Category Archives: 3D Printing tool

Category Archives: 3D Printing tool

The GrabCAD Library offers millions of free CAD designs, CAD files, and 3D models. Join the GrabCAD Community today to gain access and download! 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model. The term "3D printing" can. Download many free STL & OBJ files for 3D printers. 20191219_153351.jpg Download STL file 3D Printer Tool Holder V3.0 • 3D printing.

Category Archives: 3D Printing tool - has

Applications of 3D printing

In recent years, 3D printing has developed significantly and can now perform crucial roles in many applications, with the most important being manufacturing, medicine, architecture, custom art and design.

3D printing processes are finally catching up to their full potential, and are currently being used in manufacturing and medical industries, as well as by sociocultural sectors which facilitate 3D printing for commercial purposes.[1] There has been a lot of hype in the last decade when referring to the possibilities we can achieve by adopting 3D printing as one of the main manufacturing technologies.

For a long time, the issue with 3D printing was that it has demanded very high entry costs, which does not allow profitable implementation to mass-manufacturers when compared to standard processes. However, recent market trends spotted have found that this is finally changing. As the market for 3D printing has shown some of the quickest growth within the manufacturing industry in recent years.[2]

Manufacturing applications[edit]

Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as it is to produce thousands and thus undermines economies of scale. It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did (...) Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750—or the printing press in 1450, or the transistor in 1950—it is impossible to foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing. But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.

— The Economist, in a February 10, 2011 leader[3]

AM technologies found applications starting in the 1980s in product development, data visualization, rapid prototyping, and specialized manufacturing. Their expansion into production (job production, mass production, and distributed manufacturing) has been under development in the decades since. Industrial production roles within the metalworking industries[4] achieved significant scale for the first time in the early 2010s. Since the start of the 21st century there has been a large growth in the sales of AM machines, and their price has dropped substantially.[5] According to Wohlers Associates, a consultancy, the market for 3D printers and services was worth $2.2 billion worldwide in 2012, up 29% from 2011.[6]McKinsey predicts that additive manufacturing could have an economic impact of $550 billion annually by 2025.[7] There are many applications for AM technologies, including architecture, construction (AEC), industrial design, automotive, aerospace,[8] military, engineering, dental and medical industries, biotech (human tissue replacement), fashion, footwear, jewelry, eyewear, education, geographic information systems, food, and many other fields.

Additive manufacturing's earliest applications have been on the toolroom end of the manufacturing spectrum. For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants, and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost of developing prototypes of new parts and devices, which was earlier only done with subtractive toolroom methods such as CNC milling and turning, and precision grinding, far more accurate than 3d printing with accuracy down to 0.00005" and creating better quality parts faster, but sometimes too expensive for low accuracy prototype parts.[9] With technological advances in additive manufacturing, however, and the dissemination of those advances into the business world, additive methods are moving ever further into the production end of manufacturing in creative and sometimes unexpected ways.[9] Parts that were formerly the sole province of subtractive methods can now in some cases be made more profitably via additive ones. In addition, new developments in RepRap technology allow the same device to perform both additive and subtractive manufacturing by swapping magnetic-mounted tool heads.[10]

Cloud-based additive manufacturing[edit]

Main article: 3D printing marketplace

Additive manufacturing in combination with cloud computing technologies allows decentralized and geographically independent distributed production.[11] Cloud-based additive manufacturing refers to a service-oriented networked manufacturing model in which service consumers are able to build parts through Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Hardware-as-a-Service (HaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).[12][13][14]Distributed manufacturing as such is carried out by some enterprises; there is also a services like 3D Hubs that put people needing 3D printing in contact with owners of printers.[15]

Some companies offer online 3D printing services to both commercial and private customers,[16] working from 3D designs uploaded to the company website. 3D-printed designs are either shipped to the customer or picked up from the service provider.[17]

Mass customization[edit]

Main article: Mass customization

Miniature face models (from FaceGen) produced using Ceramic Based material on a Full Colour 3D Inkjet Printer

Companies have created services where consumers can customize objects using simplified web based customization software, and order the resulting items as 3D printed unique objects.[18][19] This now allows consumers to create custom cases for their mobile phones.[20] Nokia has released the 3D designs for its case so that owners can customize their own case and have it 3D printed.[21]

Rapid manufacturing[edit]

Advances in RP technology have introduced materials that are appropriate for final manufacture, which has in turn introduced the possibility of directly manufacturing finished components. One advantage of 3D printing for rapid manufacturing lies in the relatively inexpensive production of small numbers of parts.

Rapid manufacturing is a new method of manufacturing and many of its processes remain unproven. 3D printing is now entering the field of rapid manufacturing and was identified as a "next level" technology by many experts in a 2009 report.[22] One of the most promising processes looks to be the adaptation of selective laser sintering (SLS), or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) some of the better-established rapid prototyping methods. As of 2006[update], however, these techniques were still very much in their infancy, with many obstacles to be overcome before RM could be considered a realistic manufacturing method.[23]

There have been patent lawsuits concerning 3-D printing for manufacturing.[24]

Rapid prototyping[edit]

Main article: Rapid prototyping

Industrial 3D printers have existed since the early 1980s and have been used extensively for rapid prototyping and research purposes. These are generally larger machines that use proprietary powdered metals, casting media (e.g. sand), plastics, paper or cartridges, and are used for rapid prototyping by universities and commercial companies.

Research[edit]

3D printing can be particularly useful in research labs due to its ability to make specialized, bespoke geometries. In 2012 a proof of principle project at the University of Glasgow, UK, showed that it is possible to use 3D printing techniques to assist in the production of chemical compounds. They first printed chemical reaction vessels, then used the printer to deposit reactants into them.[25] They have produced new compounds to verify the validity of the process, but have not pursued anything with a particular application.

Usually, the FDM process is used to print hollow reaction vessels or microreactors.[25] If the 3D print is performed within an inert gas atmosphere, the reaction vessels can be filled with highly reactive substances during the print. The 3D printed objects are air- and watertight for several weeks. By the print of reaction vessels in the geometry of common cuvettes or measurement tubes, routine analytical measurements such as UV/VIS-, IR- and NMR-spectroscopy can be performed directly in the 3D printed vessel.[26]

In addition, 3D printing has been used in research labs as alternative method to manufacture components for use in experiments, such as magnetic shielding and vacuum components with demonstrated performance comparable to traditionally produced parts.[27]

Food[edit]

Additive manufacturing of food is being developed by squeezing out food, layer by layer, into three-dimensional objects. A large variety of foods are appropriate candidates, such as chocolate and candy, and flat foods such as crackers, pasta,[28] and pizza.[29][30] NASA has considered the versatility of the concept, awarding a contract to the Systems and Materials Research Consultancy to study the feasibility of printing food in space.[31] NASA is also looking into the technology in order to create 3D printed food to limit food waste and to make food that are designed to fit an astronaut's dietary needs.[32] A food-tech startup Novameat from Barcelona 3D-printed a steak from peas, rice, seaweed, and some other ingredients that were laid down criss-cross, imitating the intracellular proteins.[33] One of the problems with food printing is the nature of the texture of a food. For example, foods that are not strong enough to be filed are not appropriate for 3D printing.

Agile tooling[edit]

Agile tooling is the process of using modular means to design tooling that is produced by additive manufacturing or 3D printing methods to enable quick prototyping and responses to tooling and fixture needs. Agile tooling uses a cost-effective and high-quality method to quickly respond to customer and market needs. It can be used in hydro-forming, stamping, injection molding and other manufacturing processes.

Medical applications[edit]

Surgical uses of 3D printing-centric therapies have a history beginning in the mid-1990s with anatomical modeling for bony reconstructive surgery planning.[34] By practicing on a tactile model before surgery, surgeons were more prepared and patients received better care. Patient-matched implants were a natural extension of this work, leading to truly personalized implants that fit one unique individual.[35] Virtual planning of surgery and guidance using 3D printed, personalized instruments have been applied to many areas of surgery including total joint replacement and craniomaxillofacial reconstruction with great success.[clarification needed][36] Further study of the use of models for planning heart and solid organ surgery has led to increased use in these areas.[37] Hospital-based 3D printing is now of great interest and many institutions are pursuing adding this specialty within individual radiology departments.[38][39] The technology is being used to create unique, patient-matched devices for rare illnesses. One example of this is the bioresorbable trachial splint to treat newborns with tracheobronchomalacia[40] developed at the University of Michigan. Several devices manufacturers have also begin using 3D printing for patient-matched surgical guides (polymers). The use of additive manufacturing for serialized production of orthopedic implants (metals) is also increasing due to the ability to efficiently create porous surface structures that facilitate osseointegration. Printed casts for broken bones can be custom-fitted and open, letting the wearer scratch any itches, wash and ventilate the damaged area. They can also be recycled.

Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has been used to create microstructures with a three-dimensional internal geometry. Sacrificial structures or additional support materials are not needed. Structure using polylactic acid (PLA) can have fully controllable porosity in the range 20%–60%. Such scaffolds could serve as biomedical templates for cell culturing, or biodegradable implants for tissue engineering.[41]

3D printed human skull from computed computer tomography data

3D printing has been used to print patient-specific implant and device for medical use. Successful operations include a titanium pelvis implanted into a British patient, titanium lower jaw transplanted to a Dutch patient,[42] and a plastic tracheal splint for an American infant.[43] The hearing aid and dental industries are expected to be the biggest areas of future development using custom 3D printing technology.[44] In March 2014, surgeons in Swansea used 3D printed parts to rebuild the face of a motorcyclist who had been seriously injured in a road accident.[45] Research is also being conducted on methods to bio-print replacements for lost tissue due to arthritis and cancer[citation needed].

3D printing technology can now be used to make exact replicas of organs. The printer uses images from patients' MRI or CT scan images as a template and lays down layers of rubber or plastic.

3D printing technology can also be used to produce personal protective equipment, also known as PPE, is worn by medical and laboratory professionals to protect themselves from infection when they are treating patients. Examples of PPE include face masks, face shields, connectors, gowns, and goggles. The most popular forms of 3D printed PPE are face masks, face shields, and connectors. [46]

Nowadays, Additive Manufacturing is also employed in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. Different techniques of 3D printing (e.g. FDM, SLS, Inkjet Printing etc) are utilized according to their respective advantages and drawbacks for various applications regarding drug delivery.

Bio-printing[edit]

See also: Biomolecular printing

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University published some of the pioneer work in 3D printing for tissue fabrication, successfully printing hydrogel bio-inks.[47] The work at Cornell was expanded using specialized bioprinters produced by Seraph Robotics, Inc., a university spin-out, which helped to catalyze a global interest in biomedical 3D printing research.

3D printing has been considered as a method of implanting stem cells capable of generating new tissues and organs in living humans.[48] With their ability to transform into any other kind of cell in the human body, stem cells offer huge potential in 3D bioprinting.[49] Professor Leroy Cronin of Glasgow University proposed in a 2012 TED Talk that it was possible to use chemical inks to print medicine.[50]

As of 2012[update], 3D bio-printing technology has been studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques. In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems.[51] The first production system for 3D tissue printing was delivered in 2009, based on NovoGen bioprinting technology.[52] Several terms have been used to refer to this field of research: organ printing, bio-printing, body part printing,[53] and computer-aided tissue engineering, among others.[54] The possibility of using 3D tissue printing to create soft tissue architectures for reconstructive surgery is also being explored.[55]

In 2013, Chinese scientists began printing ears, livers and kidneys, with living tissue. Researchers in China have been able to successfully print human organs using specialized 3D bioprinters that use living cells instead of plastic[citation needed]. Researchers at Hangzhou Dianzi University designed the "3D bioprinter" dubbed the "Regenovo". Xu Mingen, Regenovo's developer, said that it can produce a miniature sample of liver tissue or ear cartilage in less than an hour, predicting that fully functional printed organs might take 10 to 20 years to develop.[56][57]

Medical devices[edit]

On October 24, 2014, a five-year-old girl born without fully formed fingers on her left hand became the first child in the UK to have a prosthetic hand made with 3D printing technology. Her hand was designed by US-based e-NABLE, an open source design organisation which uses a network of volunteers to design and make prosthetics mainly for children. The prosthetic hand was based on a plaster cast made by her parents.[58] A boy named Alex was also born with a missing arm from just above the elbow. The team was able to use 3D printing to upload an e-NABLE Myoelectric arm that runs off of servos and batteries that are actuated by the electromyography muscle. With the use of 3D printers, e-NABLE has so far distributed thousands of plastic hands to children.

Printed prosthetics have been used in rehabilitation of crippled animals. In 2013, a 3D printed foot let a crippled duckling walk again.[59] 3D printed hermit crab shells let hermit crabs inhabit a new style home.[60] A prosthetic beak was another tool developed by the use of 3D printing to help aid a bald eagle named Beauty, whose beak was severely mutilated from a shot in the face. Since 2014, commercially available titanium knee implants made with 3D printer for dogs have been used to restore the animals' mobility. Over 10,000 dogs in Europe and the United States have been treated after only one year.[61]

In February 2015, FDA approved the marketing of a surgical bolt which facilitates less-invasive foot surgery and eliminates the need to drill through bone. The 3D printed titanium device, 'FastForward Bone Tether Plate' is approved to use in correction surgery to treat bunion.[62] In October 2015, the group of Professor Andreas Herrmann at the University of Groningen has developed the first 3D printable resins with antimicrobial properties. Employing stereolithography, quaternary ammonium groups are incorporated into dental appliances that kill bacteria on contact. This type of material can be further applied in medical devices and implants.[63]

On June 6, 2011, the company Xilloc Medical together with researchers at the University of Hasselt, in Belgium had successfully printed a new jawbone for an 83-year-old Dutch woman from the province of Limburg.[64]

3D printing has been used to produce prosthetic beaks for eagles, a Brazilian goose named Victoria, and a Costa Rican toucan called Grecia.[65]

In March 2020, the Isinnova company in Italy printed 100 respirator valves in 24 hours for a hospital that lacked them in the midst of the coronavirus outbreak.[66]

Pharmaceutical Formulations[edit]

In May 2015 the first formulation manufactured by 3D printing was produced.[67] In August 2015 the FDA approved the first 3D printed tablet. Binder-jetting into a powder bed of the drug allows very porous tablets to be produced, which enables high drug doses in a single formulation that rapidly dissolves and is easily absorbed.[68] This has been demonstrated for Spritam, a reformulation of levetiracetam for the treatment of epilepsy.[69]

Additive Manufacturing has been increasingly utilized by scientists in the pharmaceutical field. However, after the first FDA approval of a 3D printed formulation, scientific interest for 3D applications in drug delivery grew even bigger. Research groups around the world are studying different ways of incorporating drugs within a 3D printed formulation. 3D printing technology allows scientists to develop formulations with a personalized approach, i.e. dosage forms tailored specifically to an individual patient. Moreover, according to the advantages of the diverse utilized techniques, formulations with various properties can be achieved. These may contain multiple drugs in a single dosage form, multi-compartmental designs, drug delivery systems with distinct release characteristics ,etc.[70][71][72][73] During the earlier years, researchers have mainly focused on the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. Nowadays, other printing techniques such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Stereolithography (SLA) are also gaining traction and are being used for pharmaceutical applications.[74]

Industrial applications[edit]

Apparel[edit]

inBloom 3D printed outfit

3D printing has entered the world of clothing with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed bikinis, shoes, and dresses.[75] In commercial production Nike used 3D printing to prototype and manufacture the 2012 Vapor Laser Talon football shoe for players of American football, and New Balance is 3D manufacturing custom-fit shoes for athletes.[75][76]

3D printing has come to the point where companies are printing consumer grade eyewear with on-demand custom fit and styling (although they cannot print the lenses). On-demand customization of glasses is possible with rapid prototyping.[77]

However, comments have been made in academic circles as to the potential limitation of the human acceptance of such mass customized apparel items due to the potential reduction of brand value communication.[78]

In the world of high fashion courtiers such as Karl Lagerfeld designing for Chanel, Iris van Herpen and Noa Raviv working with technology from Stratasys, have employed and featured 3d printing in their collections. Selections from their lines and other working with 3d printing were showcased at the 2016 Metropolitan Museum of ArtAnna Wintour Costume Center, exhibition "Manus X Machina".[79][80]

Industrial art and jewelry[edit]

3D printing is used to manufacture moulds for making jewelry, and even the jewelry itself.[81] 3D printing is becoming popular in the customisable gifts industry, with products such as personalized models of art and dolls,[82] in many shapes: in metal or plastic, or as consumable art, such as 3D printed chocolate.[83]

Automotive industry[edit]

The Audi RSQwas made with rapid prototyping industrial KUKArobots.

In early 2014, Swedish supercar manufacturer Koenigsegg announced the One:1, a supercar that utilizes many components that were 3D printed. In the limited run of vehicles Koenigsegg produces, the One:1 has side-mirror internals, air ducts, titanium exhaust components, and complete turbocharger assemblies that were 3D printed as part of the manufacturing process.[84]

Urbee is the name of the first car in the world car mounted using the technology 3D printing (its bodywork and car windows were "printed"). Created in 2010 through the partnership between the US engineering group Kor Ecologic and the company Stratasys (manufacturer of printers Stratasys 3D), it is a hybrid vehicle with futuristic look.[85][86][87]

In 2014, Local Motors debuted Strati, a functioning vehicle that was entirely 3D Printed using ABS plastic and carbon fiber, except the powertrain.[88] In 2015, the company produced another iteration known as the LM3D Swim that was 80 percent 3D-printed.[89] In 2016, the company has used 3D printing in the creation of automotive parts, such ones used in Olli, a self-driving vehicle developed by the company.[90][91]

In May 2015 Airbus announced that its new Airbus A350 XWB included over 1000 components manufactured by 3D printing.[92]

3D printing is also being utilized by air forces to print spare parts for planes. In 2015, a Royal Air ForceEurofighter Typhoon fighter jet flew with printed parts. The United States Air Force has begun to work with 3D printers, and the Israeli Air Force has also purchased a 3D printer to print spare parts.[93]

Construction, home development[edit]

Main article: Construction 3D printing

The use of 3D printing to produce scale models within architecture and construction has steadily increased in popularity as the cost of 3D printers has reduced. This has enabled faster turn around of such scale models and allowed a steady increase in the speed of production and the complexity of the objects being produced.

Construction 3D printing, the application of 3D printing to fabricate construction components or entire buildings has been in development since the mid-1990s, development of new technologies has steadily gained pace since 2012 and the sub-sector of 3D printing is beginning to mature (see main article).

Firearms[edit]

Main article: 3D printed firearms

In 2012, the US-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to "[design] a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer."[94][95] Defense Distributed has also designed a 3D printable AR-15 type rifle lower receiver (capable of lasting more than 650 rounds) and a 30-round M16 magazine. The AR-15 has multiple receivers (both an upper and lower receiver), but the legally controlled part is the one that is serialized (the lower, in the AR-15's case). Soon after Defense Distributed succeeded in designing the first working blueprint to produce a plastic gun with a 3D printer in May 2013, the United States Department of State demanded that they remove the instructions from their website.[96] After Defense Distributed released their plans, questions were raised regarding the effects that 3D printing and widespread consumer-level CNC machining[97][98] may have on gun control effectiveness.[99][100][101][102]

In 2014, a man from Japan became the first person in the world to be imprisoned for making 3D printed firearms.[103] Yoshitomo Imura posted videos and blueprints of the gun online and was sentenced to jail for two years. Police found at least two guns in his household that were capable of firing bullets.[103]

Computers and robots[edit]

See also: Modular design and Open-source robotics

3D printing can also be used to make laptops and other computers and cases. For example, Novena and VIA OpenBook standard laptop cases. I.e. a Novena motherboard can be bought and be used in a printed VIA OpenBook case.[104]

Open-source robots are built using 3D printers. Double Robotics grant access to their technology (an open SDK).[105][106][107] On the other hand, 3&DBot is an Arduino 3D printer-robot with wheels[108] and ODOI is a 3D printed humanoid robot.[109]

Soft sensors and actuators[edit]

See also: Actuators and 3D printing

3D printing has found its place in soft sensors and actuators manufacturing inspired by 4D printing concept.[110]<[111] The majority of the conventional soft sensors and actuators are fabricated using multistep low yield processes entailing manual fabrication, post-processing/assembly, and lengthy iterations with less flexibility in customization and reproducibility of final products. 3D printing has been a game changer in these fields with introducing the custom geometrical, functional, and control properties to avoid the tedious and time-consuming aspects of the earlier fabrication processes.[112]

Space[edit]

See also: 3D-printed spacecraft and 3D printing § Construction

The Zero-G Printer, the first 3D printer designed to operate in zero gravity, was built under a joint partnership between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Made In Space, Inc.[113] In September 2014, SpaceX delivered the zero-gravity 3D printer to the International Space Station (ISS). On December 19, 2014, NASA emailed CAD drawings for a socket wrench to astronauts aboard the ISS, who then printed the tool using its 3D printer. Applications for space offer the ability to print parts or tools on-site, as opposed to using rockets to bring along pre-manufactured items for space missions to human colonies on the moon, Mars, or elsewhere.[114] The second 3D printer in space, the European Space Agency's Portable On-Board 3D Printer (POP3D) was planned to be delivered to the International Space Station before June 2015.[115][116][needs update] By 2019, a commercial-built recycling facility was scheduled to be sent to the International Space Station to take in plastic waste and unneeded plastic parts and convert them into spools of feedstock for the space station additive manufacturing facility to be used to build manufactured-in-space parts.[117]

In 2016, Digital Trends reported that BeeHex was building a 3D food printer for manned missions to Mars.[118]

Most[citation needed] construction planned on asteroids or planets will be bootstrapped somehow using the materials available on those objects. 3D printing is often one of the steps in this bootstrapping. The Sinterhab project is researching a lunar base constructed by 3D printing using lunar regolith as a base material. Instead of adding a binding agent to the regolith, researchers are experimenting with microwave sintering to create solid blocks from the raw material.[119]

Projects like these have been investigated for construction of off-Earth habitats.[120][121]

Sociocultural applications[edit]

An example of 3D printed limited edition jewellery. This necklace is made of glassfiber-filled dyed nylon. It has rotating linkages that were produced in the same manufacturing step as the other parts

In 2005, a rapidly expanding hobbyist and home-use market was established with the inauguration of the open-sourceRepRap and [email protected] projects. Virtually all home-use 3D printers released to-date have their technical roots in the ongoing RepRap Project and associated open-source software initiatives.[122] In distributed manufacturing, one study has found[123] that 3D printing could become a mass market product enabling consumers to save money associated with purchasing common household objects.[124] For example, instead of going to a store to buy an object made in a factory by injection molding (such as a measuring cup or a funnel), a person might instead print it at home from a downloaded 3D model.

Art and jewellery[edit]

In 2005, academic journals began to report on the possible artistic applications of 3D printing technology,[125] being used by artists such as Martin John Callanan at The Bartlett school of architecture. By 2007 the mass media followed with an article in the Wall Street Journal[126] and Time magazine, listing a printed design among their 100 most influential designs of the year.[127] During the 2011 London Design Festival, an installation, curated by Murray Moss and focused on 3D Printing, was held in the Victoria and Albert Museum (the V&A). The installation was called Industrial Revolution 2.0: How the Material World will Newly Materialize.[128]

At the 3DPrintshow in London, which took place in November 2013 and 2014, the art sections had works made with 3D printed plastic and metal. Several artists such as Joshua Harker, Davide Prete, Sophie Kahn, Helena Lukasova, Foteini Setaki showed how 3D printing can modify aesthetic and art processes.[129] In 2015, engineers and designers at MIT's Mediated Matter Group and Glass Lab created an additive 3D printer that prints with glass, called G3DP. The results can be structural as well as artistic. Transparent glass vessels printed on it are part of some museum collections.[130]

The use of 3D scanning technologies allows the replication of real objects without the use of moulding techniques that in many cases can be more expensive, more difficult, or too invasive to be performed, particularly for precious artwork or delicate cultural heritage artifacts[131] where direct contact with the moulding substances could harm the original object's surface.

