a pointer, and various flags.

Power User

A power user is typically someone performing specific tasks or functions to a higher level than others, often with specialised equipment or tools to get the tasks done.

PowerShell

PowerShell is a configuration management framework that allows system administrators and power-users to perform administrative tasks via a command line.

Preinstalled software

Preinstalled software is software that typically comes pre-loaded on a new computer separate from the operating system. Most preinstalled software is not necessary for the proper functioning of the computer. In some cases, it may have the negative effect of impacting the computer’s performance by using memory, CPU, and hard drive resources.

Privilege escalation

An act or event that occurs when a threat actor or unauthorized user achieves full access to normally restricted resources on a computing device’s operating system (OS) it has gained access to.

Professional Service Automation (PSA)

A PSA is software that allows companies to manage their resources malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. It is used from start to finish of a project’s lifecycle, which usually begins from assigning people up to billing the client once the project is done.

Proof of concept

A proof of concept (PoC) is a demonstration that a certain idea or method works, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. In computer security this often means that hackers show that they have been able to make use of a security flaw in software or hardware.

 

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Exploits

Hacking

 

Protector

In malware research, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, a protector is software intended to prevent tampering and reverse first person shooter Archives of programs. The methods used can—and usually will—include both packing and encrypting, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. This combination, plus added features, makes what is usually referred to as a protector. Researchers are then faced with protective layers around the payload, making reverse engineering difficult.

A completely different approach, which also falls under the umbrella of protectors, is code virtualization, which uses a customized and different virtual instruction set every time you use it to protect your application. Of these protectors, there are professional versions that are used in the gaming industry against piracy. More information about this and related subjects can be found in our blog post, Explained: Packer, Crypter, and Malwarebytes premium torrent Archives proxy is something which sits between your computer and whatever you may be connecting to, shielding your true identity from it. These are mostly used for increased anonymity.

Proxy server

A proxy server is something that sits between your device and the servers you’re making requests to. A benefit of this is shielding some of your information, such as your IP address.

Pseudocode

Pronounced as malwarebytes premium torrent Archives. It is a detailed human-readable yet detailed description of what a computer program or algorithm is supposed to do. Pseudocode is often used in developing a program. It also provides programmers a template to follow in writing their code.

Related blog post(s):

PUM

Stands for potentially unwanted modification. This is an alteration made to a computer’s registry (or other settings), which either damages the computer or changes its behaviour, without knowledge of the user. Such unwanted alterations can be done by legitimate software, malware, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, grayware, or PUP.

Punycode

Is a method of encoding that converts Unicode to ASCII. This is especially helpful when representing non-Latin or foreign characters that are used in Internet host names.

Related blog post(s):

PUP

PUPs, or Potentially Unwanted Programs, are programs that may include advertising, toolbars, and pop-ups that are unrelated to the software you downloaded. PUPs often come bundled with other software that you installed.


Q

QR Code

A QR code is a 2-dimensional barcode. They are squares filled with black and white blocks invented to keep track of cars during manufacturing.

Quarantine

In computing terms, to quarantine is when a potentially malicious file is placed into a “safe” location by the onboard security software, so that it can do no harm while the user decides what to do with it.


R

RAM scraping

RAM scraping, or memory scraping, is the act of scanning the memory of digital devices, such as point-of-sale (PoS) systems, to retrieve sensitive personal and banking information. PoS malware can usually perform RAM scraping.

 

Learn more:

What is RAM?

Random access memory (RAM)

A random access memory (RAM) is a computer hardware device where the OS, installed software applications, and data the user currently uses is stored so it would be easier for the processor to retrieve them. It is the main memory of a computer.

 

Learn more:

What is RAM?

What is a hard drive?

 

 

Ransomware

Ransomware is a form of malware that locks you out of your device and/or encrypts your files, then forces you to pay a ransom to get them back.

For an in-depth look at ransomware, see this page.

RAR

RAR files, like other archives, are essentially data containers where one or more files are stored in compressed form. WinRAR is the software typically used to compress these files. RAR files use the .rar extension.

Recon

Is short for reconnaissance, which (in the context of information security) describes an act of a threat actor using remote access tools (RAT) to gain access to a target system to assess items of value and map the network landscape.

Remediation

In computing, this is the process or method of correcting system changes, regardless of severity, on the affected system. Mitigation usually precedes remediation.

Remote access

Is controlling a computer system from another location. There are many programs that enable this method of working. Malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, Foxit Reader 2020 Archives - Patch Cracks is also a tool of choice for Tech Support Scammers.

Remote administration tool (RAT)

A software program that allows users to control another system as if they have physical access to it.

Remote code execution (RCE) attack

A remote code execution (RCE) attack happens when a threat actor illegally accesses and manipulates a computer or server without authorization from its owner. A system can be taken over using malware.

 

Learn more: 

Malware

Hacking

Remote desktop protocol (RDP)

Remote desktop protocol (RDP) is a network communications protocol that allows remote management of assets. Network administrators normally use RDP to diagnose problems on the endpoint.

Remote user

Is someone who operates or accesses a computing device from an off-site location.

Retrovirus

A retrovirus is also referred to as an anti-anti-virus virus. This means that it tries to attack and malwarebytes premium torrent Archives any anti-virus or protective software on the system it is trying to infect to avoid detection.

Revenge porn

Revenge porn is the distribution of sexually explicit material, such as images and videos, of someone without their consent whether they know such material existed or not. Usually, revenge porn is initiated by former intimate partners of the subject to humiliate them.

Other form(s): revenge pornograpy

Synonym: image-based sexual abuse

Riskware

Riskware, or “risky software,” describes legitimate software malwarebytes premium torrent Archives that contain loopholes or vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malwarebytes premium torrent Archives for malicious purposes.

Robocall

A robocall is an automated phone call that delivers a recorded message. Normally, political parties, schools, and telemarketing companies use robocall. But scammers are known to abuse robocalls. For more information, see this blog post for a deep dive on robocalling.

 

Learn more:

Scam calls

Rootkit

A rootkit is software, generally classified as malware, that provides the attacker with administrator privileges on the infected system and actively hides. They also hide from other software on the system, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives even from the operating system.

RunPE Technique

A common technique malware uses: running the original executable, suspending it, unmapping from the memory, mapping the payload on its place, and running it again.


S

Safe Mode

It’s a boot option that loads only the most basic drivers needed for Windows to run. There are different sets of drivers that can be loaded, depending on the kind of “Safe Mode” the user selects. For more information, see the article safe mode.

Sandbox solution

A type of solution wherein IT administers run a program in a controlled environment to determine whether it is safe to deploy within their network or not.

Scam

In cybersecurity, malwarebytes premium torrent Archives, scams are attempts to obtain money or something else of value through dishonest means, mostly over the Internet, though sometimes with a phone call.

Screen scraper

A screen scraper is a form of malware capable of taking screenshots or gathering data from the visible desktop to send them back to its controller.

Screenlocker

A screenlocker can either be a legitimate program that locks a PC while users are away from the desk, or a piece of malware, which could be anything from a “prank” malwarebytes premium torrent Archives to ransomware. The latter locks a desktop while encrypting files to blackmail a victim into paying a ransom.

Script kiddie

A script kiddie is a derogatory term given to hackers who may feel have no technical ability. Some wear the name as a badge of pride.

Search neutrality

Search malwarebytes premium torrent Archives is a concept asserting that the rules for net neutrality should be applied to search engines.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is an

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