3D selfies[edit]

Main article: 3D selfie

A 3D selfie in 1:20 scale printed by Shapewaysusing gypsum-based printing

A 3D photo booth such as the Fantasitron located at Madurodam, the miniature park, generates 3D selfie models from 2D pictures of customers. These selfies are often printed by dedicated 3D printing companies such as Shapeways. These models are also known as 3D portraits, 3D figurines or mini-me figurines.

Communication[edit]

Employing additive layer technology offered by 3D printing, Terahertz devices which act as waveguides, couplers and bends have been created. The complex shape of these devices could not be achieved using conventional fabrication techniques. Commercially available professional grade printer EDEN 260V was used to create structures with minimum feature size of 100 µm. The printed structures were later DC sputter coated with gold (or any other metal) to create a Terahertz Plasmonic Device.[132] In 2016 artist/scientist Janine Carr Created the first 3d printed vocal percussion (beatbox) as a waveform, with the ability to play the soundwave by laser, along with four vocalised emotions these were also playable by laser.[133]

Domestic use[edit]

Some early consumer examples of 3d printing include the 64DD released in 1999 in Japan.[134][135] As of 2012, domestic 3D printing was mainly practiced by hobbyists and enthusiasts. However, little was used for practical household applications, for example, ornamental objects. Some practical examples include a working clock[136] and gears printed for home woodworking machines among other purposes.[137] Web sites associated with home 3D printing tended to include backscratchers, coat hooks, door knobs, etc.[138]

The open source [email protected] project[139] has developed printers for general use. They have been used in research environments to produce chemical compounds with 3D printing technology, including new ones, initially without immediate application as proof of principle.[25] The printer can print with anything that can be dispensed from a syringe as liquid or paste. The developers of the chemical application envisage both industrial and domestic use for this technology, including enabling users in remote locations to be able to produce their own medicine or household chemicals.[140][141]

3D printing is now working its way into households, and more and more children are being introduced to the concept of 3D printing at earlier ages. The prospects of 3D printing are growing, and as more people have access to this new innovation, new uses in households will emerge.[142]

The OpenReflex SLRfilm camera was developed for 3D printing as an open-source student project.[143]

Education and research[edit]

High Schoolstudents from Wyomissing Area Jr/Sr High School in Pennsylvania, United States present their use of 3D Printing in the classroom

3D printing, and open source 3D printers in particular, are the latest technology making inroads into the classroom.[144][145][146] 3D printing allows students to create prototypes of items without the use of expensive tooling required in subtractive methods. Students design and produce actual models they can hold. The classroom environment allows students to learn and employ new applications for 3D printing.[147] RepRaps, for example, have already been used for an educational mobile robotics platform.[148]

Some authors have claimed that 3D printers offer an unprecedented "revolution" in STEM education.[149] The evidence for such claims comes from both the low cost ability for rapid prototyping in the classroom by students, but also the fabrication of low-cost high-quality scientific equipment from open hardware designs forming open-source labs.[150] Engineering and design principles are explored as well as architectural planning. Students recreate duplicates of museum items such as fossils and historical artifacts for study in the classroom without possibly damaging sensitive collections. Other students interested in graphic designing can construct models with complex working parts easily. 3D printing gives students a new perspective with topographic maps. Science students can study cross-sections of internal organs of the human body and other biological specimens. And chemistry students can explore 3D models of molecules and the relationship within chemical compounds.[151] The true representation of exactly scaled bond length and bond angles in 3D printed molecular models can be used in organic chemistry lecture courses to explain molecular geometry and reactivity.[152]

According to a recent paper by Kostakis et al.,[153] 3D printing and design can electrify various literacies and creative capacities of children in accordance with the spirit of the interconnected, information-based world.

Future applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source scientific equipment.[150][154]

Nowadays, the demand of 3D printing keep on increasing in order to fulfill the demands in producing parts with complex geometry at a lower development cost.[155] The increasing demands 3D printing parts in industry would eventually lead to the 3D printed parts repairing activity and secondary process such as joining, foaming and cutting. This secondary process need to be developed in order to support the growth of the 3D printing application in the future. From the research, FSW is proven able to be used as one of the methods to join the metal 3D printing materials. By using proper FSW tools and correct parameter setting a sound and defect-free weld can be produce in order to joint the metal 3D printing materials.[156]

Environmental use[edit]

In Bahrain, large-scale 3D printing using a sandstone-like material has been used to create unique coral-shaped structures, which encourage coral polyps to colonize and regenerate damaged reefs. These structures have a much more natural shape than other structures used to create artificial reefs, and, unlike concrete, are neither acid nor alkaline with neutral pH.[157]

Cultural heritage[edit]

In the last several years 3D printing has been intensively used by in the cultural heritage field for preservation, restoration and dissemination purposes.[158] Many Europeans and North American Museums have purchased 3D printers and actively recreate missing pieces of their relics.[159]

Scan the World is the largest archive of 3D printable objects of cultural significance from across the globe. Each object, originating from 3D scan data provided by their community, is optimised for 3D printing and free to download on MyMiniFactory. Through working alongside museums, such as The Victoria and Albert Museum[160] and private collectors,[161] the initiative serves as a platform for democratizing the art object.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the British Museum have started using their 3D printers to create museum souvenirs that are available in the museum shops.[162] Other museums, like the National Museum of Military History and Varna Historical Museum, have gone further and sell through the online platform Threeding digital models of their artifacts, created using Artec 3D scanners, in 3D printing friendly file format, which everyone can 3D print at home.[163]

Specialty materials[edit]

Consumer grade 3D printing has resulted in new materials that have been developed specifically for 3D printers. For example, filament materials have been developed to imitate wood in its appearance as well as its texture. Furthermore, new technologies, such as infusing carbon fiber[164] into printable plastics, allowing for a stronger, lighter material. In addition to new structural materials that have been developed due to 3D printing, new technologies have allowed for patterns to be applied directly to 3D printed parts. Iron oxide-free Portland cement powder has been used to create architectural structures up to 9 feet in height.[165][166][167]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Taufik, Mohammad; Jain, Prashant K. (2016-12-10). "Additive Manufacturing: Current Scenario". Proceedings of International Conference on: Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering -ICAPIE 2016: 380–386.
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  3. ^"Print me a Stradivarius – How a new manufacturing technology will change the world". The Economist. 2011-02-10. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
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  5. ^Sherman, Lilli Manolis. "3D Printers Lead Growth of Rapid Prototyping (Plastics Technology, August 2004)". Archived from the original on 2010-01-23. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
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  9. ^ abVincent & Earls 2011 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFVincentEarls2011 (help)
  10. ^Anzalone, G.; Wijnen, B.; Pearce, Joshua M. (2015). "Multi-material additive and subtractive prosumer digital fabrication with a free and open-source convertible delta RepRap 3-D printer". Rapid Prototyping Journal. 21 (5): 506–519. doi:10.1108/RPJ-09-2014-0113.
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  13. ^Wu, D.; Rosen, D.W.; Wang, L.; Schaefer, D. (2015). "Cloud-Based Design and Manufacturing: A New Paradigm in Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation"(PDF). Computer-Aided Design. 59 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2014.07.006.
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  17. ^Vance, Ashlee (January 12, 2011). "The Wow Factor of 3-D Printing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
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  25. ^ abcSymes, M. D.; Kitson, P. J.; Yan, J.; Richmond, C. J.; Cooper, G. J. T.; Bowman, R. W.; Vilbrandt, T.; Cronin, L. (2012). "Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis". Nature Chemistry. 4 (5): 349–354. Bibcode:2012NatCh...4..349S. doi:10.1038/nchem.1313. PMID 22522253.
  26. ^Lederle, Felix; Kaldun, Christian; Namyslo, Jan C.; Hübner, Eike G. (April 2016). "3D-Printing inside the Glovebox: A Versatile Tool for Inert-Gas Chemistry Combined with Spectroscopy". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 99 (4): 255–266. doi:10.1002/hlca.201500502. PMC 4840480. PMID 27134300.
  27. ^Vovrosh, Jamie; Georgios, Voulazeris; Plamen, G. Petrov; Ji, Zou; Youssef, Gaber; Laura, Benn; David, Woolger; Moataz, M. Attallah; Vincent, Boyer; Kai, Bongs; Michael, Holynski (31 January 2018). "Additive manufacturing of magnetic shielding and ultra-high vacuum flange for cold atom sensors". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 2023. arXiv:1710.08279. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.2023V. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-20352-x. PMC 5792564. PMID 29386536.
  28. ^Wong, Venessa (28 January 2014). "A Guide to All the Food That's Fit to 3D Print (So Far)". Bloomberg.com.
  29. ^"Did BeeHex Just Hit 'Print' to Make Pizza at Home?". 2016-05-27. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  30. ^"Foodini 3D Printer Cooks Up Meals Like the Star Trek Food Replicator". Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  31. ^"3D Printing: Food in Space". NASA. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  32. ^"3D Printed Food System for Long Duration Space Missions". sbir.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  33. ^"NOVAMEAT Unveils New Plant-Based 3D Printed Beef Steak". vegconomist. 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  34. ^Erickson, D. M.; Chance, D.; Schmitt, S.; Mathis, J. (1 September 1999). "An opinion survey of reported benefits from the use of stereolithographic models". J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 57 (9): 1040–1043. doi:10.1016/s0278-2391(99)90322-1. PMID 10484104.
  35. ^Eppley, B. L.; Sadove, A. M. (1 November 1998). "Computer-generated patient models for reconstruction of cranial and facial deformities". J Craniofac Surg. 9 (6): 548–556. doi:10.1097/00001665-199811000-00011. PMID 10029769.
  36. ^Hirsch, DL; Garfein, ES; Christensen, AM; Weimer, KA; Saddeh, PB; Levine, JP (2009). "Use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to produce orthognathically ideal surgical outcomes: a paradigm shift in head and neck reconstruction". J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 67 (10): 2115–22. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2009.02.007. PMID 19761905.
  37. ^Anwar, Shafkat; Singh, Gautam K.; Varughese, Justin; Nguyen, Hoang; Billadello, Joseph J.; Sheybani, Elizabeth F.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Manning, Peter; Eghtesady, Pirooz (2017). "3D Printing in Complex Congenital Heart Disease". JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging. 10 (8): 953–956. doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2016.03.013. PMID 27450874.
  38. ^Matsumoto, Jane S.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Foley, Thomas A.; Williamson, Eric E.; Leng, Shuai; McGee, Kiaran P.; Kuhlmann, Joel L.; Nesberg, Linda E.; Vrtiska, Terri J. (1 November 2015). "Three-dimensional Physical Modeling: Applications and Experience at Mayo Clinic". Radiographics. 35 (7): 1989–2006. doi:10.1148/rg.2015140260. PMID 26562234.
  39. ^Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.; Rybicki, Frank J. (1 November 2015). "Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist". RadioGraphics. 35 (7): 1965–1988. doi:10.1148/rg.2015140320. PMC 4671424. PMID 26562233.
  40. ^Zopf, David A.; Hollister, Scott J.; Nelson, Marc E.; Ohye, Richard G.; Green, Glenn E. (23 May 2013). "Bioresorbable Airway Splint Created with a Three-Dimensional Printer". N Engl J Med. 368 (21): 2043–2045. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1206319. PMID 23697530.
  41. ^Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Rekštytė, Sima; Lukoševičius, Laurynas; Butkus, Simas; Balčiūnas, Evaldas; Pečiukaitytė, Milda; Baltriukienė, Daiva; Bukelskienė, Virginija; Butkevičius, Arūnas; Kucevičius, Povilas; Rutkūnas, Vygandas; Juodkazis, Saulius (2014). "3D Microporous Scaffolds Manufactured via Combination of Fused Filament Fabrication and Direct Laser Writing Ablation". Micromachines. MDPI. 5 (4): 839–858. doi:10.3390/mi5040839.
  42. ^"Transplant jaw made by 3D printer claimed as first". BBC. 2012-02-06.
  43. ^Rob Stein (2013-03-17). "Doctors Use 3-D Printing To Help A Baby Breathe". NPR.
  44. ^Moore, Calen (11 February 2014). "Surgeons have implanted a 3-D-printed pelvis into a U.K. cancer patient". fiercemedicaldevices.com. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
  45. ^Keith Perry (2014-03-12). "Man makes surgical history after having his shattered face rebuilt using 3D printed parts". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2014-03-12.[dead link]
  46. ^"How is 3D Printing Used in the Medical Industry?".
  47. ^Cohen, Daniel L.; Malone, Evan; Lipson, Hod; Bonassar, Lawrence J. (1 May 2006). "Direct freeform fabrication of seeded hydrogels in arbitrary geometries". Tissue Eng. 12 (5): 1325–1335. doi:10.1089/ten.2006.12.1325. PMID 16771645.
  48. ^"RFA-HD-15-023: Use of 3-D Printers for the Production of Medical Devices (R43/R44)". NIH grants. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  49. ^"7 Ways 3D Printing Is Disrupting The Medical Industry". 3D Masterminds. Archived from the original on 2016-12-31. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  50. ^"Print your own medicine".
  51. ^"3D-printed sugar network to help grow artificial liver". BBC News. 2012-07-02.
  52. ^"Invetech helps bring bio-printers to life". Australian Life Scientist. Westwick-Farrow Media. December 11, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
  53. ^"Building body parts with 3D printing". 2010-05-22.
  54. ^Silverstein, Jonathan. "'Organ Printing' Could Drastically Change Medicine (ABC News, 2006)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
  55. ^"Engineering Ourselves – The Future Potential Power of 3D-Bioprinting?". Engineering.com.
  56. ^The Diplomat (2013-08-15). "Chinese Scientists Are 3D Printing Ears and Livers – With Living Tissue". Tech Biz. The Diplomat. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
  57. ^"How do they 3D print kidney in China". Retrieved 2013-10-30.
  58. ^BBC News (October 2014). "Inverness girl Hayley Fraser gets 3D-printed hand", BBC News, 2014-10-01. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
  59. ^"3D-Printed Foot Lets Crippled Duck Walk Again". 2 July 2013.
  60. ^Flaherty, Joseph (2013-07-30). "So Cute: Hermit Crabs Strut in Stylish 3-D Printed Shells". Wired.
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  63. ^Yue, J; Zhao, P; Gerasimov, JY; de Lagemaat, M; Grotenhuis, A; Rustema-Abbing, M; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, A; Ren, Y (2015). "3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins". Adv. Funct. Mater. 25 (43): 6756–6767. doi:10.1002/adfm.201502384.
  64. ^"Mish's Global Economic Trend Analysis: 3D-Printing Spare Human Parts; Ears and Jaws Already, Livers Coming Up ; Need an Organ? Just Print It". Globaleconomicanalysis.blogspot.co.uk. 2013-08-18. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
  65. ^Aias, L (11 Aug 2016). "Grecia, the toucan with the prosthetic beak, now receiving visitors". The Tico Times. Retrieved 14 Sep 2016.
  66. ^Kleinman, Zoe (2020-03-16). "Coronavirus: 3D printers save hospital with valves". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  67. ^"Researchers 3D Print Odd Shaped Pills On A MakerBot, Completely Changing Drug Release Rates

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    3D printing

    Additive process used to make a three-dimensional object

    For methods of transferring an image onto a 3D surface, see pad printing. For methods of generating autostereoscopic lenticular images, see lenticular printing and holography.

    A three-dimensional printer
    Timelapseof a three-dimensional printer in action

    3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model.[1] The term "3D printing" can refer to a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object,[2] with material being added together (such as plastics, liquids or powder grains being fused together), typically layer by layer.

    In the 1980s, 3D printing techniques were considered suitable only for the production of functional or aesthetic prototypes, and a more appropriate term for it at the time was rapid prototyping.[3] As of 2019[update], the precision, repeatability, and material range of 3D printing have increased to the point that some 3D printing processes are considered viable as an industrial-production technology, whereby the term additive manufacturing can be used synonymously with 3D printing.[4] One of the key advantages of 3D printing is the ability to produce very complex shapes or geometries that would be otherwise impossible to construct by hand, including hollow parts or parts with internal truss structures to reduce weight. Fused deposition modeling (FDM), which uses a continuous filament of a thermoplastic material, is the most common 3D printing process in use as of 2020[update].[5]

    Terminology

    The umbrella termadditive manufacturing (AM) gained popularity in the 2000s,[6] inspired by the theme of material being added together (in any of various ways). In contrast, the term subtractive manufacturing appeared as a retronym for the large family of machining processes with material removal as their common process. The term 3D printing still referred only to the polymer technologies in most minds, and the term AM was more likely to be used in metalworking and end-use part production contexts than among polymer, inkjet, or stereolithography enthusiasts. Inkjet was the least familiar technology even though it was invented in 1950 and poorly understood because of its complex nature. The earliest inkjets were used as recorders and not printers. As late as the 1970s the term recorder was associated with inkjet. Continuous Inkjet later evolved to On-Demand or Drop-On-Demand Inkjet. Inkjets were single nozzle at the start; they may now have as many as thousands of nozzles for printing in each pass over a surface.

    By the early 2010s, the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing evolved senses in which they were alternate umbrella terms for additive technologies, one being used in popular language by consumer-maker communities and the media, and the other used more formally by industrial end-use part producers, machine manufacturers, and global technical standards organizations. Until recently, the term 3D printing has been associated with machines low in price or in capability.[7]3D printing and additive manufacturing reflect that the technologies share the theme of material addition or joining throughout a 3D work envelope under automated control. Peter Zelinski, the editor-in-chief of Additive Manufacturing magazine, pointed out in 2017 that the terms are still often synonymous in casual usage,[8] but some manufacturing industry experts are trying to make a distinction whereby additive manufacturing comprises 3D printing plus other technologies or other aspects of a manufacturing process.[8]

    Other terms that have been used as synonyms or hypernyms have included desktop manufacturing, rapid manufacturing (as the logical production-level successor to rapid prototyping), and on-demand manufacturing (which echoes on-demand printing in the 2D sense of printing). Such application of the adjectives rapid and on-demand to the noun manufacturing was novel in the 2000s reveals the prevailing mental model of the long industrial era in which almost all production manufacturing involved long lead times for laborious tooling development. Today, the term subtractive has not replaced the term machining, instead complementing it when a term that covers any removal method is needed. Agile tooling is the use of modular means to design tooling that is produced by additive manufacturing or 3D printing methods to enable quick prototyping and responses to tooling and fixture needs. Agile tooling uses a cost-effective and high-quality method to quickly respond to customer and market needs, and it can be used in hydro-forming, stamping, injection molding and other manufacturing processes.

    History

    1940s and 1950s

    The general concept of and procedure to be used in 3D-printing was first described by Murray Leinster in his 1945 short story Things Pass By "But this constructor is both efficient and flexible. I feed magnetronic plastics — the stuff they make houses and ships of nowadays — into this moving arm. It makes drawings in the air following drawings it scans with photo-cells. But plastic comes out of the end of the drawing arm and hardens as it comes ... following drawings only" [9]

    It was also described by Raymond F. Jones in his story, "Tools of the Trade," published in the November 1950 issue of Astounding Science Fiction magazine. He referred to it as a "molecular spray" in that story.

    1970s

    In 1971, Johannes F Gottwald patented the Liquid Metal Recorder, U.S. Patent 3596285A, a continuous Inkjet metal material device to form a removable metal fabrication on a reusable surface for immediate use or salvaged for printing again by remelting. This appears to be the first patent describing 3D printing with rapid prototyping and controlled on-demand manufacturing of patterns.

    The patent states "As used herein the term printing is not intended in a limited sense but includes writing or other symbols, character or pattern formation with an ink. The term ink as used in is intended to include not only dye or pigment-containing materials, but any flowable substance or composition suited for application to the surface for forming symbols, characters, or patterns of intelligence by marking. The preferred ink is of a Hot melt type. The range of commercially available ink compositions which could meet the requirements of the invention are not known at the present time. However, satisfactory printing according to the invention has been achieved with the conductive metal alloy as ink."

    "But in terms of material requirements for such large and continuous displays, if consumed at theretofore known rates, but increased in proportion to increase in size, the high cost would severely limit any widespread enjoyment of a process or apparatus satisfying the foregoing objects."

    "It is therefore an additional object of the invention to minimize use to materials in a process of the indicated class."

    "It is a further object of the invention that materials employed in such a process be salvaged for reuse."

    "According to another aspect of the invention, a combination for writing and the like comprises a carrier for displaying an intelligence pattern and an arrangement for removing the pattern from the carrier."

    In 1974, David E. H. Jones laid out the concept of 3D printing in his regular column Ariadne in the journal New Scientist.[10][11]

    1980s

    Early additive manufacturing equipment and materials were developed in the 1980s.[12]

    In April 1980, Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute invented two additive methods for fabricating three-dimensional plastic models with photo-hardening thermoset polymer, where the UV exposure area is controlled by a mask pattern or a scanning fiber transmitter.[13] He filed a patent for this XYZ plotter, which was published on 10 November 1981. (JP S56-144478).[14] His research results as journal papers were published in April and November in 1981.[15][16] However, there was no reaction to the series of his publications. His device was not highly evaluated in the laboratory and his boss did not show any interest. His research budget was just 60,000 yen or $545 a year. Acquiring the patent rights for the XYZ plotter was abandoned, and the project was terminated.

    A Patent US 4323756, Method of Fabricating Articles by Sequential Deposition, Raytheon Technologies Corp granted 6 April 1982 using hundreds or thousands of 'layers' of powdered metal and a laser energy source is an early reference to forming "layers" and the fabrication of articles on a substrate.

    On 2 July 1984, American entrepreneur Bill Masters filed a patent for his Computer Automated Manufacturing Process and System (US 4665492).[17] This filing is on record at the USPTO as the first 3D printing patent in history; it was the first of three patents belonging to Masters that laid the foundation for the 3D printing systems used today.[18][19]

    On 16 July 1984, Alain Le Méhauté, Olivier de Witte, and Jean Claude André filed their patent for the stereolithography process.[20] The application of the French inventors was abandoned by the French General Electric Company (now Alcatel-Alsthom) and CILAS (The Laser Consortium).[21] The claimed reason was "for lack of business perspective".[22]

    In 1983, Robert Howard started R.H. Research, later named Howtek, Inc. in Feb 1984 to develop a color inkjet 2D printer, Pixelmaster, commercialized in 1986, using Thermoplastic (hot-melt) plastic ink.[23] A team was put together, 6 members[23] from Exxon Office Systems, Danbury Systems Division, an inkjet printer startup and some members of Howtek, Inc group who became popular figures in 3D Printing Industry. One Howtek member, Richard Helinski patent US5136515A, Method and Means for constructing three-dimensional articles by particle deposition, application 11/07/1989 granted 8/04/1992 formed a New Hampshire company C.A.D-Cast, Inc, name later changed to Visual Impact Corporation (VIC) on 8/22/1991. A prototype of the VIC 3D printer for this company is available with a video presentation showing a 3D model printed with a single nozzle inkjet. Another employee Herbert Menhennett formed a New Hampshire company HM Research in 1991 and introduced the Howtek, Inc, inkjet technology and thermoplastic materials to Royden Sanders of SDI and Bill Masters of Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM) where he worked for a number of years. Both BPM 3D printers and SPI 3D printers use Howtek, Inc style Inkjets and Howtek, Inc style materials. Royden Sanders licensed the Helinksi patent prior to manufacturing the Modelmaker 6 Pro at Sanders prototype, Inc (SPI) in 1993. James K. McMahon who was hired by Howtek, Inc to help develop the inkjet, later worked at Sanders Prototype and now operates Layer Grown Model Technology, a 3D service provider specializing in Howtek single nozzle inkjet and SDI printer support. James K. McMahon worked with Steven Zoltan, 1972 drop-on-demand inkjet inventor, at Exxon and has a patent in 1978 that expanded the understanding of the single nozzle design inkjets( Alpha jets) and help perfect the Howtek, Inc hot-melt inkjets. This Howtek hot-melt thermoplastic technology is popular with metal investment casting, especially in the 3D printing jewelry industry.[24] Sanders (SDI) first Modelmaker 6Pro customer was Hitchner Corporations, Metal Casting Technology, Inc in Milford, NH a mile from the SDI facility in late 1993-1995 casting golf clubs and auto engine parts.

    On 8 August 1984 a patent, US4575330, assigned to UVP, Inc., later assigned to Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corporation[25] was filed, his own patent for a stereolithography fabrication system, in which individual laminae or layers are added by curing photopolymers with impinging radiation, particle bombardment, chemical reaction or just ultraviolet lightlasers. Hull defined the process as a "system for generating three-dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed,".[26][27] Hull's contribution was the STL (Stereolithography) file format and the digital slicing and infill strategies common to many processes today. In 1986, Charles "Chuck" Hull was granted a patent for this system, and his company, 3D Systems Corporation was formed and it released the first commercial 3D printer, the SLA-1,[28] later in 1987 or 1988.

    The technology used by most 3D printers to date—especially hobbyist and consumer-oriented models—is fused deposition modeling, a special application of plastic extrusion, developed in 1988 by S. Scott Crump and commercialized by his company Stratasys, which marketed its first FDM machine in 1992.[24]

    Owning a 3D printer in the 1980s cost upwards of $300,000 ($650,000 in 2016 dollars).[29]

    1990s

    AM processes for metal sintering or melting (such as selective laser sintering, direct metal laser sintering, and selective laser melting) usually went by their own individual names in the 1980s and 1990s. At the time, all metalworking was done by processes that are now called non-additive (casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining); although plenty of automation was applied to those technologies (such as by robot welding and CNC), the idea of a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape with a toolpath was associated in metalworking only with processes that removed metal (rather than adding it), such as CNC milling, CNC EDM, and many others. But the automated techniques that added metal, which would later be called additive manufacturing, were beginning to challenge that assumption. By the mid-1990s, new techniques for material deposition were developed at Stanford and Carnegie Mellon University, including microcasting[30] and sprayed materials.[31] Sacrificial and support materials had also become more common, enabling new object geometries.[32]

    The term 3D printing originally referred to a powder bed process employing standard and custom inkjet print heads, developed at MIT by Emanuel Sachs in 1993 and commercialized by Soligen Technologies, Extrude Hone Corporation, and Z Corporation.[citation needed]

    The year 1993 also saw the start of an inkjet 3D printer company initially named Sanders Prototype, Inc and later named Solidscape, introducing a high-precision polymer jet fabrication system with soluble support structures, (categorized as a "dot-on-dot" technique).[24]

    In 1995 the Fraunhofer Society developed the selective laser melting process.

    2000s

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printing process patents expired in 2009.[33]

    2010s

    As the various additive processes matured, it became clear that soon metal removal would no longer be the only metalworking process done through a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope, transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer. The 2010s were the first decade in which metal end use parts such as engine brackets[34] and large nuts[35] would be grown (either before or instead of machining) in job production rather than obligately being machined from bar stock or plate. It is still the case that casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining are more prevalent than additive manufacturing in metalworking, but AM is now beginning to make significant inroads, and with the advantages of design for additive manufacturing, it is clear to engineers that much more is to come.

    One place that AM is making a significant inroad is in the aviation industry. With nearly 3.8 billion air travelers in 2016,[36] the demand for fuel efficient and easily produced jet engines has never been higher. For large OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) like Pratt and Whitney (PW) and General Electric (GE) this means looking towards AM as a way to reduce cost, reduce the number of nonconforming parts, reduce weight in the engines to increase fuel efficiency and find new, highly complex shapes that would not be feasible with the antiquated manufacturing methods. One example of AM integration with aerospace was in 2016 when Airbus was delivered the first of GE's LEAP engine. This engine has integrated 3D printed fuel nozzles giving them a reduction in parts from 20 to 1, a 25% weight reduction and reduced assembly times.[37] A fuel nozzle is the perfect in road for additive manufacturing in a jet engine since it allows for optimized design of the complex internals and it is a low stress, non-rotating part. Similarly, in 2015, PW delivered their first AM parts in the PurePower PW1500G to Bombardier. Sticking to low stress, non-rotating parts, PW selected the compressor stators and synch ring brackets [38] to roll out this new manufacturing technology for the first time. While AM is still playing a small role in the total number of parts in the jet engine manufacturing process, the return on investment can already be seen by the reduction in parts, the rapid production capabilities and the "optimized design in terms of performance and cost".[39]

    As technology matured, several authors had begun to speculate that 3D printing could aid in sustainable development in the developing world.[40]

    In 2012, Filabot developed a system for closing the loop[41] with plastic and allows for any FDM or FFF 3D printer to be able to print with a wider range of plastics.

    In 2014, Benjamin S. Cook and Manos M. Tentzeris demonstrate the first multi-material, vertically integrated printed electronics additive manufacturing platform (VIPRE) which enabled 3D printing of functional electronics operating up to 40 GHz.[42]

    As the price of printers started to drop people interested in this technology had more access and freedom to make what they wanted. The price as of 2014 was still high with the cost being over $2,000, yet this still allowed hobbyists an entrance into printing outside of production and industry methods.[43]

    The term "3D printing" originally referred to a process that deposits a binder material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads layer by layer. More recently, the popular vernacular has started using the term to encompass a wider variety of additive-manufacturing techniques such as electron-beam additive manufacturing and selective laser melting. The United States and global technical standards use the official term additive manufacturing for this broader sense.

    The most-commonly used 3D printing process (46% as of 2018[update]) is a material extrusion technique called fused deposition modeling, or FDM.[5] While FDM technology was invented after the other two most popular technologies, stereolithography (SLA) and selective laser sintering (SLS), FDM is typically the most inexpensive of the three by a large margin,[citation needed] which lends to the popularity of the process.

    2020s

    As of 2020, 3D printers have reached the level of quality and price that allows most people to enter the world of 3D printing. In 2020 decent quality printers can be found for less than US$200 for entry level machines. These more affordable printers are usually fused deposition modeling (FDM) printers.[44]

    General principles

    Modeling

    Main article: 3D modeling

    CADmodel used for 3D printing
    3D models can be generated from 2D pictures taken at a 3D photo booth.

    3D printable models may be created with a computer-aided design (CAD) package, via a 3D scanner, or by a plain digital camera and photogrammetry software. 3D printed models created with CAD result in relatively fewer errors than other methods. Errors in 3D printable models can be identified and corrected before printing.[45] The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D scanning is a process of collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object, creating a digital model based on it.

    CAD models can be saved in the stereolithography file format (STL), a de facto CAD file format for additive manufacturing that stores data based on triangulations of the surface of CAD models. STL is not tailored for additive manufacturing because it generates large file sizes of topology optimized parts and lattice structures due to the large number of surfaces involved. A newer CAD file format, the Additive Manufacturing File format (AMF) was introduced in 2011 to solve this problem. It stores information using curved triangulations.[46]

    Printing

    Before printing a 3D model from an STL file, it must first be examined for errors. Most CAD applications produce errors in output STL files,[47][48] of the following types:

    1. holes
    2. faces normals
    3. self-intersections
    4. noise shells
    5. manifold errors[49]
    6. overhang issues [50]

    A step in the STL generation known as "repair" fixes such problems in the original model.[51][52] Generally STLs that have been produced from a model obtained through 3D scanning often have more of these errors [53] as 3D scanning is often achieved by point to point acquisition/mapping. 3D reconstruction often includes errors.[54]

    Once completed, the STL file needs to be processed by a piece of software called a "slicer," which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code file containing instructions tailored to a specific type of 3D printer (FDM printers).[55] This G-code file can then be printed with 3D printing client software (which loads the G-code, and uses it to instruct the 3D printer during the 3D printing process).

    Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X–Y resolution in dots per inch (dpi) or micrometers (µm). Typical layer thickness is around 100 μm (250 DPI), although some machines can print layers as thin as 16 μm (1,600 DPI).[56] X–Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers. The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 μm (510 to 250 DPI) in diameter.[citation needed] For that printer resolution, specifying a mesh resolution of 0.01–0.03 mm and a chord length ≤ 0.016 mm generates an optimal STL output file for a given model input file.[57] Specifying higher resolution results in larger files without increase in print quality.

    3:31 Timelapse of an 80-minute video of an object being made out of PLAusing molten polymer deposition

    Construction of a model with contemporary methods can take anywhere from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model. Additive systems can typically reduce this time to a few hours, although it varies widely depending on the type of machine used and the size and number of models being produced simultaneously.

    Finishing

    Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, greater accuracy can be achieved by printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then removing material using a higher-resolution subtractive process.[58]

    The layered structure of all additive manufacturing processes leads inevitably to a stair-stepping effect on part surfaces which are curved or tilted in respect to the building platform. The effects strongly depend on the orientation of a part surface inside the building process.[59]

    Some printable polymers such as ABS, allow the surface finish to be smoothed and improved using chemical vapor processes[60] based on acetone or similar solvents.

    Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts. These techniques are able to print in multiple colors and color combinations simultaneously, and would not necessarily require painting.

    Some printing techniques require internal supports to be built for overhanging features during construction. These supports must be mechanically removed or dissolved upon completion of the print.

    All of the commercialized metal 3D printers involve cutting the metal component off the metal substrate after deposition. A new process for the GMAW 3D printing allows for substrate surface modifications to remove aluminum[61] or steel.[62]

    Materials

    Detail of the Stoofbrugin Amsterdam, the world's first 3D-printed metal bridge.

    Traditionally, 3D printing focused on polymers for printing, due to the ease of manufacturing and handling polymeric materials. However, the method has rapidly evolved to not only print various polymers[63] but also metals[64][65] and ceramics,[66] making 3D printing a versatile option for manufacturing. Layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models is a modern concept that "stems from the ever-growing CAD industry, more specifically the solid modeling side of CAD. Before solid modeling was introduced in the late 1980s, three-dimensional models were created with wire frames and surfaces."[67] but in all cases the layers of materials are controlled by the printer and the material properties. The three-dimensional material layer is controlled by deposition rate as set by the printer operator and stored in a computer file. The earliest printed patented material was a Hot melt type ink for printing patterns using a heated metal alloy. See 1970's history above.

    Charles Hull filed the first patent on August 8, 1984, to use a UV-cured acrylic resin using a UV masked light source at UVP Corp to build a simple model. The SLA-1 was the first SL product announced by 3D Systems at Autofact Exposition, Detroit, November 1978 in Detroit. The SLA-1 Beta shipped in Jan 1988 to Baxter Healthcare, Pratt and Whitney, General Motors and AMP. The first production SLA-1 shipped to Precision Castparts in April 1988. The UV resin material changed over quickly to an epoxy-based material resin. In both cases SLA-1 models needed UV oven cure after being rinsed in a solvent cleaner to remove uncured boundary resin. A Post Cure Apparatus (PCA) was sold with all systems. The early resin printers required a blade to move fresh resin over the model on each layer. The layer thickness was 0.006 inches and the HeCd Laser model of the SLA-1 was 12 watts and swept across the surface at 30 in per second. UVP was acquired by 3D Systems in Jan 1990.[68]

    A review in the history shows a number of materials (resins, plastic powder, plastic filament and hot-melt plastic ink) were used in the 1980s for patents in the rapid prototyping field. Masked lamp UV-cured resin was also introduced by Cubital's Itzchak Pomerantz in the Soldier 5600, Carl Deckard's (DTM) Laser sintered thermoplastic powders, and adhesive-laser cut paper (LOM) stacked to form objects by Michael Feygin before 3D Systems made its first announcement. Scott Crump was also working with extruded "melted" plastic filament modeling (FDM) and Drop deposition had been patented by William E Masters a week after Charles Hull's patent in 1984, but he had to discover Thermoplastic Inkjets introduced by Visual Impact Corporation 3D printer in 1992 using inkjets from Howtek, Inc., before he formed BPM to bring out his own 3D printer product in 1994.[68]

    Multi-material 3D printing

    Main article: Multi-material 3D printing

    Efforts to achieve multi-material 3D printing range from enhanced FDM-like processes like VoxelJet, to novel voxel-based printing technologies like Layered Assembly.[69]

    A drawback of many existing 3D printing technologies is that they only allow one material to be printed at a time, limiting many potential applications which require the integration of different materials in the same object. Multi-material 3D printing solves this problem by allowing objects of complex and heterogeneous arrangements of materials to be manufactured using a single printer. Here, a material must be specified for each voxel (or 3D printing pixel element) inside the final object volume.

    The process can be fraught with complications, however, due to the isolated and monolithic algorithms. Some commercial devices have sought to solve these issues, such as building a Spec2Fab translator, but the progress is still very limited.[70] Nonetheless, in the medical industry, a concept of 3D printed pills and vaccines has been presented.[71] With this new concept, multiple medications can be combined, which will decrease many risks. With more and more applications of multi-material 3D printing, the costs of daily life and high technology development will become inevitably lower.

    Metallographic materials of 3D printing is also being researched.[72] By classifying each material, CIMP-3D can systematically perform 3D printing with multiple materials.[73]

    4D Printing

    Main article: 4D printing

    Using 3D printing and multi-material structures in additive manufacturing has allowed for the design and creation of what is called 4D printing. 4D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which the printed object changes shape with time, temperature, or some other type of stimulation. 4D printing allows for the creation of dynamic structures with adjustable shapes, properties or functionality. The smart/stimulus responsive materials that are created using 4D printing can be activated to create calculated responses such as self-assembly, self-repair, multi-functionality, reconfiguration and shape shifting. This allows for customized printing of shape changing and shape-memory materials.[74]

    4D printing has the potential to find new applications and uses for materials (plastics, composites, metals, etc.) and will create new alloys and composites that were not viable before. The versatility of this technology and materials can lead to advances in multiple fields of industry, including space, commercial and the medical field. The repeatability, precision, and material range for 4D printing must increase to allow the process to become more practical throughout these industries. 

    To become a viable industrial production option, there are a couple of challenges that 4D printing must overcome. The challenges of 4D printing include the fact that the microstructures of these printed smart materials must be close to or better than the parts obtained through traditional machining processes. New and customizable materials need to be developed that have the ability to consistently respond to varying external stimuli and change to their desired shape. There is also a need to design new software for the various technique types of 4D printing. The 4D printing software will need to take into consideration the base smart material, printing technique, and structural and geometric requirements of the design.[75]

    Processes and printers

    Main article: 3D printing processes

    There are many different branded additive manufacturing processes, that can be grouped into seven categories:[76]

    Schematic representation of the 3D printing technique known as Fused Filament Fabrication; a filament a)of plastic material is fed through a heated moving head b)that melts and extrudes it depositing it, layer after layer, in the desired shape c). A moving platform e)lowers after each layer is deposited. For this kind of technology additional vertical support structures d)are needed to sustain overhanging parts

    The main differences between processes are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used. Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, which is why some companies offer a choice of powder and polymer for the material used to build the object.[77] Others sometimes use standard, off-the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype. The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, costs of the 3D printer, of the printed prototype, choice and cost of the materials, and color capabilities.[78] Printers that work directly with metals are generally expensive. However less expensive printers can be used to make a mold, which is then used to make metal parts.[79]

    ISO/ASTM52900-15 defines seven categories of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes within its meaning: binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, and vat photopolymerization.[80]

    The first process where three-dimensional material is deposited to form an object was done with Material Jetting[24] or as it was originally called particle deposition. Particle deposition by inkjet first started with Continuous Inkjet technology (CIT) (1950's) and later with drop-On-Demand Inkjet technology.(1970's) using Hot-melt inks. Wax inks were the first three-dimensional materials jetted and later low temperature alloy metal was jetted with CIT. Wax and thermoplastic hot-melts were jetted next by DOD. Objects were very small and started with text characters and numerals for signage. An object must have form and can be handled. Wax characters tumbled off paper documents and inspired a Liquid Metal Recorder patent to make metal characters for signage in 1971. Thermoplastic color inks (CMYK) printed with layers of each color to form the first digitally formed layered objects in 1984. The idea of investment casting with Solid-Ink jetted images or patterns in 1984 led to the first patent to form articles from particle deposition in 1989, issued in 1992.

    Some methods melt or soften the material to produce the layers. In Fused filament fabrication, also known as Fused deposition modeling (FDM), the model or part is produced by extruding small beads or streams of material which harden immediately to form layers. A filament of thermoplastic, metal wire, or other material is fed into an extrusion nozzle head (3D printer extruder), which heats the material and turns the flow on and off. FDM is somewhat restricted in the variation of shapes that may be fabricated. Another technique fuses parts of the layer and then moves upward in the working area, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up. This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the part being produced, which reduces the need for temporary auxiliary supports for the piece.[81] Recently, FFF/FDM has expanded to 3-D print directly from pellets to avoid the conversion to filament. This process is called fused particle fabrication (FPF) (or fused granular fabrication (FGF) and has the potential to use more recycled materials.[82]

    Powder Bed Fusion techniques, or PBF, include several processes such as DMLS, SLS, SLM, MJF and EBM. Powder Bed Fusion processes can be used with an array of materials and their flexibility allows for geometrically complex structures,[83] making it a go to choice for many 3D printing projects. These techniques include selective laser sintering, with both metals and polymers, and direct metal laser sintering.[84]Selective laser melting does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layer-wise method that has mechanical properties similar to those of conventional manufactured metals. Electron beam melting is a similar type of additive manufacturing technology for metal parts (e.g. titanium alloys). EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum.[85][86] Another method consists of an inkjet 3D printing system, which creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder (plaster, or resins) and printing a binder in the cross-section of the part using an inkjet-like process. With laminated object manufacturing, thin layers are cut to shape and joined together. In addition to the previously mentioned methods, HP has developed the Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) which is a powder base technique, though no lasers are involved. An inkjet array applies fusing and detailing agents which are then combined by heating to create a solid layer.[87]

    Schematic representation of Stereolithography; a light-emitting device a)(laser or DLP) selectively illuminate the transparent bottom c)of a tank b)filled with a liquid photo-polymerizing resin; the solidified resin d)is progressively dragged up by a lifting platform e)

    Other methods cure liquid materials using different sophisticated technologies, such as stereolithography. Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography to produce a solid part from a liquid. Inkjet printer systems like the Objet PolyJet system spray photopolymer materials onto a build tray in ultra-thin layers (between 16 and 30 µm) until the part is completed.[88] Each photopolymer layer is cured with UV light after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing. Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D micro-fabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerisation. Due to the nonlinear nature of photo excitation, the gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused while the remaining gel is then washed away. Feature sizes of under 100 nm are easily produced, as well as complex structures with moving and interlocked parts.[89] Yet another approach uses a synthetic resin that is solidified using LEDs.[90]

    In Mask-image-projection-based stereolithography, a 3D digital model is sliced by a set of horizontal planes. Each slice is converted into a two-dimensional mask image. The mask image is then projected onto a photocurable liquid resin surface and light is projected onto the resin to cure it in the shape of the layer.[91]Continuous liquid interface production begins with a pool of liquid photopolymerresin. Part of the pool bottom is transparent to ultraviolet light (the "window"), which causes the resin to solidify. The object rises slowly enough to allow resin to flow under and maintain contact with the bottom of the object.[92] In powder-fed directed-energy deposition, a high-power laser is used to melt metal powder supplied to the focus of the laser beam. The powder fed directed energy process is similar to Selective Laser Sintering, but the metal powder is applied only where material is being added to the part at that moment.[93][94]

    As of December 2017[update], additive manufacturing systems were on the market that ranged from $99 to $500,000 in price and were employed in industries including aerospace, architecture, automotive, defense, and medical replacements, among many others. For example, General Electric uses high-end 3D Printers to build parts for turbines.[95] Many of these systems are used for rapid prototyping, before mass production methods are employed. Higher education has proven to be a major buyer of desktop and professional 3D printers which industry experts generally view as a positive indicator.[96] Libraries around the world have also become locations to house smaller 3D printers for educational and community access.[97] Several projects and companies are making efforts to develop affordable 3D printers for home desktop use. Much of this work has been driven by and targeted at DIY/Maker/enthusiast/early adopter communities, with additional ties to the academic and hacker communities.[98]

    Computed axial lithography is a method for 3D printing based on computerised tomography scans to create prints in photo-curable resin. It was developed by a collaboration between the University of California, Berkeley with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.[99][100][101] Unlike other methods of 3D printing it does not build models through depositing layers of material like fused deposition modelling and stereolithography, instead it creates objects using a series of 2D images projected onto a cylinder of resin.[99][101] It is notable for its ability to build an object much more quickly than other methods using resins and the ability to embed objects within the prints.[100]

    Liquid additive manufacturing (LAM) is a 3D printing technique which deposits a liquid or high viscose material (e.g. Liquid Silicone Rubber) onto a build surface to create an object which then is vulcanised using heat to harden the object.[102][103][104] The process was originally created by Adrian Bowyer and was then built upon by German RepRap.[102][105][106]

    Applications

    Main article: Applications of 3D printing

    The Audi RSQwas made with rapid prototyping industrial KUKArobots
    A 3D selfiein 1:20 scale printed using gypsum-based printing
    A 3D printed jet engine model
    3D printed enamelled pottery
    3D printed sculpture of an Egyptian pharaoh shown at Threeding

    In the current scenario, 3D printing or additive manufacturing has been used in manufacturing, medical, industry and sociocultural sectors (Cultural Heritage, etc.) which facilitate 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing to become successful commercial technology.[107] More recently, 3D printing has also been used in the humanitarian and development sector to produce a range of medical items, prosthetics, spares and repairs.[108] The earliest application of additive manufacturing was on the toolroom end of the manufacturing spectrum. For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants, and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost of developing prototypes of new parts and devices, which was earlier only done with subtractive toolroom methods such as CNC milling, turning, and precision grinding.[109] In the 2010s, additive manufacturing entered production to a much greater extent.

    Food industry

    Additive manufacturing of food is being developed by squeezing out food, layer by layer, into three-dimensional objects. A large variety of foods are appropriate candidates, such as chocolate and candy, and flat foods such as crackers, pasta,[110] and pizza.[111][112] NASA is looking into the technology in order to create 3D printed food to limit food waste and to make food that is designed to fit an astronaut's dietary needs.[113] In 2018, Italian bioengineer Giuseppe Scionti developed a technology allowing to generate fibrous plant-based meat analogues using a custom 3D bioprinter, mimicking meat texture and nutritional values.[114][115]

    Fashion industry

    3D printing has entered the world of clothing, with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed bikinis, shoes, and dresses.[116] In commercial production Nike is using 3D printing to prototype and manufacture the 2012 Vapor Laser Talon football shoe for players of American football, and New Balance is 3D manufacturing custom-fit shoes for athletes.[116][117] 3D printing has come to the point where companies are printing consumer grade eyewear with on-demand custom fit and styling (although they cannot print the lenses). On-demand customization of glasses is possible with rapid prototyping.[118]

    Vanessa Friedman, fashion director and chief fashion critic at The New York Times, says 3D printing will have a significant value for fashion companies down the road, especially if it transforms into a print-it-yourself tool for shoppers. "There's real sense that this is not going to happen anytime soon," she says, "but it will happen, and it will create dramatic change in how we think both about intellectual property and how things are in the supply chain." She adds: "Certainly some of the fabrications that brands can use will be dramatically changed by technology."[119]

    Transportation industry

    The Stoofbrugin Amsterdam, the world's first 3D-printed metal bridge

    In cars, trucks, and aircraft, Additive Manufacturing is beginning to transform both (1) unibody and fuselage design and production and (2) powertrain design and production. For example:

    • In early 2014, Swedish supercar manufacturer Koenigsegg announced the One:1, a supercar that utilizes many components that were 3D printed.[120]Urbee is the name of the first car in the world car mounted using the technology 3D printing (its bodywork and car windows were "printed").[121][122][123]
    • In 2014, Local Motors debuted Strati, a functioning vehicle that was entirely 3D Printed using ABS plastic and carbon fiber, except the powertrain.[124]
    • In May 2015 Airbus announced that its new Airbus A350 XWB included over 1000 components manufactured by 3D printing.[125]
    • In 2015, a Royal Air ForceEurofighter Typhoon fighter jet flew with printed parts. The United States Air Force has begun to work with 3D printers, and the Israeli Air Force has also purchased a 3D printer to print spare parts.[126]
    • In 2017, GE Aviation revealed that it had used design for additive manufacturing to create a helicopter engine with 16 parts instead of 900, with great potential impact on reducing the complexity of supply chains.[127]

    Firearm industry

    AM's impact on firearms involves two dimensions: new manufacturing methods for established companies, and new possibilities for the making of do-it-yourself firearms. In 2012, the US-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to design a working plastic 3D printed firearm "that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer."[128][129] After Defense Distributed released their plans, questions were raised regarding the effects that 3D printing and widespread consumer-level CNC machining[130][131] may have on gun control effectiveness.[132][133][134][135] Moreover, armour design strategies can be enhanced by taking inspiration from nature and prototyping those designs easily possible using additive manufacturing.[136]

    Health sector

    Surgical uses of 3D printing-centric therapies have a history beginning in the mid-1990s with anatomical modeling for bony reconstructive surgery planning. Patient-matched implants were a natural extension of this work, leading to truly personalized implants that fit one unique individual.[137] Virtual planning of surgery and guidance using 3D printed, personalized instruments have been applied to many areas of surgery including total joint replacement and craniomaxillofacial reconstruction with great success.[138] One example of this is the bioresorbable trachial splint to treat newborns with tracheobronchomalacia[139] developed at the University of Michigan. The use of additive manufacturing for serialized production of orthopedic implants (metals) is also increasing due to the ability to efficiently create porous surface structures that facilitate osseointegration. The hearing aid and dental industries are expected to be the biggest area of future development using the custom 3D printing technology.[140]

    In March 2014, surgeons in Swansea used 3D printed parts to rebuild the face of a motorcyclist who had been seriously injured in a road accident.[141] In May 2018, 3D printing has been used for the kidney transplant to save a three-year-old boy.[142] As of 2012[update], 3D bio-printing technology has been studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet printing techniques. In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems.[143] Recently, a heart-on-chip has been created which matches properties of cells.[144]

    Thermal degradation during 3D printing of resorbable polymers, same as in surgical sutures, has been studied, and parameters can be adjusted to minimize the degradation during processing. Soft pliable scaffold structures for cell cultures can be printed.[145]

    In 3D printing, computer-simulated microstructures are commonly used to fabricate objects with spatially varying properties. This is achieved by dividing the volume of the desired object into smaller subcells using computer aided simulation tools and then filling these cells with appropriate microstructures during fabrication. Several different candidate structures with similar behaviours are checked against each other and the object is fabricated when an optimal set of structures are found. Advanced topology optimization methods are used to ensure the compatibility of structures in adjacent cells. This flexible approach to 3D fabrication is widely used across various disciplines from biomedical sciences where they are used to create complex bone structures[146] and human tissue[147] to robotics where they are used in the creation of soft robots with movable parts.[148][149] 3D printing also finds its uses more and more in design and fabrication of Laboratory apparatus [150]

    3D printing has also been employed by researchers in the pharmaceutical field. During the last few years there's been a surge in academic interest regarding drug delivery with the aid of AM techniques. This technology offers a unique way for materials to be utilized in novel formulations.[151] AM manufacturing allows for the usage of materials and compounds in the development of formulations, in ways that are not possible with conventional/traditional techniques in the pharmaceutical field, e.g. tableting, cast-molding, etc. Moreover, one of the major advantages of 3D printing, especially in the case of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), is the personalization of the dosage form that can be achieved, thus, targeting the patient's specific needs.[152] In the not-so-distant future, 3D printers are expected to reach hospitals and pharmacies in order to provide on demand production of personalized formulations according to the patients' needs.[153]

    In 2018, 3D printing technology was used for the first time to create a matrix for cell immobilization in fermentation. Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized on 3D-printed nylon beads was chosen as a model study. It was shown that those 3D-printed beads were capable of promoting high density cell attachment and propionic acid production, which could be adapted to other fermentation bioprocesses.[154]

    In 2005, academic journals had begun to report on the possible artistic applications of 3D printing technology.[155] As of 2017[update], domestic 3D printing was reaching a consumer audience beyond hobbyists and enthusiasts. Off the shelf machines were increasingly capable of producing practical household applications, for example, ornamental objects. Some practical examples include a working clock[156] and gears printed for home woodworking machines among other purposes.[157] Web sites associated with home 3D printing tended to include backscratchers, coat hooks, door knobs, etc.[158]

    Education sector

    3D printing, and open source 3D printers in particular, are the latest technology making inroads into the classroom.[159][160][161] Some authors have claimed that 3D printers offer an unprecedented "revolution" in STEM education.[162][163] The evidence for such claims comes from both the low-cost ability for rapid prototyping in the classroom by students, but also the fabrication of low-cost high-quality scientific equipment from open hardware designs forming open-source labs.[164] Future applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source scientific equipment.[164][165]

    Cultural heritage and museum-based digital twin

    In the last several years 3D printing has been intensively used by in the cultural heritage field for preservation, restoration and dissemination purposes.[166] Many Europeans and North American Museums have purchased 3D printers and actively recreate missing pieces of their relics[167] and archaeological monuments such as Tiwanaku in Bolivia.[168] The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the British Museum have started using their 3D printers to create museum souvenirs that are available in the museum shops.[169] Other museums, like the National Museum of Military History and Varna Historical Museum, have gone further and sell through the online platform Threeding digital models of their artifacts, created using Artec 3D scanners, in 3D printing friendly file format, which everyone can 3D print at home.[170]

    The application of 3D printing for the representation of architectural assets has many challenges. In 2018, the structure of Iran National Bank was traditionally surveyed and modelled in computer graphics(CG) software (Cinema4D) and was optimised for 3D printing. The team tested the technique for the construction of the part and it was successful. After testing the procedure, the modellers reconstructed the structure in Cinema4D and exported the front part of the model to Netfabb. The entrance of the building was chosen due to the 3D printing limitations and the budget of the project for producing the maquette. 3D Printing was only one of the capabilities enabled by the produced 3D model of the bank, but due to the project limited brief, the team did not continue modelling for the virtual representation or other applications.[171] In 2021, Parsinejad et al. comprehensively compared the hand surveying method for 3D reconstruction ready for 3D printing with Digital Recording (adoption of Photogrammetry method).[171]

    Recent other applications

    3D printed soft actuators is a growing application of 3D printing technology which has found its place in the 3D printing applications. These soft actuators are being developed to deal with soft structures and organs especially in biomedical sectors and where the interaction between human and robot is inevitable. The majority of the existing soft actuators are fabricated by conventional methods that require manual fabrication of devices, post processing/assembly, and lengthy iterations until maturity of the fabrication is achieved. Instead of the tedious and time-consuming aspects of the current fabrication processes, researchers are exploring an appropriate manufacturing approach for effective fabrication of soft actuators. Thus, 3D printed soft actuators are introduced to revolutionise the design and fabrication of soft actuators with custom geometrical, functional, and control properties in a faster and inexpensive approach. They also enable incorporation of all actuator components into a single structure eliminating the need to use external joints, adhesives, and fasteners. Circuit board manufacturing involves multiple steps which include imaging, drilling, plating, soldermask coating, nomenclature printing and surface finishes. These steps include many chemicals such as harsh solvents and acids. 3D printing circuit boards remove the need for many of these steps while still producing complex designs.[172] Polymer ink is used to create the layers of the build while silver polymer is used for creating the traces and holes used to allow electricity to flow.[173] Current circuit board manufacturing can be a tedious process depending on the design. Specified materials are gathered and sent into inner layer processing where images are printed, developed and etched. The etches cores are typically punched to add lamination tooling. The cores are then prepared for lamination. The stack-up, the buildup of a circuit board, is built and sent into lamination where the layers are bonded. The boards are then measured and drilled. Many steps may differ from this stage however for simple designs, the material goes through a plating process to plate the holes and surface. The outer image is then printed, developed and etched. After the image is defined, the material must get coated with soldermask for later soldering. Nomenclature is then added so components can be identified later. Then the surface finish is added. The boards are routed out of panel form into their singular or array form and then electrically tested. Aside from the paperwork which must be completed which proves the boards meet specifications, the boards are then packed and shipped. The benefits of 3D printing would be that the final outline is defined from the beginning, no imaging, punching or lamination is required and electrical connections are made with the silver polymer which eliminates drilling and plating. The final paperwork would also be greatly reduced due to the lack of materials required to build the circuit board. Complex designs which may takes weeks to complete through normal processing can be 3D printed, greatly reducing manufacturing time.

    During the COVID-19 pandemic 3d printers were used to supplement the strained supply of PPE through volunteers using their personally owned printers to produce various pieces of personal protective equipment (i.e. frames)

    As of 2021 and the years leading up to it, 3D printing has become both an industrial tool as well as a consumer product. With the price of certain 3D printers becoming ever cheaper and the quality constantly increasing many people have picked up the hobby of 3D printing. As of current estimates there are over 2 million people around the world who have purchased a 3D printer for hobby use.[174]

    Legal aspects

    Intellectual property

    See also: Free hardware

    3D printing has existed for decades within certain manufacturing industries where many legal regimes, including patents, industrial design rights, copyrights, and trademarks may apply. However, there is not much jurisprudence to say how these laws will apply if 3D printers become mainstream and individuals or hobbyist communities begin manufacturing items for personal use, for non-profit distribution, or for sale.

    Any of the mentioned legal regimes may prohibit the distribution of the designs used in 3D printing, or the distribution or sale of the printed item. To be allowed to do these things, where an active intellectual property was involved, a person would have to contact the owner and ask for a licence, which may come with conditions and a price. However, many patent, design and copyright laws contain a standard limitation or exception for 'private', 'non-commercial' use of inventions, designs or works of art protected under intellectual property (IP). That standard limitation or exception may leave such private, non-commercial uses outside the scope of IP rights.

    Patents cover inventions including processes, machines, manufacturing, and compositions of matter and have a finite duration which varies between countries, but generally 20 years from the date of application. Therefore, if a type of wheel is patented, printing, using, or selling such a wheel could be an infringement of the patent.[175]

    Copyright covers an expression[176] in a tangible, fixed medium and often lasts for the life of the author plus 70 years thereafter.[177] If someone makes a statue, they may have a copyright mark on the appearance of that statue, so if someone sees that statue, they cannot then distribute designs to print an identical or similar statue.

    When a feature has both artistic (copyrightable) and functional (patentable) merits, when the question has appeared in US court, the courts have often held the feature is not copyrightable unless it can be separated from the functional aspects of the item.[177] In other countries the law and the courts may apply a different approach allowing, for example, the design of a useful device to be registered (as a whole) as an industrial design on the understanding that, in case of unauthorized copying, only the non-functional features may be claimed under design law whereas any technical features could only be claimed if covered by a valid patent.

    Gun legislation and administration

    Main article: 3D printed firearms

    The US Department of Homeland Security and the Joint Regional Intelligence Center released a memo stating that "significant advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing capabilities, availability of free digital 3D printable files for firearms components, and difficulty regulating file sharing may present public safety risks from unqualified gun seekers who obtain or manufacture 3D printed guns" and that "proposed legislation to ban 3D printing of weapons may deter, but cannot completely prevent, their production. Even if the practice is prohibited by new legislation, online distribution of these 3D printable files will be as difficult to control as any other illegally traded music, movie or software files."[178] Currently, it is not prohibited by law to manufacture firearms for personal use in the United States, as long as the firearm is not produced with the intent to be sold or transferred, and meets a few basic requirements. A license is required to manufacture firearms for sale or distribution. The law prohibits a person from assembling a non–sporting semiautomatic rifle or shotgun from 10 or more imported parts, as well as firearms that cannot be detected by metal detectors or x–ray machines. In addition, the making of an NFA firearm requires a tax payment and advance approval by ATF.[179]

    Attempting to restrict the distribution of gun plans via the Internet has been likened to the futility of preventing the widespread distribution of DeCSS, which enabled DVD ripping.[180][181][182][183] After the US government had Defense Distributed take down the plans, they were still widely available via the Pirate Bay and other file sharing sites.[184] Downloads of the plans from the UK, Germany, Spain, and Brazil were heavy.[185][186] Some US legislators have proposed regulations on 3D printers to prevent them from being used for printing guns.[187][188] 3D printing advocates have suggested that such regulations would be futile, could cripple the 3D printing industry, and could infringe on free speech rights, with early pioneer of 3D printing Professor Hod Lipson suggesting that gunpowder could be controlled instead.[189][190][191][192][193][194]

    Internationally, where gun controls are generally stricter than in the United States, some commentators have said the impact may be more strongly felt since alternative firearms are not as easily obtainable.[195] Officials in the United Kingdom have noted that producing a 3D printed gun would be illegal under their gun control laws.[196]Europol stated that criminals have access to other sources of weapons but noted that as technology improves, the risks of an effect would increase.[197][198]

    Aerospace regulation

    In the United States, the FAA has anticipated a desire to use additive manufacturing techniques and has been considering how best to regulate this process.[199] The FAA has jurisdiction over such fabrication because all aircraft parts must be made under FAA production approval or under other FAA regulatory categories.[200] In December 2016, the FAA approved the production of a 3D printed fuel nozzle for the GE LEAP engine.[201] Aviation attorney Jason Dickstein has suggested that additive manufacturing is merely a production method, and should be regulated like any other production method.[202][203] He has suggested that the FAA's focus should be on guidance to explain compliance, rather than on changing the existing rules, and that existing regulations and guidance permit a company "to develop a robust quality system that adequately reflects regulatory needs for quality assurance."[202]

    Health and safety

    Main article: Health and safety hazards of 3D printing

    See also: Health and safety hazards of nanomaterials

    A video on research done on printer emissions

    Research on the health and safety concerns of 3D printing is new and in development due to the recent proliferation of 3D printing devices. In 2017, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has published a discussion paper on the processes and materials involved in 3D printing, potential implications of this technology for occupational safety and health and avenues for controlling potential hazards.[204]

    Impact

    Additive manufacturing, starting with today's infancy period, requires manufacturing firms to be flexible, ever-improving users of all available technologies to remain competitive. Advocates of additive manufacturing also predict that this arc of technological development will counter globalization, as end users will do much of their own manufacturing rather than engage in trade to buy products from other people and corporations.[12] The real integration of the newer additive technologies into commercial production, however, is more a matter of complementing traditional subtractive methods rather than displacing them entirely.[205]

    The futurologistJeremy Rifkin[206] claimed that 3D printing signals the beginning of a third industrial revolution,[207] succeeding the production line assembly that dominated manufacturing starting in the late 19th century.

    Social change

    Since the 1950s, a number of writers and social commentators have speculated in some depth about the social and cultural changes that might result from the advent of commercially affordable additive manufacturing technology.[208] In recent years, 3D printing is creating significant impact in the humanitarian and development sector. Its potential to facilitate distributed manufacturing is resulting in supply chain and logistics benefits, by reducing the need for transportation, warehousing and wastage. Furthermore, social and economic development is being advanced through the creation of local production economies.[108]

    Others have suggested that as more and more 3D printers start to enter people's homes, the conventional relationship between the home and the workplace might get further eroded.[209] Likewise, it has also been suggested that, as it becomes easier for businesses to transmit designs for new objects around the globe, so the need for high-speed freight services might also become less.[210] Finally, given the ease with which certain objects can now be replicated, it remains to be seen whether changes will be made to current copyright legislation so as to protect intellectual property rights with the new technology widely available.

    As 3D printers became more accessible to consumers, online social platforms have developed to support the community.[211] This includes websites that allow users to access information such as how to build a 3D printer, as well as social forums that discuss how to improve 3D print quality and discuss 3D printing news, as well as social media websites that are dedicated to share 3D models.[212][213][214] RepRap is a wiki based website that was created to hold all information on 3d printing, and has developed into a community that aims to bring 3D printing to everyone. Furthermore, there are other sites such as Pinshape, Thingiverse and MyMiniFactory, which were created initially to allow users to post 3D files for anyone to print, allowing for decreased transaction cost of sharing 3D files. These websites have allowed greater social interaction between users, creating communities dedicated to 3D printing.

    Some call attention to the conjunction of Commons-based peer production with 3D printing and other low-cost manufacturing techniques.[215][216][217] The self-reinforced fantasy of a system of eternal growth can be overcome with the development of economies of scope, and here, society can play an important role contributing to the raising of the whole productive structure to a higher plateau of more sustainable and customized productivity.[215] Further, it is true that many issues, problems, and threats arise due to the democratization of the means of production, and especially regarding the physical ones.[215] For instance, the recyclability of advanced nanomaterials is still questioned; weapons manufacturing could become easier; not to mention the implications for counterfeiting[218] and on intellectual property.[219] It might be maintained that in contrast to the industrial paradigm whose competitive dynamics were about economies of scale, Commons-based peer production 3D printing could develop economies of scope. While the advantages of scale rest on cheap global transportation, the economies of scope share infrastructure costs (intangible and tangible productive resources), taking advantage of the capabilities of the fabrication tools.[215] And following Neil Gershenfeld[220] in that "some of the least developed parts of the world need some of the most advanced technologies," Commons-based peer production and 3D printing may offer the necessary tools for thinking globally but acting locally in response to certain needs.

    Larry Summers wrote about the "devastating consequences" of 3D printing and other technologies (robots, artificial intelligence, etc.) for those who perform routine tasks. In his view, "already there are more American men on disability insurance than doing production work in manufacturing. And the trends are all in the wrong direction, particularly for the less skilled, as the capacity of capital embodying artificial intelligence to replace white-collar as well as blue-collar work will increase rapidly in the years ahead." Summers recommends more vigorous cooperative efforts to address the "myriad devices" (e.g., tax havens, bank secrecy, money laundering, and regulatory arbitrage) enabling the holders of great wealth to "a paying" income and estate taxes, and to make it more difficult to accumulate great fortunes without requiring "great social contributions" in return, including: more vigorous enforcement of anti-monopoly laws, reductions in "excessive" protection for intellectual property, greater encouragement of profit-sharing schemes that may benefit workers and give them a stake in wealth accumulation, strengthening of collective bargaining arrangements, improvements in corporate governance, strengthening of financial regulation to eliminate subsidies to financial activity, easing of land-use restrictions that may cause the real estate of the rich to keep rising in value, better training for young people and retraining for displaced workers, and increased public and private investment in infrastructure development—e.g., in energy production and transportation.[221]

    Michael Spence wrote that "Now comes a ... powerful, wave of digital technology that is replacing labor in increasingly complex tasks. This process of labor substitution and disintermediation has been underway for some time in service sectors—think of ATMs, online banking, enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, mobile payment systems, and much more. This revolution is spreading to the production of goods, where robots and 3D printing are displacing labor." In his view, the vast majority of the cost of digital technologies comes at the start, in the design of hardware (e.g. 3D printers) and, more important, in creating the software that enables machines to carry out various tasks. "Once this is achieved, the marginal cost of the hardware is relatively low (and declines as scale rises), and the marginal cost of replicating the software is essentially zero. With a huge potential global market to amortize the upfront fixed costs of design and testing, the incentives to invest [in digital technologies] are compelling."[222]

    Spence believes that, unlike prior digital technologies, which drove firms to deploy underutilized pools of valuable labor around the world, the motivating force in the current wave of digital technologies "is cost reduction via the replacement of labor." For example, as the cost of 3D printing technology declines, it is "easy to imagine" that production may become "extremely" local and customized. Moreover, production may occur in response to actual demand, not anticipated or forecast demand. Spence believes that labor, no matter how inexpensive, will become a less important asset for growth and employment expansion, with labor-intensive, process-oriented manufacturing becoming less effective, and that re-localization will appear in both developed and developing countries. In his view, production will not disappear, but it will be less labor-intensive, and all countries will eventually need to rebuild their growth models around digital technologies and the human capital supporting their deployment and expansion. Spence writes that "the world we are entering is one in which the most powerful global flows will be ideas and digital capital, not goods, services, and traditional capital. Adapting to this will require shifts in mindsets, policies, investments (especially in human capital), and quite possibly models of employment and distribution."[222]

    Naomi Wu regards the usage of 3D printing in the Chinese classroom (where rote memorization is standard) to teach design principles and creativity as the most exciting recent development of the technology, and more generally regards 3D printing as being the next desktop publishing revolution.[223]

    Environmental change

    The growth of additive manufacturing could have a large impact on the environment. As opposed to traditional manufacturing, for instance, in which pieces are cut from larger blocks of material, additive manufacturing creates products layer-by-layer and prints only relevant parts, wasting much less material and thus wasting less energy in producing the raw materials needed.[224] By making only the bare structural necessities of products, additive manufacturing also could make a profound contribution to lightweighting, reducing the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of vehicles and other forms of transportation.[225] A case study on an airplane component made using additive manufacturing, for example, found that the component's use saves 63% of relevant energy and carbon dioxide emissions over the course of the product's lifetime.[226] In addition, previous life-cycle assessment of additive manufacturing has estimated that adopting the technology could further lower carbon dioxide emissions since 3D printing creates localized production, and products would not need to be transported long distances to reach their final destination.[227]

    Continuing to adopt additive manufacturing does pose some environmental downsides, however. Despite additive manufacturing reducing waste from the subtractive manufacturing process by up to 90%, the additive manufacturing process creates other forms of waste such as non-recyclable material (metal) powders. Additive manufacturing has not yet reached its theoretical material efficiency potential of 97%, but it may get closer as the technology continues to increase productivity.[228]

    Some large FDM printers which melt High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets may also accept sufficiently clean recycled material such as chipped milk bottles. In addition these printers can use shredded material coming from faulty builds or unsuccessful prototype versions thus reducing overall project wastage and materials handling and storage. The concept has been explored in the RecycleBot.

    See also

    References

    1. ^"3D printing scales up". The Economist. 5 September 2013.
    2. ^Excell, Jon (23 May 2010). "The rise of additive manufacturing". The Engineer. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
    3. ^"Learning Course: Additive Manufacturing – Additive Fertigung". tmg-muenchen.de.
    4. ^Lam, Hugo K.S.; Ding, Li; Cheng, T.C.E.; Zhou, Honggeng (1 January 2019). "The impact of 3D printing implementation on stock returns: A contingent dynamic capabilities perspective". International Journal of Operations & Production Management. 39 (6/7/8): 935–961. doi:10.1108/IJOPM-01-2019-0075. ISSN 0144-3577. S2CID 211386031.
    5. ^ ab"Most used 3D printing technologies 2017–2018
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      • It's a common question. Which composite material is right for your 3D printing application? Carbon fiber or fiberglass? Check out this in-depth blog!

      • The Ultimaker Marketplace, our digital distribution platform, has just hit a major milestone of 1 million downloads for plugins and print profiles combined. Ultimaker now has the largest compatible material choice in the entire 3D printing market.

      • Big crowds, big announcements, and more – get the full photographic rundown of 2019's TCT Show.

      • Composite-ready, dual extrusion, auto bed leveling, touchscreen. Learn how Ultimaker S3 delivers robust desktop 3D printing so you can start innovating faster.

      • 24/7 automated material handling, air filtration, filament humidity control. Find out how our unique 3D printing solution unlocks more demanding applications.

      • Composite materials powerhouse Owens Corning explains why and how 3D printing can transform workflows

      • From more 3D file formats to an easy selector for Z seam positions, here are six great features of Ultimaker Cura 4.3 beta

      • Designing and creating a vehicle is hard work – but 3D printing can lighten the load

      • With Ultimaker Cloud's latest feature, Teams, you can connect and collaborate with colleagues and control multiple groups of Ultimaker 3D printers.

      • How is additive manufacturing changing the creation of molds and casts? From silicone molds to investment casting metal, check out this blog for inspiration.

      • If it’s happening in Ultimaker’s world, you can find out about it here. 3D printing stories about inspiring moments, original 3D printed projects and much much more.

      • The rise of 3D printing means the technology is more accessible than ever, paving the way for creation, iteration, and innovation

      • We took a look at how reviewers have been finding the latest addition to our range of desktop 3D printers - the Ultimaker S5

      • If you want to increase efficiency, reduce production time and costs, or optimize product time-to-market, now is a perfect time to get started with 3D printing. This powerful technology has quickly become an essential industry tool, with its effectiveness

      • Earlier this year, Ultimaker revealed a new desktop 3D printer, specifically for the professional environment – the Ultimaker S5. In this latest blog looking at how customers are using it, we explore how the printer’s ease-of-use helps engineers and design

      • We take a look back at our highlights and developments in 3D printing in 2018, including examples from leading innovators.

      • we explore some of the ways they are using the Ultimaker S5 to develop better quality products and bring them to market faster

      • To create the perfect 3D print, it’s vital to have access to the right material, but it’s also critical to use the right slicing settings. Preconfigured print profiles in Ultimaker Cura make...

      • Formnext is the leading global exhibition and conference on additive manufacturing, and an annual fixture in our exhibition calendar. Held at Frankfurt Messe, Formnext brought together experts from a wide range of industry sectors, such as automotive, aer

      • By meeting FDA regulatory guidelines, the Ultimaker S5 is the first FFF 3D printer to receive FDA 510(k) clearance.

      • Contributing profiles to the Marketplace is an extremely effective way to broadcast materials to Ultimaker Cura’s user base, which includes hundreds of engineers, designers, architects, and other 3D printing professionals worldwide. To date, over sixty di

      • Learn how industry benchmarks show customer satisfaction, regulatory compliance, and continuous improvement are embedded in Ultimaker’s DNA.

      • Ultimaker launches optimized printing profiles for world-leading materials in the latest version of Ultimaker Cura. Plus, our wear-resistant print core CC Red 0.6, ideal for printing with composite materials, is now on sale.

      • We talk to one of our most prolific community contributors, Anders Olsson, and how his work led to the development of a new wear-resistant print core.

      • Ultimaker participated in the second edition of the Construct3D academic 3D Printing and Digital Fabrication conference joining over 250 educators, students, and thought leaders.

      • Failure is good for innovation. That's the culture adopted by many businesses today – fail fast, learn fast, iterate. How does 3D printing help teach young people these agile skills?

      • The Ultimaker North America team collaborated with local partners and professional CAD peers to introduce the latest updates to Ultimaker hardware, software, materials, and best practices at the leading conference for computer graphics professionals, desi

      • Discover easy abrasive 3D printing with our new print core, using the world's most advanced plastics and composites from Owens Corning and DSM.

      • Here are a few ways that 3D printing is finding its way into the everyday workflow of other, less obvious applications

      • In this blog we offer insight into this process and look at how we test and develop various combinations of 3D printing materials.

      • Ultimaker recently opened a new office in Singapore in order to meet the growing demand for Ultimaker 3D printers in the APAC region.

      • We always love to see social media posts, blogs, and videos about how people are using Ultimaker 3D printers. For some time, Dinara Kasko has been lighting up news feeds with her ‘geometric desserts’, where she has creatively used 3D printing to produce m

      • Almost every major auto brand, including Volkswagen, has documented the benefits that 3D printing has brought to their design and production process, noting significant reductions in both time and cost. To demonstrate the potential financial impact of th

      • The past few years have shown a steady maturing of the FFF 3D printing market, followed by increased awareness as a viable manufacturing method.

      • 3D printing is becoming increasingly integral in the workplace. It helps companies validate designs, perform functional tests, and bring products to market more quickly. 3D printed prototypes are useful for communicating concepts with stakeholders, result

      • All 3D printing technologies are based on a common principle – a 3D CAD model is sliced horizontally into separate cross-sections, that are then printed sequentially on top of each other to form a three-dimensional object. However, FFF, SLA, and SLS take

      • When it comes to 3D printing, the filament you use can have a big impact on your final product. Each material has different properties that you can choose to suit your specific needs. Here’s a handy guide to help you figure out which is which.

      • We spoke to product designer Jorge Valle about how 3D printing helps him turn his ideas for new products into reality in next to no time, and how it fits into his 3D design workflow.

      • From helping you present concepts to clients faster to allowing for more iterations during the process, 3D printing in architecture makes a lot of sense. Here are six reasons why you should consider one.

      • Today, May 29th, 2018, marks the 10 year anniversary of the RepRap project. 3D printing has undergone an immense journey – inspiring minds, encouraging collaboration, and influencing the way we think about production.

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      photo of a 3d printerCSHL Library has a PRUSA i3 3D printer which is able to print objects in PLA plastic. The library gives instruction in 3D printing, so that you will be able to use the machine for training or prototyping purposes.

      3D Printer Upgraded

      We are happy to announce that our Prusa printer was upgraded to a MK2S, which is a nice boost from the original model. This new model was also award “Best 3D Printer” by Make: magazine.
      Prusa i3 MK2S 3D printer Technical specs (September 2017 – MK2S edition)

      • 31% bigger build volume – 10500 cm3 (25 x 21 x 20 cm or 9,84 x 8,3 x 8 in)
      • Open frame design for easy use
      • Integrated LCD and SD card controller (8GB included)
      • Up to 40% faster printing thanks to the genuine E3D V6 Full hotend
      • 0,4mm nozzle (easily changeable) for 1,75 mm filament
      • Layer height from 0.05 mm
      • Automatic mesh bed leveling
      • Heatbed with cold corners compensation – for warpless 3D printing from any material
      • Automatic skew axes compensation
      • Hassle free PEI print surface – no glass, no glue, no ABS juice
      • Supported materials – PLA, ABS, PET, HIPS, Flex PP, Ninjaflex, Laywood, Laybrick, Nylon, Bamboofill, Bronzefill, ASA, T-Glase, Carbon-fibers enhanced filaments, Polycarbonates…
      • Specially optimized firmware for quiet printing

      3D Models

      There are many free libraries of 3D models, which are ready to print. No need to design the module yourself. Here are our favorites.

      NIH 3D Print Exchange The NIH 3D Print Exchange provides scientifically accurate models in formats that are readily compatible with 3D printers, and offers a unique set of tools to create and share 3D-printable models related to biomedical science.

      MakerBot’s Thingiverse is a thriving design community for discovering, making, and sharing 3D printable things. As the world’s largest 3D printing community, we believe that everyone should be encouraged to create and remix 3D things, no matter their technical expertise or previous experience. In the spirit of maintaining an open platform, all designs are encouraged to be licensed under a Creative Commons license, meaning that anyone can use or alter any design.

      Instructables Explore. Shape. Make. Instructables was officially spun out of Squid Labs in the summer of 2006, and has gone on to grow from a modest hundreds of projects to over one hundred thousand (3D models are only a subset). The community that now calls the site home, is an amazing mix of wonder from around the world. Every day we continue to be amazed by the imagination, curiosity, and simple awesomeness of everyone who shares their creations with us on Instructables.

      GrabCAD Community accelerates the design process by tapping into the largest source of mechanical engineering content and knowledge in the world.

      Smithsonian X 3D launches a set of use cases which apply various 3D capture methods to iconic collection objects, as well as scientific missions. These projects indicate that this new technology has the potential not only to support the Smithsonian mission, but to transform museum core functions. Researchers working in the field may not come back with specimens, but with 3D data documenting a site or a find.

      CAD/CAM Software

      Onshape is the first and only full-cloud 3D CAD system that lets everyone on a design team simultaneously work together using a web browser, phone or tablet. They offers a free pricing tier for Makers.

      Solidworks An industry standard in 3D design. Complete set of packages, including rendering and testing.

      OpenSCAD is a software for creating solid 3D CAD models. It is free software and available for Linux/UNIX, Windows and Mac OS X. Unlike most free software for creating 3D models (such as Blender) it does not focus on the artistic aspects of 3D modeling but instead on the CAD aspects. Thus it might be the application you are looking for when you are planning to create 3D models of machine parts but pretty sure is not what you are looking for when you are more interested in creating computer-animated movies. OpenSCAD is not an interactive modeler. Instead it is something like a 3D-compiler that reads in a script file that describes the object and renders the 3D model from this script file. This gives you (the designer) full control over the modeling process and enables you to easily change any step in the modeling process or make designs that are defined by configurable parameters.

      AutoDesk 123D Design is a free, powerful, yet simple 3D creation and editing tool which supports many new 3D printers.

      Rhinoceros Rhino can create, edit, analyze, document, render, animate, and translate NURBS* curves, surfaces, and solids, point clouds, and polygon meshes. There are no limits on complexity, degree, or size beyond those of your hardware.

      Modeling Tools

      Blender is open source software design for artistic modeling, think animated characters. Blender is able to do: Photo-realistic Rendering, Fast Rigging (transforming a model into a posable character), Animation tool set, Sculpting, Game Design, and Video Editing.

      Silo 2 is a focused 3D modeling application with the ability to effortlessly switch between organically sculpting high-polygon models and precisely controlling hard-edged surfaces. It can be used for anything from creating 3D characters for video games and movies to quickly exploring 3D architectural ideas.

      Alternative Software

      Adobe Illustrator Long known for creating vector art (2D), You can use this tool for laser cutters.

      SketchUp users are architects, designers, builders, makers and engineers.

      Tinkercad is an easy, browser-based 3D design and modeling tool for all. Tinkercad is also your perfect 3d printing companion–it allows you to imagine anything, and then design it in minutes! Tinkercad is part of the 123D family of free apps from AutoDesk (Makers of AutoCAD).

      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

      Category Tools

      What could be more obvious than using this incredible tool that is the 3D printer to really print tools! In spite of certain resistance constraints for 3D printed tools, it is possible to make a lot of elements. Indeed, every plastic element related to tools or to the realization of works in one's house can be easily 3D printed. You will find many STL files to store screws, nails or other elements in your workshop, your garage, your lab or your maker space.

      These 3D printable tools can also be closely linked to your 3D printer. Indeed, you can print elements to improve the cooling or the stability of your printer, but also camera supports or storage for your tools. Even more incredible, you can print a 3D printer with your 3D printer! Of course, all you have to do is add some mechanical parts, motors and electronics. That being said, the 3D print files are available on the Cults download platform.

      You've probably heard of them, even NASA and ESA are using tools they 3D print directly in the ISS, so why not do the same in your garage!

      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

      Agree: Category Archives: 3D Printing tool

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      Category Archives: 3D Printing tool
      3DPrint.com

      What File Formats Are Used In 3D Printing?

      3D printing file types

      This article has been updated for 2021 with new information.

      We recently received a question from a student in secondary education regarding file formats and 3D printing. He wanted to know what the most common file formats are and how they are used.

      So, we thought we'd write an article about this.

      File Formats and 3D Printing

      When you are designing 3D models, you will likely encounter a few different file types. Some file types are proprietary to 3D printer manufacturers; some are related to design software, and some are generated by 3D scanners. Below, you will find out everything you need to know about the most common file types used in the 3D printing industry.

      .STL

      .STL is the most common file format when 3D printing. STL stands for STereolithography and .STL files consist of facet data. STL is a standard file format that can interface between most CAD software and 3D printers. .STL files contain only a single colour (an Category Archives: 3D Printing tool limitation) and they are a triangular representation of a 3-dimensional object.

      Despite the rudimentary Category Archives: 3D Printing tool contained in an STL file, STL is the most popular file today. It's supported by most 3D printers.

      .OBJ

      .OBJ is the second most common file format used in 3D printing. It is widely supported by 3D printers (such as the Formlabs 1+ and 2) and most software will export to .OBJ. This file is similar to .STL in that it contains 3D geometry information alone, such as vertex normals, geometric vertices, polygonal faces and texture coordinates.

      OBJ builds on the STL file with multiple colours and material data. It also has improved model resolution support, so supports higher-quality prints.

      .gcode

      .gcode, otherwise known as .g or .gco, is the file extension for files containing G-code data. A .gcode file is created by a slicing program, which turns a CAD drawing into a string of code that a 3D printer can understand. You will come across this post-slicing file type a lot during your 3D printing efforts because it contains instructions for your 3D printer.

      G-code contains instructions for your 3D printer. It's a numerically controlled programming language generated by a slicing program.

      .VRML

      .VRML (“vermal”. WRL file extension), Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, or Virtual Reality Modelling Language, is a newer file type than .STL. .VRML files can hold a single UV colour map so they are ideal for 3D printers with two extruders and for models that consist of more than one colour. This format is not as widely used as .STL, however the fact that it contains colour data means it definitely has its place.

      The VRML format is used for interactive 3D objects and vector graphics. Slicing software like Cura can use VRML files but not all programs support it.

      .3MF

      .3MF is a file format created by Microsoft. It is an XML-based data format. It was launched in 2015 to make 3D printing easier with a Windows 10 operating system. With .3MF, all model information is contained in a single archive and it is extensible. Unlike .STL. 3MF carries complete model information including mesh, textures, materials and colours.

      Because it's open-source and powerful, 3MF gets a lot of love in the 3D printing world. It's most widely used in the commercial and industrial sectors.

       .X3G

      .X3G is a proprietary file format used by Makerbot. It is a binary file that goes beyond an STL file because it also contains printer settings. So for example, an .X3G file contains all the information about when the 3D printer motor should move and at what speed. The file itself simply contains code that the Makerbot 3D printer can read and interpret.

      Because X3G is a proprietary file format, it's only used in certain ecosystems. If you're not in one of those ecosystems, you can ignore it.

      .AMF

      .AMF (Additive Manufacturing File Format) is an XML-based open-standard 3D printing file format with support for colour. These files can also be compressed to half the size of an STL file. These files contain an object, material, texture, constellation, and metadata information, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. This file format is not widely used at the moment, despite it offering more than an STL file.

      Because it's an XML-based, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, open-source framework for data exchange, AMF files have the potential to be the golden standard for 3D printing.

      .FBX

      .FBX is a proprietary file format owned by Autodesk, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Developed by Kaydara, this file format is used to exchange data between Autodesk programs. In other words, it provides interoperability between content creation programs such as Autodesk and Maya. This file format is widely used in film production and game development because it offers workflow improvements.

      What does this have to do with 3D printing? You can convert an FBX file to STL, so it's possible to save a design in the FBX format and convert it for 3D printing.

      .PLY

      PLY (Polygon File Format) files are generated by 3D scanners. PLY files include a description of one object as a collection of vertices, faces and other elements. The information can include colour, transparency, surface and texture details and much more, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. When 3D printing, you convert a PLY file into the format accepted by the 3D printer.

      PLY was first developed for 3D surface scanners and it is still used by some scanners today. It allows surface detail and RGB colour instructions.

      Types of 3D printing file 

      As we've seen, 3D printing files fall into two camps:

      • 3D modelling files that contain all design information
      • Sliced files that contain instructions for the 3D printer based on the 3D model files

      Both file types are linked by practical application; you design a model in CAD, save it, then export it to a file type that contains data for the 3D printer (e.g. OBJ). You then slice the file, creating g-code (instructions) for the 3D printer.

      What is the best file for 3D printing?

      We've established that STL files are the most common 3D printing file. They contain an approximation of the original 3D model, not the model itself, so you don't Category Archives: 3D Printing tool colours, textures or materials, which can be an advantage or a disadvantage depending on what you want to print.

      For simple prints, STL files are the best 3D printing file. They are small, simple and widely supported, making them something of an industry standard.

      When you need to store colours and textures, the best 3D printing file is OBJ. OBJ is also more capable than STL when it comes to describing geometries.

      Further Reading

      If you enjoyed reading this article, check out our article "What is Slicing Software, and What Does it Do?".

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      Applications of 3D printing

      In recent years, 3D printing has developed significantly and can now perform crucial roles in many applications, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, with the most important being manufacturing, medicine, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, architecture, custom art and design.

      Category Archives: 3D Printing tool printing processes are finally catching up to their full Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, and are currently being used in manufacturing and medical industries, as well as by sociocultural sectors which facilitate 3D printing for commercial purposes.[1] There has been a lot of hype in the last decade when referring to the possibilities we can achieve by adopting 3D printing as one of the main manufacturing technologies.

      For a long time, the issue with 3D printing was that it has demanded very high entry costs, which does not allow profitable implementation to mass-manufacturers when compared to standard processes. However, recent market trends spotted have found that this is finally changing. As the market for 3D printing has shown some of the quickest growth within the manufacturing industry in recent years.[2]

      Manufacturing applications[edit]

      Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as it is to produce thousands and thus undermines economies of scale. It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did (.) Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750—or the printing press in 1450, or the transistor in 1950—it is impossible to foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing. But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.

      — The Economist, in a February 10, 2011 leader[3]

      AM technologies found applications starting in the 1980s in product development, data visualization, rapid prototyping, and specialized manufacturing. Their expansion into production (job production, mass production, and distributed manufacturing) has been under development in the decades since, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Industrial production roles within the metalworking industries[4] achieved significant scale for the first time in the early 2010s. Since the start of the 21st century there has been a large growth in the sales of AM machines, and their price has dropped substantially.[5] According to Wohlers Associates, a consultancy, the market for 3D printers and services was worth $2.2 billion worldwide in 2012, up 29% from 2011.[6]McKinsey predicts that additive manufacturing could have an economic impact of $550 billion annually by 2025.[7] There are many applications for AM technologies, including architecture, construction (AEC), industrial design, automotive, aerospace,[8] military, engineering, dental and medical industries, biotech (human tissue replacement), fashion, footwear, jewelry, eyewear, education, geographic information systems, food, and many other fields.

      Additive manufacturing's earliest applications have been on the toolroom end of the manufacturing spectrum. For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants, and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost of developing prototypes of new parts and devices, which was earlier only done with subtractive toolroom methods such as CNC milling and turning, and precision grinding, far more accurate than 3d printing with accuracy down to 0.00005" and creating better quality parts faster, but sometimes too expensive for low accuracy prototype parts.[9] With technological advances in additive manufacturing, however, and the dissemination of those advances into the business world, additive methods are moving ever further into the production end of manufacturing in creative and sometimes unexpected ways.[9] Parts that were formerly the sole province of subtractive methods can now in some cases be made more profitably via additive ones. In addition, new developments in RepRap technology allow the same device to perform both additive and subtractive manufacturing by swapping magnetic-mounted tool heads.[10]

      Cloud-based additive manufacturing[edit]

      Main article: 3D printing marketplace

      Additive manufacturing in combination with cloud computing technologies allows decentralized and geographically independent distributed production.[11] Cloud-based additive manufacturing refers to a service-oriented networked manufacturing model in which service consumers are able to build parts through Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Hardware-as-a-Service (HaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).[12][13][14]Distributed manufacturing as such is carried out by some enterprises; there is also a services like 3D Hubs that put people needing 3D printing in contact with owners of printers.[15]

      Some companies offer online 3D printing services to both commercial and private customers,[16] working from 3D designs uploaded to the company website. 3D-printed designs are either shipped to the Category Archives: 3D Printing tool or picked up from the service provider.[17]

      Mass customization[edit]

      Main article: Mass customization

      Miniature face models (from FaceGen) produced using Ceramic Based material on a Full Colour 3D Inkjet Printer

      Companies have created services where consumers can customize objects using simplified web based customization software, and order the resulting items as 3D printed unique objects.[18][19] This now allows consumers to create custom cases for their mobile phones.[20] Nokia has released the 3D designs for its case so that owners can customize their own case and have it 3D printed.[21]

      Rapid manufacturing[edit]

      Advances in RP technology have introduced materials that are appropriate for final manufacture, which has in turn introduced the possibility of directly manufacturing finished components. One advantage of 3D printing for rapid manufacturing lies in the relatively inexpensive production of small numbers of parts.

      Rapid manufacturing is a new method of manufacturing and many of its processes remain unproven. 3D printing is now entering the field of rapid manufacturing and was identified as a "next level" technology by many experts in a 2009 report.[22] One of the most promising processes looks to be the adaptation of selective laser sintering (SLS), or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) some of the better-established rapid prototyping methods. As of 2006[update], Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, however, these techniques were still very much in their infancy, with many obstacles to be overcome before RM could be considered a realistic manufacturing method.[23]

      There have been patent lawsuits concerning 3-D printing for manufacturing.[24]

      Rapid prototyping[edit]

      Main article: Rapid prototyping

      Industrial 3D printers have existed since the early 1980s and have been used extensively for rapid prototyping and research purposes. These are generally larger machines that use proprietary powdered metals, casting media (e.g. sand), plastics, paper or cartridges, and are used for rapid prototyping by universities and commercial Baidu WiFi Hotspot v5.1.4 Crack + Registration Keys.

      Research[edit]

      3D printing can be particularly useful in research labs due to its ability to make specialized, bespoke geometries. In 2012 a proof of principle project at the University of Glasgow, UK, showed that it is possible to use 3D printing techniques to assist in the production of chemical compounds. They first printed chemical reaction vessels, then used the printer to deposit reactants into them.[25] They have produced new compounds to verify the validity of the process, but have not pursued anything with a particular application.

      Usually, the FDM process is used to print hollow reaction vessels or microreactors.[25] If the 3D print is performed within an inert gas atmosphere, the reaction vessels can be filled with highly reactive substances during the print. The 3D printed objects are air- and watertight for several weeks. By the print of reaction vessels in the geometry of common cuvettes or measurement tubes, routine analytical measurements such as UV/VIS- IR- and NMR-spectroscopy can be performed directly in the 3D printed vessel.[26]

      In addition, 3D printing has been used in research labs as alternative method to manufacture components for use in experiments, such as magnetic shielding and vacuum components with demonstrated performance comparable to traditionally produced parts.[27]

      Food[edit]

      Additive manufacturing of food is being developed by squeezing out food, layer by layer, into three-dimensional objects, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. A large variety of foods are appropriate candidates, such as chocolate and candy, and flat foods such as crackers, pasta,[28] and pizza.[29][30] NASA has considered the versatility of the concept, awarding a contract to the Systems and Materials Research Consultancy to study the feasibility of printing food in space.[31] NASA is also looking into the technology in order to create 3D printed food to limit food waste and to make food that are designed to fit an astronaut's dietary needs.[32] A food-tech startup Novameat from Barcelona 3D-printed a steak from peas, rice, seaweed, and some other ingredients that were laid down criss-cross, imitating the intracellular proteins.[33] One of the problems with food printing is the nature of the texture of a food. For example, foods that are not strong enough to be filed are not appropriate for 3D printing.

      Agile tooling[edit]

      Agile tooling is the process of using modular means to design tooling that is produced by additive manufacturing or 3D printing methods to enable quick prototyping and responses to tooling and fixture needs. Agile tooling uses a cost-effective and high-quality method to quickly respond to customer and market needs. It can be used in hydro-forming, stamping, injection molding and other manufacturing processes.

      Medical applications[edit]

      Surgical uses of 3D printing-centric therapies have a history beginning in the mid-1990s with anatomical modeling for bony reconstructive surgery planning.[34] By practicing on a tactile model before surgery, surgeons were more prepared and patients received better care, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Patient-matched implants were a natural extension of this work, leading to truly personalized implants that fit one unique individual.[35] Virtual planning of surgery and guidance using 3D printed, personalized instruments have been applied to many areas of surgery including total joint replacement and craniomaxillofacial reconstruction with great success.[clarification needed][36] Further study of the use of models for planning heart and solid organ surgery has led to increased use in these areas.[37] Hospital-based 3D printing is now of great interest and many institutions are pursuing adding this specialty within individual radiology departments.[38][39] The technology is being used to create unique, patient-matched devices for rare illnesses. One example of this is the bioresorbable trachial splint to treat newborns with tracheobronchomalacia[40] developed at the University of Michigan. Several devices manufacturers have also begin using 3D printing for patient-matched surgical guides (polymers). The use of additive manufacturing for serialized production of orthopedic implants (metals) is also increasing due to the ability to efficiently create porous surface structures that facilitate osseointegration. Printed casts for broken bones can be custom-fitted and open, letting the wearer scratch any itches, wash and ventilate the damaged area. They can also be recycled.

      HMA - VPN crack serial keygen filament fabrication (FFF) has been used to create microstructures with a three-dimensional internal geometry. Sacrificial structures or additional support materials are not needed. Structure using polylactic acid (PLA) can have fully controllable porosity in the range 20%–60%. Such scaffolds could serve as biomedical templates for cell culturing, or biodegradable implants for tissue engineering.[41]

      3D printed human skull from computed computer tomography data

      3D printing has been used to print patient-specific implant and device for medical use. Successful operations include a titanium pelvis implanted into a British patient, titanium lower jaw transplanted to a Dutch patient,[42] and a plastic tracheal splint for an American infant.[43] The hearing aid and dental industries are expected to be the biggest areas of future development using custom 3D printing technology.[44] In March 2014, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, surgeons in Swansea used 3D printed parts to rebuild the face of a motorcyclist who had been seriously injured in a road accident.[45] Research is also being conducted on methods to bio-print replacements for lost tissue due to arthritis and cancer[citation needed], Category Archives: 3D Printing tool.

      3D printing technology can now be used to make exact replicas of organs. The printer uses images from patients' MRI or CT scan images as a template and lays down layers of rubber or plastic.

      3D printing technology can also be used to produce personal protective equipment, also known Wondershare Filmora 10.4.2.2 Crack + Key Free Download 2021 Latest PPE, is worn by medical and laboratory professionals to protect themselves from infection when they are treating patients. Examples of PPE include face masks, face shields, connectors, gowns, and goggles. The most popular forms of 3D printed PPE are face masks, face shields, and connectors. [46]

      Nowadays, Additive Manufacturing is also employed in the field of pharmaceutical sciences, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Different techniques of 3D printing (e.g. FDM, SLS, Inkjet Printing etc) are utilized according to their respective advantages and drawbacks for various applications regarding drug delivery.

      Bio-printing[edit]

      See also: Biomolecular printing

      In 2006, researchers at Cornell University published some of the pioneer work in 3D printing for tissue fabrication, successfully printing hydrogel bio-inks.[47] The work at Cornell was expanded using specialized bioprinters produced by Seraph Robotics, Inc., Category Archives: 3D Printing tool university spin-out, which helped to catalyze a global interest in biomedical 3D printing research.

      3D printing has been considered as a method of implanting stem cells capable of generating new tissues and organs in living humans.[48] With their ability to transform into any other kind of cell in the human body, stem cells offer huge potential in 3D bioprinting.[49] Professor Leroy Cronin of Glasgow University proposed in a 2012 TED Talk that it was possible to use chemical inks to print medicine.[50]

      As of 2012[update], 3D bio-printing technology has been studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques. In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems.[51] The first production system for 3D tissue printing was delivered in 2009, based on NovoGen bioprinting technology.[52] Several terms have been used to refer to this field of research: organ printing, bio-printing, body part printing,[53] and computer-aided tissue engineering, among others.[54] The possibility of using 3D tissue printing to create soft tissue architectures for reconstructive surgery is also being explored.[55]

      In 2013, Chinese scientists began printing ears, livers and kidneys, with living tissue. Researchers in China have been able to successfully print human organs using specialized 3D bioprinters that use living cells instead filmora scrn 64 bitfilmora scrn code Archives plastic[citation needed]. Researchers at Hangzhou Dianzi University designed the "3D bioprinter" dubbed the "Regenovo". Xu Mingen, Regenovo's developer, said that it can produce a miniature sample of liver tissue or ear cartilage in less than an hour, predicting that fully functional printed organs might take 10 to 20 years to develop.[56][57]

      Medical devices[edit]

      On October 24, 2014, a five-year-old girl born without fully formed fingers on her left hand became the first child in the UK to have a prosthetic hand made with 3D printing technology. Her hand was designed by US-based e-NABLE, an open source design organisation which uses a network of volunteers to design and make prosthetics mainly for children. The prosthetic hand was based on a plaster cast made by her parents.[58] A boy named Alex was also born with a missing arm from just above the elbow. The team was able to use 3D printing to upload an e-NABLE Myoelectric arm that runs off of servos and batteries that are actuated by the electromyography muscle. With the use of 3D printers, e-NABLE has so far distributed thousands of plastic hands to children.

      Printed prosthetics have been used in rehabilitation of crippled animals. In 2013, a 3D printed foot let a crippled duckling walk again.[59] 3D printed hermit crab shells let hermit crabs inhabit a new style home.[60] A prosthetic beak was another tool developed by the use of 3D printing to help aid a bald eagle named Beauty, whose beak was severely mutilated from a shot in the face. Since 2014, commercially available titanium knee implants made with 3D printer for dogs have been used to restore the animals' mobility. Over 10,000 dogs in Europe and the United States have been treated after only one year.[61]

      In February 2015, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, FDA approved the marketing of a surgical bolt which facilitates less-invasive foot surgery and eliminates the need to drill through bone. The 3D printed titanium device, 'FastForward Bone Tether Plate' is approved to use in correction surgery to treat bunion.[62] In October 2015, the group of Professor Andreas Herrmann at the University of Groningen has developed the first 3D printable resins with antimicrobial properties. Employing stereolithography, quaternary ammonium groups are incorporated into dental appliances that Category Archives: 3D Printing tool bacteria on contact. This type of material can be further applied in medical devices and implants.[63]

      On June 6, 2011, the company Xilloc Medical together with researchers at the University of Hasselt, in Belgium had successfully printed a new jawbone for an 83-year-old Dutch woman from the province of Limburg.[64]

      3D printing has been used to produce prosthetic beaks for eagles, a Brazilian goose named Victoria, and a Costa Rican toucan called Grecia.[65]

      In March 2020, the Isinnova company in Italy printed 100 respirator valves in 24 hours for a hospital that lacked them in the midst of the coronavirus outbreak.[66]

      Pharmaceutical Formulations[edit]

      In May 2015 the first formulation manufactured by 3D printing was produced.[67] In August 2015 the FDA approved the first 3D printed tablet. Binder-jetting into a powder bed of the drug allows very porous tablets to be produced, which enables high drug doses in a single formulation that rapidly dissolves and is easily absorbed.[68] This has been demonstrated for Spritam, a reformulation of levetiracetam for the treatment of epilepsy.[69]

      Additive Manufacturing has been increasingly utilized by scientists in the pharmaceutical field. However, after the first FDA approval of a 3D printed formulation, scientific interest for 3D applications in drug delivery grew even bigger. Research groups around the world are studying different ways of incorporating drugs within a 3D printed formulation. 3D printing technology allows scientists to develop formulations with a personalized approach, i.e. dosage forms tailored specifically to an individual patient. Moreover, according to the advantages of the diverse utilized techniques, formulations with various properties can be achieved. These may contain multiple drugs in a single dosage form, multi-compartmental designs, drug delivery systems with distinct release characteristics ,etc.[70][71][72][73] During the earlier years, researchers have mainly focused on the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. Nowadays, other printing techniques such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Stereolithography (SLA) are also gaining traction and are being used for pharmaceutical applications.[74]

      Industrial applications[edit]

      Apparel[edit]

      inBloom 3D printed outfit

      3D printing has entered the world of clothing with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed bikinis, shoes, and dresses.[75] In commercial production Nike used 3D printing to prototype and manufacture the 2012 Vapor Laser Talon football shoe for players of American football, and New Balance is 3D manufacturing custom-fit shoes Category Archives: 3D Printing tool athletes.[75][76]

      3D printing has come to the point where companies are printing consumer grade eyewear with on-demand custom fit and styling (although they cannot print the lenses). On-demand customization of glasses is possible with rapid prototyping.[77]

      However, comments have been made in academic circles as to the potential limitation of the human acceptance of such mass customized apparel items due to the potential reduction of brand value communication.[78]

      In the world of high fashion courtiers such as Karl Lagerfeld designing for Chanel, Iris van Herpen and Noa Raviv working with technology from Stratasys, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, have employed and featured 3d printing in their collections. Selections from their lines and other working with 3d printing were showcased at the 2016 Metropolitan Museum of ArtAnna Wintour Costume Center, exhibition "Manus X Machina".[79][80]

      Industrial art and jewelry[edit]

      3D printing is used to manufacture moulds for making jewelry, and even the jewelry itself.[81] 3D printing is becoming popular in the customisable gifts industry, with products such as personalized models of art and dolls,[82] in many shapes: in metal or plastic, or as consumable art, such as 3D printed chocolate.[83]

      Automotive industry[edit]

      The Audi RSQwas made with rapid prototyping industrial KUKArobots.

      In early 2014, Swedish supercar manufacturer Koenigsegg announced the One:1, a supercar that utilizes many components that were 3D printed. In the limited run of vehicles Category Archives: 3D Printing tool produces, the One:1 has side-mirror internals, air ducts, titanium exhaust components, and complete turbocharger assemblies that were 3D printed as part of the manufacturing process.[84]

      Urbee is the name of the first car in the world car mounted using the technology 3D printing (its bodywork and car windows were "printed"). Created in 2010 through the partnership between the US engineering group Kor Ecologic and the company Stratasys (manufacturer of printers Stratasys 3D), it is a hybrid vehicle Category Archives: 3D Printing tool futuristic look.[85][86][87]

      In 2014, Local Motors debuted Strati, a functioning vehicle that was entirely 3D Printed using ABS plastic and carbon fiber, except the powertrain.[88] In 2015, the company produced another iteration known as the LM3D Swim that was 80 percent 3D-printed.[89] In 2016, the company has used 3D printing in the creation of automotive parts, such ones used in Olli, a self-driving vehicle developed by the company.[90][91]

      In May 2015 Airbus announced that its new Airbus A350 XWB included over 1000 components manufactured by 3D printing.[92]

      3D printing is also being utilized by air forces to print spare parts for planes. In 2015, a Royal Air ForceEurofighter Typhoon fighter jet flew with printed parts. The United States Air Force has begun to work with 3D printers, and the Israeli Air Force has also purchased a 3D printer to print spare parts.[93]

      Construction, home development[edit]

      Main article: Construction 3D printing

      The use of 3D printing to produce scale models within architecture and construction has steadily increased in popularity as the cost of 3D printers has reduced. This has enabled faster turn around of such scale models and allowed a steady increase in the speed of production and the complexity of the objects being produced.

      Construction 3D printing, the application of 3D printing to fabricate construction components or entire buildings has been in development since the mid-1990s, development of new technologies has steadily gained pace since 2012 and the sub-sector of 3D printing is beginning to mature (see main article).

      Firearms[edit]

      Main article: 3D printed firearms

      In 2012, the US-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to "[design] a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer."[94][95] Defense Distributed has also designed a 3D printable AR-15 type rifle lower receiver (capable of lasting more than 650 rounds) and a 30-round M16 magazine. The AR-15 has multiple receivers (both an upper and lower receiver), but the legally controlled part is the one that is serialized (the lower, in the AR-15's case). Soon after Defense Distributed succeeded in designing the first working blueprint to produce a plastic gun with a 3D printer in May 2013, the United States Department of State demanded that they remove the instructions from their website.[96] After Defense Distributed released their plans, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, questions were raised regarding the effects that 3D printing and widespread consumer-level CNC machining[97][98] may have on gun control effectiveness.[99][100][101][102]

      In 2014, a man from Japan became the first person in the world to be imprisoned for making 3D printed firearms.[103] Yoshitomo Imura posted videos and blueprints of the gun online and was sentenced to jail for two years. Police found at least two guns in his household that were capable of firing bullets.[103]

      Computers and robots[edit]

      See also: Modular design and Open-source robotics

      3D printing can also be used to make laptops and other computers and cases. For example, Novena and VIA OpenBook standard laptop cases. I.e. a Novena motherboard can be bought and be used in a printed VIA OpenBook case.[104]

      Open-source robots are built using 3D printers. Double Robotics grant god of war crack status to their technology (an open SDK).[105][106][107] On the other hand, 3&DBot is an Arduino 3D printer-robot with wheels[108] and ODOI is a 3D printed humanoid robot.[109]

      Soft sensors and actuators[edit]

      See also: Actuators and 3D printing

      3D printing has found its place in soft sensors and actuators manufacturing inspired by 4D printing concept.[110]<[111] The majority of the conventional soft sensors and actuators Category Archives: 3D Printing tool fabricated using multistep low yield processes entailing manual fabrication, post-processing/assembly, and lengthy iterations with less flexibility in customization and reproducibility of final products. 3D printing has been a game changer in these fields with introducing the custom geometrical, functional, and control properties to avoid the tedious and time-consuming aspects of the earlier fabrication processes.[112]

      Space[edit]

      See also: 3D-printed spacecraft and 3D printing § Construction

      The Zero-G Printer, the first 3D printer designed to operate in zero gravity, was built under a joint partnership between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Made In Space, Inc.[113] In September 2014, SpaceX delivered the zero-gravity 3D printer to the International Space Station (ISS). On December 19, 2014, NASA emailed CAD drawings for a socket wrench to astronauts aboard the ISS, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, who then printed the tool using its 3D printer. Applications for space offer the ability to print parts or tools on-site, as opposed to using rockets to bring along pre-manufactured items for space missions to human colonies on the moon, Mars, or elsewhere.[114] The second 3D printer in space, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, the European Space Agency's Portable On-Board 3D Category Archives: 3D Printing tool (POP3D) was planned to be delivered to the International Space Station before June 2015.[115][116][needs update] By 2019, a commercial-built recycling facility was scheduled to be sent to the International Space Station to take in plastic waste and unneeded plastic parts and convert them into spools of feedstock for the space station additive manufacturing facility to be used to build manufactured-in-space parts.[117]

      In 2016, Digital Trends reported that BeeHex was building a 3D food printer for manned missions to Mars.[118]

      Most[citation needed] construction planned on asteroids or planets will be bootstrapped somehow using the materials available on those objects. 3D printing is often one of the steps in this bootstrapping. The Sinterhab project is researching a lunar base constructed by 3D printing using lunar regolith as a base material. Instead of adding a binding agent to the regolith, researchers are experimenting with microwave sintering to create solid blocks from the raw material.[119]

      Projects like these have been investigated for construction of off-Earth habitats.[120][121]

      Sociocultural applications[edit]

      An example of 3D printed limited edition jewellery. This necklace is made of glassfiber-filled dyed nylon. It has rotating linkages that were produced in the same manufacturing step as the other parts

      In 2005, a rapidly expanding hobbyist and home-use market was established with the inauguration of the open-sourceRepRap and [email protected] projects. Virtually all home-use 3D printers released to-date have their technical roots in the ongoing RepRap Project and associated open-source software initiatives.[122] In distributed manufacturing, one study has found[123] that 3D printing could become a mass market product enabling consumers to save money associated with purchasing common household objects.[124] For example, instead of going to a store to buy an object made in a factory by injection molding (such as a measuring cup or a funnel), a person might instead print it at home from a downloaded 3D model.

      Art and jewellery[edit]

      In 2005, academic journals began to report on the possible artistic applications of 3D printing technology,[125] being used by artists such as Martin John Callanan at The Bartlett school of architecture. By 2007 the mass media followed with an article in the Wall Street Journal[126] and Time magazine, listing a printed design among their 100 most influential designs of the year.[127] During the 2011 London Design Festival, an installation, curated by Murray Moss and focused on 3D Printing, was held in the Victoria and Albert Museum (the V&A). The installation was called Industrial Revolution 2.0: How the Material World will Newly Materialize.[128]

      At the 3DPrintshow in London, which took place in November 2013 and 2014, the art sections had works made with 3D printed plastic and metal. Several artists such as Joshua Harker, Davide Prete, Sophie Kahn, Helena Lukasova, Foteini Setaki showed how 3D printing can modify aesthetic and art processes.[129] In 2015, engineers and designers at MIT's Mediated Matter Group and Glass Lab created an additive 3D printer that prints with glass, called G3DP. The results can be structural as well as artistic. Transparent glass vessels printed on it are part of some museum collections.[130]

      The use of 3D scanning technologies allows the replication of real objects without the use of moulding techniques that in many cases can be more expensive, more difficult, or too invasive to be performed, particularly for precious artwork or delicate cultural heritage artifacts[131] where direct contact with the moulding substances could harm the original object's surface.

      3D selfies[edit]

      Main article: 3D selfie

      A 3D selfie in 1:20 scale printed by Shapewaysusing gypsum-based printing

      A 3D photo booth such as the Fantasitron located at Madurodam, the miniature park, generates 3D selfie models from 2D pictures of customers. These selfies are often printed by dedicated 3D printing companies such as Shapeways. These models are also known as 3D portraits, 3D figurines or mini-me figurines.

      Communication[edit]

      Employing additive layer technology offered by 3D printing, Terahertz devices which act as waveguides, couplers and bends have been created, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. The complex shape of these devices could not be achieved using conventional fabrication techniques. Commercially available professional grade printer EDEN 260V was used to create structures with minimum feature size of 100 µm. The printed structures were later DC sputter coated with gold (or any other metal) to create a Terahertz Plasmonic Device.[132] In 2016 artist/scientist Janine Carr Created the first 3d printed vocal percussion (beatbox) as a waveform, with the ability to play the soundwave by laser, along with four vocalised emotions these were also playable by laser.[133]

      Domestic use[edit]

      Some early consumer examples of 3d printing include the 64DD released in 1999 in Japan.[134][135] As of 2012, domestic 3D printing was mainly practiced by hobbyists and enthusiasts. However, little was used for practical household applications, for example, ornamental objects. Some practical examples include a working clock[136] and gears printed for home woodworking machines among other purposes.[137] Web sites associated with home 3D printing tended to include backscratchers, coat hooks, door knobs, etc.[138]

      The open source [email protected] project[139] has developed printers for general use. They have been used in research environments to produce chemical compounds with 3D printing technology, including new ones, initially without immediate application as proof of principle.[25] The printer can print with anything that can be dispensed from a syringe as liquid or paste. The developers of the chemical application envisage both industrial and domestic use for this technology, including enabling users in remote locations to be Category Archives: 3D Printing tool to produce their own medicine or household chemicals.[140][141]

      3D printing is now working its way into households, and more and more children are being introduced to the concept of 3D printing at earlier ages. The prospects of 3D printing are growing, and as more people have access to this new innovation, new uses in households will emerge.[142]

      The OpenReflex SLRfilm camera was developed for 3D printing as an open-source student project.[143]

      Education and research[edit]

      High Schoolstudents from Wyomissing Area Jr/Sr High School in Pennsylvania, United States present their use of 3D Printing in the classroom

      3D printing, and open source 3D printers in particular, are the latest technology making inroads into the classroom.[144][145][146] 3D printing allows students to PES 2021 Crack CPY PC Torrent Free Download prototypes of items without the use of expensive tooling required in subtractive methods. Students design and produce actual models they can hold. The classroom environment allows students to learn and employ new applications for 3D printing.[147] RepRaps, for example, have already been used for an educational mobile robotics platform.[148]

      Some authors have claimed that 3D printers offer an unprecedented "revolution" in STEM education.[149] The octopus box crack Archives for such claims comes from both the low cost ability for rapid prototyping in the classroom by students, but also the fabrication of low-cost high-quality scientific equipment from open hardware designs forming open-source labs.[150] Engineering and design principles are explored as well as architectural planning. Students recreate duplicates of museum items such as fossils and historical artifacts for study Category Archives: 3D Printing tool the classroom without possibly damaging sensitive collections. Other students interested in graphic designing can construct models with complex working parts easily. 3D printing gives students a new perspective with topographic maps. Science students can study cross-sections of internal organs of the human body and other biological specimens. And chemistry students can explore 3D models of molecules and the relationship within chemical compounds.[151] The true representation of exactly scaled bond length and bond angles in 3D printed molecular models can be used in organic chemistry lecture courses to explain molecular geometry and reactivity.[152]

      According to a recent paper by Kostakis et Category Archives: 3D Printing tool 3D printing and design can electrify various literacies and creative capacities of children in accordance with the spirit of the interconnected, information-based world.

      Future applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source scientific equipment.[150][154]

      Nowadays, the demand of 3D printing keep on increasing in order to fulfill the demands in producing parts with complex geometry at a lower development cost.[155] The increasing demands 3D printing parts in industry would eventually lead to the 3D printed parts repairing activity and secondary process such as joining, foaming Category Archives: 3D Printing tool cutting. This secondary process need to be developed in order to support the growth of the 3D printing application in the future. From the research, FSW is proven able to be used as one of the methods to join the metal 3D printing materials. By using proper FSW tools and correct parameter setting a sound and defect-free weld can be produce in order to joint the metal 3D printing materials.[156]

      Environmental use[edit]

      In Bahrain, large-scale 3D printing using a sandstone-like material has been used to create unique coral-shaped structures, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, which encourage coral polyps to colonize and regenerate damaged reefs. These structures have a much more natural shape than other structures used to create artificial reefs, and, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, unlike concrete, are neither acid nor alkaline with neutral pH.[157]

      Cultural heritage[edit]

      In the last several years 3D printing has been intensively used by in the cultural heritage field for preservation, restoration and dissemination purposes.[158] Many Europeans and North American Museums have purchased 3D printers and actively recreate missing pieces of their relics.[159]

      Scan the World is the largest archive of 3D printable objects of cultural significance from across the globe. Each object, originating from 3D scan data provided by their community, is optimised for 3D printing and free to download on MyMiniFactory. Through working alongside museums, such as The Victoria and Albert Museum[160] and private collectors,[161] the initiative serves as a platform for democratizing the art object.

      The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the British Museum have started using their 3D printers to create museum souvenirs that are available in the museum shops.[162] Other museums, like the National Museum of Military History and Varna Historical Museum, have gone further and Mirillis Action 4.0.3 updated Archives through the online platform Threeding digital models of their artifacts, created using Artec 3D scanners, in 3D printing friendly file format, which everyone can 3D print at home.[163]

      Specialty materials[edit]

      Consumer grade 3D printing has resulted in new materials that have been developed specifically for 3D printers. For example, filament materials have been developed to imitate wood in its appearance as well as its texture. Furthermore, new technologies, such as infusing carbon fiber[164] into printable plastics, allowing for a stronger, lighter material. In addition to new structural materials that have been developed due to 3D printing, new technologies have allowed for patterns to be applied directly to 3D printed parts. Iron oxide-free Portland cement powder has been used to create architectural structures up to 9 feet in height.[165][166][167]

      See also[edit]

      References[edit]

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      36. ^Hirsch, DL; Garfein, ES; Christensen, AM; Weimer, KA; Saddeh, PB; Levine, JP (2009). "Use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to produce orthognathically ideal surgical outcomes: a paradigm shift in head and neck reconstruction". J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 67 (10): 2115–22. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2009.02.007. PMID 19761905.
      37. ^Anwar, Shafkat; Singh, Gautam K.; Varughese, Justin; Nguyen, Hoang; Billadello, Joseph J.; Sheybani, Elizabeth F.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Manning, Peter; Eghtesady, Pirooz (2017). "3D Printing in Complex Congenital Heart Disease". JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging. 10 (8): 953–956. doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2016.03.013, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. PMID 27450874.
      38. ^Matsumoto, Jane S.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Foley, Thomas A.; Williamson, Eric E.; Leng, Shuai; McGee, Kiaran P.; Kuhlmann, Joel L.; Nesberg, Linda E.; Vrtiska, Terri J. (1 November 2015). "Three-dimensional Physical Modeling: Applications and Experience at Mayo Clinic". Radiographics. 35 (7): 1989–2006. doi:10.1148/rg.2015140260. PMID 26562234.
      39. ^Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.; Rybicki, Frank J. (1 November 2015), Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. "Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist". RadioGraphics. 35 (7): 1965–1988, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. doi:10.1148/rg.2015140320. PMC 4671424. PMID 26562233.
      40. ^Zopf, David A.; Hollister, Scott J.; Nelson, Marc E.; Ohye, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool G.; Green, Glenn E. (23 May 2013). "Bioresorbable Airway Splint Created with a Three-Dimensional Printer". N Engl J Med. 368 (21): 2043–2045. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1206319. PMID 23697530.
      41. ^Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Rekštytė, Sima; Lukoševičius, Laurynas; Butkus, Simas; Balčiūnas, Evaldas; Pečiukaitytė, Milda; Baltriukienė, Daiva; Bukelskienė, Virginija; Butkevičius, Arūnas; Unravel 2 PC full crack - Free Download - Repack - Hiu Games, Povilas; Rutkūnas, Vygandas; Juodkazis, Saulius (2014). "3D Microporous Scaffolds Manufactured via Combination Category Archives: 3D Printing tool Fused Filament Fabrication and Direct Laser Writing Ablation". Micromachines. MDPI. 5 (4): 839–858. doi:10.3390/mi5040839.
      42. ^"Transplant jaw made by 3D printer claimed as first". BBC. 2012-02-06.
      43. ^Rob Stein (2013-03-17). "Doctors Use 3-D Printing To Help A Baby Breathe". NPR.
      44. ^Moore, Calen (11 February 2014). "Surgeons have implanted a 3-D-printed pelvis into a U.K. cancer patient". fiercemedicaldevices.com. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
      45. ^Keith Perry (2014-03-12). "Man makes surgical history after having his shattered face rebuilt using 3D printed parts". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2014-03-12.[dead link]
      46. ^"How is 3D Printing Used in the Medical Industry?".
      47. ^Cohen, Daniel L.; Malone, Evan; Lipson, Hod; Bonassar, Lawrence J. (1 May 2006). "Direct freeform fabrication of seeded hydrogels in arbitrary geometries". Tissue Eng. 12 (5): 1325–1335. doi:10.1089/ten.2006.12.1325. PMID 16771645.
      48. ^"RFA-HD-15-023: Use of 3-D Printers for the Production of Medical Devices (R43/R44)". NIH grants. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
      49. ^"7 Ways 3D Printing Is Disrupting The Medical Industry". 3D Masterminds. Archived from Category Archives: 3D Printing tool original on 2016-12-31. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
      50. ^"Print your own medicine".
      51. ^"3D-printed sugar network to help grow artificial liver". BBC News. 2012-07-02.
      52. ^"Invetech helps bring bio-printers to life". Australian Life Scientist. Westwick-Farrow Media. December 11, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
      53. ^"Building body parts with 3D printing". 2010-05-22.
      54. ^Silverstein, Jonathan. "'Organ Printing' Could Drastically Change Medicine (ABC News, 2006)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
      55. ^"Engineering Ourselves – The Future Potential Power of 3D-Bioprinting?". Engineering.com.
      56. ^The Diplomat (2013-08-15). "Chinese Scientists Are 3D Printing Ears and Livers – With Living Tissue". Tech Biz. The Diplomat. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
      57. ^"How do they 3D print kidney in China". Retrieved 2013-10-30.
      58. ^BBC News (October 2014). "Inverness girl Hayley Fraser gets 3D-printed hand", BBC News, 2014-10-01. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
      59. ^"3D-Printed Foot Lets Crippled Duck Walk Again". 2 July 2013.
      60. ^Flaherty, Joseph (2013-07-30). "So Cute: Hermit Crabs Strut in Stylish 3-D Printed Shells". Wired.
      61. ^"3D Systems preps for global launch of 'printed' knee implants for dogs". FierceAnimalHealth.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
      62. ^Saxena, Varun. "FDA clears 3-D printed device for minimally invasive foot surgery", Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. FierceMedicalDevices.com. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
      63. ^Yue, J; Zhao, P; Gerasimov, JY; de Lagemaat, M; Grotenhuis, A; Rustema-Abbing, M; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, A; Ren, Y (2015). "3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins". Adv. Funct. Mater. 25 (43): 6756–6767. doi:10.1002/adfm.201502384.
      64. ^"Mish's Global Economic Trend Analysis: 3D-Printing Spare Human Parts; Ears and Jaws Already, Livers Coming Up ; Need an Organ? Just Print It". Globaleconomicanalysis.blogspot.co.uk, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. 2013-08-18. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
      65. ^Aias, L (11 Aug 2016). "Grecia, the toucan with the prosthetic beak, now receiving visitors". The Tico Times. Retrieved 14 Sep 2016.
      66. ^Kleinman, Zoe (2020-03-16). "Coronavirus: 3D printers save hospital with valves". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
      67. ^"Researchers 3D Print Odd Shaped Pills On A MakerBot, Completely Changing Drug Release Rates The Voice of 3D Printing / Additive Manufacturing". 3dprint.com. 2015-05-10. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
      68. ^Palmer, Eric (3 August 2015). "Company builds plant for 3DP pill making as it nails first FDA approval". fiercepharmamanufacturing.com. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
      69. ^Kuehn, Steven E. (September 2015). "I'm Printing Your Prescription Now, Ma'am". From the Editor. Pharmaceutical Manufacturing (paper). Putnam Media: 7.
      70. ^Trenfield, Sarah J; Awad, Atheer; Madla, Christine M; Hatton, Grace B; Firth, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, Jack; Goyanes, Alvaro; Gaisford, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, Simon; Basit, Abdul W (2019-10-03). "Shaping the future: recent advances of 3D printing in drug delivery and healthcare"(PDF). Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 16 (10): 1081–1094. doi:10.1080/17425247.2019.1660318. ISSN 1742-5247. PMID 31478752. S2CID 201805196.
      71. ^Uziel, Almog; Shpigel, Tal; Goldin, Nir; Lewitus, Dan Y (May 2019). "Three-dimensional printing for drug delivery devices: a state-of-the-art survey". Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine. 3 (2): 95–109. doi:10.2217/3dp-2018-0023. ISSN 2059-4755. S2CID 192621868.
      72. ^Melocchi, Alice; Uboldi, Marco; Maroni, Alessandra; Foppoli, Anastasia; Palugan, Luca; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea (April 2020). "3D printing by fused deposition modeling of single- and multi-compartment hollow systems for oral delivery – A review". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 579: 119155. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119155. PMID 32081794. S2CID 211230386.
      73. ^Melocchi, Alice; Uboldi, Marco; Cerea, Matteo; Foppoli, Anastasia; Maroni, Alessandra; Moutaharrik, Saliha; Palugan, Luca; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea (2020-10-01). "A Graphical Review on the Escalation of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D Printing in the Pharmaceutical Field". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 109 (10): 2943–2957. doi:10.1016/j.xphs.2020.07.011. ISSN 0022-3549. PMID 32679215. S2CID 220630295.
      74. ^Tienderen, Gilles Sebastiaan van; Berthel, Marius; Yue, Zhilian; Cook, Mark; Liu, Xiao; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G. (2018-09-02). "Advanced fabrication approaches to controlled delivery systems for epilepsy treatment". Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 15 (9): 915–925. doi:10.1080/17425247.2018.1517745. ISSN 1742-5247. PMID 30169981, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. S2CID 52140337.
      75. ^ ab"3D Printed Clothing Becoming a Reality". Resins Online. 2013-06-17. Archived Advanced SystemCare Pro 14 Crack With Lifetime License Key 2021 the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
      76. ^Michael Fitzgerald (2013-05-28). "With 3-D Printing, the Shoe Really Fits". MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
      77. ^Sharma, Rakesh (2013-09-10). "3D Custom Eyewear The Next Focal Point For 3D Printing". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-09-10.
      78. ^Parker C. J. (2015). The Human Acceptance of 3D Printing in Fashion Paradox: Is mass customisation a bridge too far? IWAMA 2015: 5th International Workshop of Advanced Manufacturing and Automation. Shanghai, China.
      79. ^"Karl Lagerfeld Showcases 3D Printed Chanel at Paris Fashion Week". 2015-07-08.
      80. ^"Noa Raviv uses grid patterns and 3D printing in fashion collection". 21 August 2014.
      81. ^"Jewelry - 3D Printing - EnvisionTEC". EnvisionTEC.com. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
      82. ^"Custom Bobbleheads". Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 13 January
      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

      photo of a 3d printerCSHL Library has a PRUSA i3 3D printer which is able to print objects in PLA plastic. The library gives instruction in 3D printing, so that you will be able to use the machine for training or prototyping purposes.

      3D Printer Upgraded

      We are happy to announce that our Prusa printer was upgraded to a MK2S, which is a nice boost from the original model. This new model was also award “Best 3D Printer” by Make: magazine.
      Prusa i3 MK2S 3D printer Technical specs (September 2017 – MK2S edition)

      • 31% bigger build volume – 10500 cm3 (25 x 21 x 20 cm or 9,84 x 8,3 x 8 in)
      • Open frame design for easy use
      • Integrated LCD and SD card controller (8GB included)
      • Up to 40% faster printing thanks to the genuine E3D V6 Full hotend
      • 0,4mm nozzle (easily changeable) for 1,75 mm filament
      • Layer height from 0.05 mm
      • Automatic mesh bed leveling
      • Heatbed with cold corners compensation – for warpless 3D printing from any material
      • Automatic skew axes compensation
      • Hassle free PEI print surface – no glass, no glue, no ABS juice
      • Supported materials – PLA, ABS, PET, HIPS, Flex PP, Ninjaflex, Laywood, Laybrick, Nylon, Bamboofill, Bronzefill, ASA, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, T-Glase, Carbon-fibers enhanced filaments, Polycarbonates…
      • Specially optimized firmware for quiet printing

      3D Models

      There are many free libraries of 3D models, which are ready to print. No need to design the module yourself. Here are our favorites.

      NIH 3D Print Exchange The NIH 3D Print Exchange provides scientifically accurate models in formats that are readily compatible with 3D printers, and offers a unique set of tools to create and share 3D-printable models related to biomedical science.

      MakerBot’s Thingiverse is a thriving design community for discovering, making, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, and sharing 3D printable things. As the world’s largest 3D printing community, we believe that everyone should be encouraged to create and remix 3D things, no matter their technical expertise or previous experience. In the spirit of maintaining an open platform, all designs are encouraged to be licensed under a Creative Commons license, meaning that anyone can use or alter any design.

      Instructables Explore. Shape. Make. Instructables was officially spun out of Squid Labs in the summer of 2006, and has gone on to grow from a modest hundreds of projects to over one hundred thousand (3D models are only a subset). The community that now calls the site home, is an amazing mix of wonder from around the world. Every day we continue to be amazed by the imagination, curiosity, and simple awesomeness of everyone who shares their creations with us on Instructables.

      GrabCAD Community accelerates the design process by tapping into the largest source of mechanical engineering content and knowledge in the world.

      Smithsonian X 3D launches a set of use cases which apply various 3D capture methods to iconic collection objects, as well as scientific missions. These projects indicate that this new technology has the potential not only to support the Smithsonian mission, but to transform museum core functions. Researchers DxO PhotoLab Crack 4.2.1 & License Key Full Free Download in the field may not come back with specimens, but with 3D data documenting a site or a find.

      CAD/CAM Software

      Onshape is the first and only full-cloud 3D CAD system that lets everyone on a design team simultaneously work together using tutorial Archives web browser, phone or tablet, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. They offers a free pricing tier for Makers.

      Solidworks An industry standard in 3D design. Complete set of packages, including rendering and testing.

      OpenSCAD is a software for creating solid 3D CAD models. It is free software and available for Linux/UNIX, Windows and Mac OS X. Unlike most free software for creating 3D models (such as Blender) it does not focus on the artistic aspects of 3D modeling but instead on the CAD aspects. Thus it might be the application you are looking for when you are planning to create 3D models of machine parts but pretty sure is Category Archives: 3D Printing tool what you are looking for when you are more interested in creating computer-animated movies. OpenSCAD is not an interactive modeler. Instead it is something like a 3D-compiler that reads in a script file that describes the object and renders the 3D model from this script file. This gives you (the designer) full control over the modeling process and enables you to easily change any step in the modeling process or make designs Windows 7 ultimate 32 bit crack serial keygen are defined by configurable parameters.

      AutoDesk 123D Design is a free, powerful, yet simple 3D creation and editing tool which supports many new 3D printers.

      Rhinoceros Rhino can create, edit, analyze, document, render, animate, and translate NURBS* curves, surfaces, and solids, point clouds, and polygon meshes. There are no limits on complexity, degree, or size beyond those of your hardware.

      Modeling Tools

      Blender is open source software design for artistic modeling, think animated characters. Blender is able to do: Photo-realistic Rendering, Fast Rigging (transforming a model into a posable character), Animation tool set, Sculpting, Game Design, and Video Editing.

      Silo 2 is a focused 3D modeling application with the ability to effortlessly switch between organically sculpting high-polygon models and precisely controlling hard-edged surfaces. It can be used for anything from creating 3D characters for video games and movies to quickly exploring 3D architectural ideas.

      Alternative Software

      Adobe Illustrator Long known for creating vector art (2D), You can use this tool for laser cutters.

      SketchUp users are architects, designers, builders, makers and engineers.

      Tinkercad is an easy, browser-based 3D design and modeling tool for all. Tinkercad is also your perfect 3d printing companion–it allows you to imagine anything, and then design it in minutes! Tinkercad is part of the 123D family of free apps from AutoDesk (Makers of AutoCAD).

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      3D printing

      Additive process used to make Category Archives: 3D Printing tool three-dimensional object

      For methods of transferring an image onto a 3D surface, see pad printing. For methods of generating autostereoscopic lenticular images, see lenticular printing and holography.

      A three-dimensional printer
      Timelapseof a three-dimensional printer in action

      3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model.[1] The term "3D printing" can refer to a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object,[2] with material being added together (such as plastics, liquids or powder grains being fused together), typically layer by layer.

      In the 1980s, 3D printing techniques were considered suitable only for the production of functional or aesthetic prototypes, and a more appropriate term for it at the time was rapid prototyping.[3] As of 2019[update], the precision, repeatability, and material range of 3D printing have increased to the point that some 3D printing processes are considered viable as an industrial-production technology, whereby the term additive manufacturing can be used synonymously with 3D printing.[4] One of the key advantages of 3D printing is the ability to produce very complex shapes or geometries that would be otherwise impossible to construct by hand, including hollow parts or parts with internal truss structures to reduce weight. Fused deposition modeling (FDM), which uses a continuous filament of a thermoplastic material, is the most common 3D printing process in use as of 2020[update].[5]

      Terminology

      The umbrella termadditive manufacturing (AM) gained popularity in the 2000s,[6] inspired by the theme of material being added together (in any of various ways). In contrast, the term subtractive manufacturing appeared as a retronym for the large family of machining processes with material removal as their common process. The term 3D printing still referred only to the polymer technologies in most minds, and the term AM was more likely to be used in metalworking and end-use part production contexts than among polymer, inkjet, or stereolithography enthusiasts. Inkjet was the least familiar technology even though it was invented in 1950 and poorly understood because of its complex nature. The earliest inkjets were used as recorders and not printers. As late as the 1970s the term recorder was associated with inkjet. Continuous Inkjet later evolved to On-Demand or Drop-On-Demand Inkjet. Inkjets were single nozzle at the start; they may now have as many as thousands of nozzles for printing in each pass over a surface.

      By the early 2010s, the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing evolved senses in which they were alternate umbrella terms for additive technologies, one being used in popular language by consumer-maker communities and the media, and the other used more formally by industrial end-use part producers, machine manufacturers, and global technical standards organizations. Until recently, the term 3D printing has been Category Archives: 3D Printing tool with machines low in price or in capability.[7]3D printing and additive manufacturing reflect that the technologies share the theme of material addition or joining throughout a 3D work envelope under automated control. Peter Zelinski, the editor-in-chief of Additive Manufacturing magazine, pointed out in 2017 that the terms are still often synonymous in casual usage,[8] but some manufacturing industry experts are trying to make a distinction whereby additive manufacturing comprises 3D printing plus other technologies or other aspects of a manufacturing process.[8]

      Other terms that have been used as synonyms or hypernyms have included desktop manufacturing, rapid manufacturing (as the logical production-level successor to rapid prototyping), and on-demand manufacturing (which echoes on-demand printing in the 2D sense of printing). Such application of the adjectives rapid and on-demand to the noun manufacturing was novel in the 2000s reveals the prevailing mental model of the long industrial era in which almost all production manufacturing involved long lead times for laborious tooling development, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Today, the term subtractive has not replaced the term machining, instead complementing it when a term that covers any removal method is needed. Agile tooling is the use of modular 8 Ball Deluxe 1.0.1 crack serial keygen to design Kaspersky Internet Security 2021 Crack Key + Activation Code free! that is produced by additive manufacturing or 3D printing methods to enable quick prototyping and responses to tooling and fixture needs. Agile tooling uses a cost-effective and high-quality method to quickly respond to customer and market needs, and it can be used in hydro-forming, stamping, injection molding and other manufacturing processes.

      History

      1940s and 1950s

      The general concept of and procedure to be used in 3D-printing was first described by Murray Leinster in his 1945 short story Things Pass By "But this constructor is both efficient and flexible. I feed magnetronic plastics — the stuff they make houses and ships of nowadays — into this moving arm. It makes drawings in the air following drawings it scans with photo-cells. But plastic comes Category Archives: 3D Printing tool of the end of the drawing arm and hardens as it comes . following drawings only" [9]

      It was also described by Raymond F. Jones in his story, "Tools of the Trade," published in the November 1950 issue of Astounding Science Fiction magazine. He referred to it as a "molecular spray" in that story.

      1970s

      In 1971, Johannes F Gottwald patented the Liquid Metal Recorder, U.S. Patent 3596285A, a continuous Inkjet metal material device to form a removable metal fabrication on a reusable surface for Eroge Genre - PC Games - Hiu Games use or salvaged for printing again by remelting. This appears to be the first patent describing 3D printing with rapid prototyping and controlled on-demand manufacturing of patterns.

      The patent states "As used herein the term printing is not intended in a limited sense but includes writing or other symbols, character or pattern formation with an ink. The term ink as used in is intended to include not only dye or pigment-containing materials, but any flowable substance or composition suited for application to the surface for forming symbols, characters, or patterns of intelligence by marking. The preferred ink is of a Hot melt type. The range of commercially available ink compositions which could meet the requirements of the invention are not known at the present time. However, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, satisfactory printing according to the invention has been achieved with the conductive metal alloy as ink."

      "But in terms of material requirements for such large and continuous displays, if consumed at theretofore known rates, but increased in proportion to increase in size, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, the high cost would severely limit any widespread enjoyment of a process or apparatus satisfying Category Archives: 3D Printing tool foregoing objects."

      "It is therefore an additional object of the invention to minimize use vray sketchup crack Archives materials in a process of the indicated class."

      "It is a further object of the invention that materials employed in such a process be salvaged for reuse."

      "According to another aspect of the invention, a combination for writing and the like comprises a carrier for displaying an intelligence pattern and an arrangement for removing the pattern from the carrier."

      In 1974, David E. H. Jones laid out the concept of 3D printing in his regular column Ariadne in the journal New Scientist.[10][11]

      1980s

      Early additive manufacturing equipment and materials were developed in the 1980s.[12]

      In April 1980, Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute invented two additive methods for fabricating three-dimensional plastic models with photo-hardening thermoset polymer, where the UV exposure area is controlled by a mask pattern or a scanning fiber transmitter.[13] He filed a patent for this XYZ plotter, which was published on 10 November 1981. (JP S56-144478).[14] His research results as journal papers were published in April and November in 1981.[15][16] However, there was no reaction to the series of his publications. His device was not highly evaluated in the laboratory and his boss did not show any interest. His research budget was just 60,000 yen or $545 a year. Acquiring the patent rights for the XYZ plotter was abandoned, and the project was terminated.

      A Patent Category Archives: 3D Printing tool 4323756, Method of Fabricating Articles by Sequential Deposition, Raytheon Technologies Corp granted 6 April 1982 using hundreds or thousands of 'layers' of powdered metal and a laser energy source is an early reference to forming "layers" and the fabrication of articles on a substrate.

      On 2 July 1984, American entrepreneur Bill Masters filed a patent for his Computer Automated Manufacturing Process and System (US 4665492).[17] This filing is on record at the USPTO as the first 3D printing patent in history; it was the first of three patents belonging to Masters that laid the foundation for the 3D printing systems used today.[18][19]

      On 16 July 1984, Alain Le Méhauté, Olivier de Witte, and Jean Claude André filed their patent for the stereolithography process.[20] The application of the French inventors was abandoned by the French General Electric Company (now Alcatel-Alsthom) and CILAS (The Laser Consortium).[21] The claimed reason was "for lack of business perspective".[22]

      In 1983, Robert Howard started R.H. Research, later named Howtek, Inc. in Feb 1984 to develop a color inkjet 2D printer, Pixelmaster, commercialized in 1986, using Thermoplastic (hot-melt) plastic ink.[23] A team was put together, 6 members[23] from Exxon Office Systems, Danbury Systems Division, an inkjet printer startup and some members of Howtek, Inc group who became popular figures in 3D Printing Industry. One Howtek member, Richard Helinski patent US5136515A, Method and Means for constructing three-dimensional articles by particle deposition, application 11/07/1989 granted 8/04/1992 formed a New Hampshire company C.A.D-Cast, Inc, name later changed to Visual Impact Corporation (VIC) on 8/22/1991. A prototype of the VIC 3D printer for this company is available with a video presentation showing a 3D model printed with a single nozzle inkjet. Another employee Herbert Menhennett formed a New Hampshire company HM Research in 1991 and introduced the Howtek, Inc, inkjet technology and thermoplastic materials to Royden Sanders of SDI and Bill Masters of Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM) where he worked for a number of years. Both BPM 3D printers and SPI 3D printers use Howtek, Inc style Inkjets and Howtek, Inc style materials. Royden Sanders licensed the Helinksi patent prior to manufacturing the Modelmaker 6 Pro at Sanders prototype, Inc (SPI) in 1993. James K. McMahon who was hired by Howtek, Inc to help develop the inkjet, later worked at Sanders Prototype and now operates Layer Grown Model Technology, a 3D service provider specializing in Howtek single nozzle inkjet and SDI printer support. James K. McMahon worked with Steven Zoltan, 1972 drop-on-demand inkjet inventor, at Exxon and has a patent Category Archives: 3D Printing tool 1978 that expanded the understanding of the single nozzle Category Archives: 3D Printing tool inkjets( Alpha jets) and help perfect the Howtek, Inc hot-melt inkjets. This Howtek hot-melt thermoplastic technology is popular with metal Gone Viral Early Access PC full crack - Free Download - Repack - Hiu Games casting, especially in the 3D printing jewelry industry.[24] Sanders (SDI) first Modelmaker 6Pro customer was Hitchner Corporations, Metal Casting Technology, Inc in Milford, NH a mile from the SDI facility in late 1993-1995 casting golf clubs and auto engine parts.

      On 8 August 1984 a patent, US4575330, assigned to UVP, Inc., later assigned to Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corporation[25] was filed, his own patent for a stereolithography fabrication system, in which individual laminae or layers are added by curing photopolymers with impinging radiation, particle bombardment, chemical reaction or just ultraviolet lightlasers. Hull defined the process as a "system for generating three-dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed,".[26][27] Hull's contribution was the STL (Stereolithography) file format and the digital slicing and infill strategies common to many processes today. In 1986, Charles "Chuck" Hull was granted a patent for this system, and his company, 3D Systems Corporation was formed and it released the first commercial 3D printer, the SLA-1,[28] later in 1987 or 1988.

      The technology used by most 3D printers to date—especially hobbyist and consumer-oriented models—is fused deposition modeling, a special application of plastic extrusion, developed in 1988 by S. Scott Crump and commercialized by his company Stratasys, which marketed its first FDM machine in 1992.[24]

      Owning a 3D printer in the 1980s cost upwards of $300,000 ($650,000 in 2016 dollars).[29]

      1990s

      AM processes for metal sintering or melting (such as selective laser sintering, direct metal laser sintering, and selective laser melting) usually went by their own individual names Category Archives: 3D Printing tool the 1980s and 1990s. At the time, all metalworking was done by processes that are now called non-additive (casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining); although plenty of automation was applied to those technologies (such as by robot welding and CNC), the idea of a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape with a toolpath was associated in metalworking only with processes that removed metal (rather than adding it), such as CNC milling, CNC EDM, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, and many others. But the automated techniques that added metal, which would later be called additive manufacturing, were beginning to challenge that assumption. By the mid-1990s, new techniques for material deposition were developed at Stanford and Carnegie Mellon University, including microcasting[30] and sprayed materials.[31] Sacrificial and support materials had also become more common, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, enabling new object geometries.[32]

      The term 3D printing originally referred to a powder bed process employing standard and custom inkjet print heads, developed at MIT by Emanuel Sachs in 1993 and commercialized by Soligen Technologies, Extrude Hone Corporation, and Z Corporation.[citation needed]

      The year 1993 also saw the start of an inkjet 3D printer company initially named Sanders Prototype, Inc and later named Solidscape, introducing a high-precision polymer jet fabrication system with soluble support structures, (categorized as a "dot-on-dot" technique).[24]

      In 1995 the Fraunhofer Society developed the selective laser melting process.

      2000s

      Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printing process patents expired in 2009.[33]

      2010s

      As the various additive processes matured, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool became clear that soon metal removal would no longer be the only metalworking process done through a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope, transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer. The 2010s were the first decade in which metal end use parts such as engine Backuptrans 3.2.45 activation key Archives and large nuts[35] would be grown (either before or instead of machining) in job production rather than obligately being machined from bar stock or plate. It is still the case that casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining are more prevalent than additive manufacturing in metalworking, but AM is now beginning to make significant inroads, and with the advantages of design for additive manufacturing, it is clear to engineers that much more is to come. Category Archives: 3D Printing tool place that AM is making a significant inroad is in the aviation industry. With nearly 3.8 billion air travelers in 2016,[36] the demand for fuel efficient and easily produced jet engines has never been higher. For large OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) like Pratt and Whitney (PW) and General Electric (GE) this means looking towards AM as a way to reduce cost, reduce the number of nonconforming parts, reduce weight in the engines to increase fuel efficiency and find new, highly complex shapes that would not be feasible with the antiquated manufacturing methods. One example of AM integration with aerospace was in 2016 when Airbus was delivered the first of GE's LEAP engine. This engine has integrated 3D printed fuel nozzles giving them a reduction in parts from 20 to 1, a 25% weight reduction and reduced assembly times.[37] A fuel nozzle is the perfect in road for additive manufacturing in a jet engine since it allows for optimized design of the complex internals and it is a low stress, non-rotating part. Similarly, in 2015, PW delivered their first AM parts in the PurePower PW1500G to Bombardier, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Sticking to low stress, non-rotating parts, PW selected the compressor stators and synch ring brackets [38] to roll out this new manufacturing technology for the first time. While AM is still playing a small role in the total number of parts in the jet engine manufacturing process, the return on investment can already be seen by the reduction in parts, the rapid production capabilities and the "optimized design in terms of performance and cost".[39]

      As technology matured, several authors had begun to speculate that 3D printing could aid in sustainable development in the developing world.[40]

      In 2012, Filabot developed a system for closing the loop[41] with plastic and allows for any FDM or FFF 3D printer to be able to print with a wider range of plastics.

      In 2014, Benjamin S. Cook and Manos M. Tentzeris demonstrate the first multi-material, vertically integrated printed electronics additive manufacturing platform (VIPRE) which enabled 3D printing of functional electronics operating up to 40 GHz.[42]

      As the price of printers started to drop people interested in this technology had more access and freedom to make what they wanted. The price as of 2014 was still high with the cost being over $2,000, yet this still allowed hobbyists an entrance into printing outside of production and industry methods.[43]

      The term "3D printing" originally referred to a process that deposits a binder material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads layer by layer. More recently, the popular vernacular has started using the term to encompass a wider variety of additive-manufacturing techniques such as electron-beam additive manufacturing and selective laser melting. The United States and global technical standards use the official term additive manufacturing for this broader sense.

      The most-commonly used 3D printing process (46% as of 2018[update]) is a material extrusion technique called fused deposition modeling, or FDM.[5] While FDM technology was invented after the other two most popular technologies, stereolithography (SLA) and selective laser sintering (SLS), Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, FDM is typically the most inexpensive of the three by a large margin,[citation needed] which lends to the popularity of the process.

      2020s

      As of 2020, 3D printers have reached the level of quality and price that allows most people to enter the world of 3D printing. In 2020 decent quality printers can be found for less than US$200 for entry level machines. These more affordable printers are usually fused deposition modeling (FDM) printers.[44]

      General principles

      Modeling

      Main article: 3D modeling

      CADmodel used for 3D printing
      3D models can be generated from 2D pictures taken at a 3D photo booth.

      3D printable models may be created with a computer-aided design (CAD) package, via a 3D scanner, or by a plain digital camera and photogrammetry software. 3D printed models created with CAD result in relatively fewer errors than other methods, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Errors in 3D printable models can be identified and corrected before printing.[45] The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D scanning is a process of collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object, creating a digital model based on it.

      CAD models can be saved in the stereolithography file format (STL), a de facto CAD file format for additive manufacturing that stores data based on triangulations of the surface of CAD models. STL is not tailored for additive manufacturing because it generates large file sizes of topology optimized parts and lattice structures due to the large number of surfaces involved. A newer CAD file format, the Additive Manufacturing File format (AMF) was introduced in 2011 to solve this problem. It stores information using Category Archives: 3D Printing tool triangulations.[46]

      Printing

      Before printing a 3D model from an STL file, it must first be examined for errors. Most CAD applications produce errors in output STL files,[47][48] of the following types:

      1. holes
      2. faces normals
      3. self-intersections
      4. noise shells
      5. manifold errors[49]
      6. overhang issues [50]

      A step in the STL generation known as "repair" fixes such problems in the original model.[51][52] Generally STLs that have been produced from a model obtained through 3D scanning often have more of these errors [53] as 3D scanning is often achieved by point to point acquisition/mapping, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. 3D reconstruction often includes errors.[54]

      Once completed, the STL file needs to be processed by a piece of software called a "slicer," which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code file containing instructions tailored to a specific type of 3D printer (FDM printers).[55] This G-code file can then be printed with 3D printing client software (which loads the G-code, and uses it to instruct the 3D printer during the 3D printing process).

      Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X–Y resolution in dots per inch (dpi) or micrometers (µm). Typical layer thickness is around 100 μm (250 DPI), although some machines can print layers as thin as 16 μm (1,600 DPI).[56] X–Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers. The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 μm (510 to 250 DPI) in diameter.[citation needed] For that printer resolution, specifying a mesh resolution of 0.01–0.03 mm and a chord length ≤ 0.016 mm generates an optimal STL output file for a given model input file.[57] Specifying higher resolution results in larger files without increase in print quality.

      3:31 Timelapse of an 80-minute video of an object being made out of PLAusing molten polymer deposition

      Construction of a model Category Archives: 3D Printing tool contemporary Adobe Software Archives can take anywhere from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model. Additive systems can typically reduce this time to a few hours, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, although it varies widely depending on the type of machine used and the size and number of models being produced simultaneously.

      Finishing

      Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, greater accuracy can be achieved by printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then removing material using a higher-resolution subtractive process.[58]

      The layered structure of all additive manufacturing processes leads inevitably to a stair-stepping effect on part surfaces which are curved or tilted in respect to the building platform. The effects strongly depend on the orientation of a part surface inside the building process.[59]

      Some printable polymers such as ABS, allow the surface finish to be smoothed and improved using chemical vapor processes[60] based on acetone or similar solvents.

      Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials FileZilla Pro Crack 2021 [v3.51.2] Full Version Free Download the course of constructing parts. These techniques are able to print in multiple colors and color combinations simultaneously, and would not necessarily require painting, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool.

      Some printing techniques require internal supports to be built for overhanging features during construction. These supports must be mechanically removed or dissolved upon completion of the print.

      All of the commercialized metal 3D printers involve cutting the metal component off the metal substrate after deposition. A new process for the GMAW 3D printing allows for substrate surface modifications to remove aluminum[61] or steel.[62]

      Materials

      Detail of the Stoofbrugin Amsterdam, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, the world's first 3D-printed metal bridge.

      Traditionally, 3D printing focused on polymers for printing, due to the ease of manufacturing and handling polymeric materials. However, the method has rapidly evolved to not only print various polymers[63] but also metals[64][65] and ceramics,[66] making 3D printing a versatile option for manufacturing. Layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models is a modern concept that "stems from the ever-growing CAD industry, more specifically the solid modeling side of CAD. Before solid modeling was introduced in the late 1980s, three-dimensional models were created with wire frames and surfaces."[67] but in all cases the layers of materials are controlled by the printer and Category Archives: 3D Printing tool material properties. The three-dimensional material layer is controlled by deposition rate as set by the printer operator and stored in a computer file. The earliest printed patented material was a Hot melt type ink for printing patterns using a heated metal alloy. See 1970's history above.

      Charles Hull filed the first patent on August 8, 1984, to use a UV-cured acrylic resin using a UV masked light source at UVP Corp to build a simple model. The SLA-1 was the first SL product announced by 3D Systems at Autofact Exposition, Detroit, November 1978 in Detroit. The SLA-1 Beta shipped in Jan 1988 to Baxter Healthcare, Pratt and Whitney, General Motors and AMP. The first production SLA-1 shipped to Precision Castparts in April 1988. The UV resin material changed over quickly to an epoxy-based material resin. In both cases SLA-1 models needed UV oven cure after being rinsed in a solvent cleaner to remove uncured boundary resin. A Post Cure Apparatus (PCA) was sold with all systems. The early resin printers required a blade to move fresh resin over the model on each layer. The layer thickness was 0.006 inches and the HeCd Laser model of the SLA-1 was 12 watts and swept across the surface at 30 in per second. UVP was acquired by 3D Systems in Jan 1990.[68]

      A review in the history shows a number of materials (resins, plastic powder, plastic filament and hot-melt plastic ink) were used in the 1980s for patents in the rapid prototyping field. Masked lamp UV-cured resin was also introduced by Cubital's Itzchak Pomerantz in the Soldier 5600, Carl Deckard's (DTM) Laser sintered thermoplastic powders, and adhesive-laser cut paper (LOM) stacked to form objects by Michael Feygin before 3D Systems made its first announcement. Scott Crump was also working with extruded "melted" plastic filament modeling (FDM) and Drop deposition had been patented by William E Masters a week after Charles Hull's patent in 1984, but he had to discover Thermoplastic Inkjets introduced by Visual Impact Corporation 3D printer in 1992 using inkjets from Howtek, Inc., before he formed BPM to bring out his own 3D printer product in 1994.[68]

      Multi-material 3D printing

      Main article: Multi-material 3D printing

      Efforts to achieve multi-material 3D printing range from enhanced FDM-like processes like VoxelJet, to novel voxel-based printing technologies like Layered Assembly.[69]

      A drawback of many existing 3D printing technologies is that they only allow one material to be printed at a time, limiting many potential applications which require the integration of different materials in the same object, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Multi-material 3D printing solves this problem by allowing objects of complex and heterogeneous arrangements of materials to be manufactured using a single printer. Here, a material must be specified for each voxel (or 3D printing pixel element) inside the final object volume.

      The process can be fraught with complications, however, due to the isolated and monolithic algorithms. Some commercial devices have sought to solve these issues, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, such as building a Spec2Fab translator, but the progress is still very limited.[70] Nonetheless, in the medical industry, a concept of 3D printed pills and vaccines has been presented.[71] With this new concept, multiple medications can be combined, which will decrease many risks. With more and more applications of multi-material 3D printing, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, the costs of daily life and high technology development will become inevitably lower.

      Metallographic Category Archives: 3D Printing tool of 3D printing is also being researched.[72] By classifying each material, CIMP-3D can systematically perform 3D printing with multiple materials.[73]

      4D Printing

      Main article: 4D printing

      Using 3D printing and multi-material structures in additive manufacturing has allowed for the design and creation of what is called 4D printing. 4D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which the printed object changes shape with time, temperature, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, or some other type of stimulation. 4D printing allows for the creation of dynamic structures with adjustable shapes, properties or functionality, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. The smart/stimulus responsive materials that are created using 4D printing can be activated to create calculated responses such as self-assembly, self-repair, multi-functionality, reconfiguration and shape shifting. This allows for customized printing of shape changing and shape-memory materials.[74]

      4D printing has the potential to find new applications and uses for materials (plastics, composites, metals, etc.) and will create new alloys and composites that were not viable before. The versatility of this technology and materials can lead to advances in multiple fields of industry, including space, commercial and the medical field. The repeatability, precision, and material range for 4D printing must increase to allow the process to become more practical throughout these industries. 

      To become a viable industrial production option, there are a couple of challenges that 4D printing must overcome. The challenges of 4D printing include the fact that the microstructures of these printed smart materials must be close to or better than the parts obtained through traditional machining processes. New and customizable materials need to be developed that have the ability to consistently respond to varying external stimuli and change to their desired shape. There is also a need to design new software for the various technique types of 4D printing. The 4D printing software will need to take into consideration the base smart material, printing technique, and structural and geometric requirements of the design.[75]

      Processes and printers

      Main article: 3D printing processes

      There are many different branded additive manufacturing processes, that can be grouped into seven categories:[76]

      Schematic representation of the 3D printing Category Archives: 3D Printing tool known as Fused Filament Fabrication; a filament a)of plastic material is fed through a heated moving head b)that melts and extrudes it depositing it, layer after layer, in the desired shape c). A moving platform e)lowers after each layer is deposited. For this kind of technology additional vertical support structures d)are needed to sustain overhanging parts

      The main differences between processes are Category Archives: 3D Printing tool the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used. Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, which is why some companies offer a choice of powder and polymer for the material used to build the object.[77] Others sometimes use standard, off-the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype. The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, costs of the 3D printer, of the printed prototype, choice and cost of the materials, and color capabilities.[78] Printers that work directly with metals are generally expensive. However less expensive printers can be used to make a mold, which is then used to make metal parts.[79]

      ISO/ASTM52900-15 defines seven categories of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes within its meaning: binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, sheet lamination, and vat photopolymerization.[80]

      The first process where three-dimensional material is deposited to form an object was done with Material Jetting[24] or as it was originally called particle deposition. Particle deposition by inkjet first started with Continuous Inkjet technology (CIT) (1950's) Twinmotion 2019 Crack Torrent Free Download (Win/Mac) later with drop-On-Demand Inkjet technology.(1970's) using Hot-melt inks. Wax inks were the first three-dimensional materials jetted and later low temperature alloy metal was jetted with CIT. Wax and thermoplastic hot-melts were jetted next by DOD. Objects were very small and started with text characters and numerals for signage. An object must have form and can be handled. Wax characters tumbled off paper documents and inspired a Liquid Metal Recorder patent to make metal characters for signage in 1971. Thermoplastic color inks (CMYK) printed with layers of each color to form the first digitally formed layered objects in 1984. The idea of investment casting with Solid-Ink jetted images or patterns in 1984 led to the first patent to form articles from particle deposition in 1989, issued in 1992.

      Some methods melt or soften the material to produce the layers. In Fused filament fabrication, also known as Fused deposition modeling (FDM), the model or part is produced by extruding small beads or streams of material which harden immediately to form layers. A filament of thermoplastic, metal wire, or other material is fed into an extrusion nozzle head (3D printer extruder), which heats the material and turns the flow on and off, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. FDM is somewhat restricted in the variation of shapes that may be fabricated. Another technique fuses parts of the layer and then moves upward in the working area, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up. This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the part being produced, which reduces the need for temporary auxiliary supports for the piece.[81] Recently, FFF/FDM has expanded Category Archives: 3D Printing tool 3-D print directly from pellets to avoid the conversion to filament. This process is called fused particle fabrication (FPF) (or fused granular fabrication (FGF) and has the potential to use more recycled materials.[82]

      Powder Bed Fusion techniques, or PBF, include several processes such as DMLS, SLS, SLM, MJF and EBM. Powder Bed Fusion processes can be used with an array of materials and their flexibility allows for geometrically complex structures,[83] making it a go to choice for many 3D printing projects. These techniques include selective laser sintering, with both metals and polymers, and direct metal laser sintering.[84]Selective laser melting does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layer-wise method that has mechanical properties similar to those of conventional manufactured metals. Electron beam melting is a similar type of additive manufacturing technology for metal parts (e.g. titanium alloys). EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum.[85][86] Another method consists of an inkjet 3D printing system, which creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder (plaster, or resins) and printing a binder in the cross-section of the part using an inkjet-like process. With laminated object manufacturing, thin layers are cut to shape and joined together. In addition to the previously mentioned methods, HP has developed the Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) which is a powder base technique, though no lasers are involved. An inkjet array applies fusing and detailing agents which are then combined by heating to create a solid layer.[87]

      Schematic representation of Stereolithography; a light-emitting device a)(laser or DLP) selectively illuminate the transparent bottom c)of a tank b)filled with a liquid photo-polymerizing resin; the solidified resin d)is progressively dragged up by a lifting platform e)

      Other methods cure liquid materials using different sophisticated technologies, such as stereolithography. Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography to produce a solid part from a liquid. Inkjet printer systems like the Objet PolyJet system spray photopolymer materials onto a build tray in ultra-thin layers (between 16 and 30 µm) until the part is completed.[88] Each photopolymer layer is cured with UV light after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing. Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D micro-fabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerisation. Due to the nonlinear nature of photo excitation, the gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused while the remaining gel is then washed away. Feature sizes of under 100 nm are easily produced, as well as complex structures with moving and interlocked parts.[89] Yet another approach uses a synthetic resin that is solidified using LEDs.[90]

      In Mask-image-projection-based stereolithography, a 3D digital model is sliced by a set of horizontal planes. Each slice is converted into a two-dimensional mask image. The mask image is then projected onto a photocurable liquid resin surface and light Category Archives: 3D Printing tool projected onto the resin to cure it in the shape of the layer.[91]Continuous liquid interface production begins with a pool of liquid photopolymerresin. Part of the pool bottom is transparent to ultraviolet light (the "window"), which causes the resin to solidify. The object rises slowly enough to allow resin to flow under and maintain contact with the bottom of the object.[92] In powder-fed directed-energy deposition, a high-power laser is used to melt metal powder supplied to the focus of the laser beam. The powder fed directed energy process is similar to Selective Laser Sintering, but the metal powder is applied only where material is being added to the part at that moment.[93][94]

      As of December 2017[update], additive manufacturing systems were on the market that ranged from $99 to $500,000 in price and were employed in industries including aerospace, architecture, automotive, defense, and medical replacements, among many others, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. For example, General Electric uses high-end 3D Printers to build parts for turbines.[95] Many of these systems are used for rapid prototyping, before mass production methods are employed. Higher education has proven to be a major buyer of desktop and professional 3D printers which industry experts generally view as a positive indicator.[96] Libraries around the world have also become locations to house smaller 3D printers for educational and community access.[97] Several projects and companies are making efforts to develop affordable 3D printers for home desktop use, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. Much of this work has been driven by and targeted at Category Archives: 3D Printing tool adopter communities, with additional ties to the academic and hacker communities.[98]

      Computed axial lithography is a method for 3D printing based on computerised tomography scans to create prints in photo-curable resin. It was developed by a collaboration between the University of California, Berkeley with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.[99][100][101] Unlike other methods of 3D printing it does not build models through depositing layers of material like fused deposition modelling and stereolithography, instead it creates objects using a series of 2D Pes 2017 crack serial keygen projected onto a cylinder of resin.[99][101] Avast Antitrack Premium 19.4.2370 Crack + Serial Key 2021 Latest is notable for its ability to build an object much more quickly than other methods using resins and the ability to embed objects within the prints.[100]

      Liquid additive manufacturing (LAM) is a 3D printing technique which deposits a liquid or high viscose material (e.g. Liquid Silicone Rubber) onto a build surface to create an object which then is vulcanised using heat to harden the object.[102][103][104] The process was originally created by Adrian Bowyer and was then built upon by German RepRap.[102][105][106]

      Applications

      Main article: Applications of 3D printing

      The Audi RSQwas made with rapid prototyping industrial KUKArobots
      A 3D selfiein 1:20 scale printed using gypsum-based printing
      A 3D printed jet engine model
      3D printed enamelled pottery
      3D printed sculpture of an Egyptian pharaoh shown at Threeding

      In the current scenario, 3D printing or additive manufacturing has been used in manufacturing, medical, industry and sociocultural sectors Speedify 11.2.3 Crack With Serial Key Full Free Download 2021 Heritage, etc.) which facilitate 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing to become successful commercial technology.[107] More recently, 3D printing has also been used in the humanitarian Category Archives: 3D Printing tool development sector to produce a range of medical items, prosthetics, spares and repairs.[108] The earliest application of additive manufacturing was on the toolroom end of the manufacturing spectrum. For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants, and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost of developing prototypes of new parts and devices, which was earlier only done with subtractive toolroom methods such as CNC milling, turning, and precision grinding.[109] In the 2010s, additive manufacturing entered production to a much greater extent.

      Food industry

      Additive manufacturing of food is being developed by squeezing out food, layer by layer, into three-dimensional objects. A large variety of foods are appropriate candidates, such as chocolate and candy, and flat foods such as crackers, pasta,[110] and pizza.[111][112] NASA is looking Category Archives: 3D Printing tool the technology in order to create 3D printed food to limit food waste and to make food that is designed to fit an astronaut's dietary needs.[113] In 2018, Italian bioengineer Giuseppe Scionti developed a technology allowing to generate fibrous plant-based meat analogues using a custom 3D bioprinter, mimicking meat texture and nutritional values.[114][115]

      Fashion industry

      3D printing has entered the world of clothing, with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed bikinis, shoes, and dresses.[116] In commercial production Nike is using 3D printing to prototype and manufacture the 2012 Vapor Laser Talon football shoe for players of American football, and New Balance is 3D manufacturing custom-fit shoes for athletes.[116][117] 3D printing has come to the point where companies are printing consumer grade eyewear with on-demand custom fit and styling (although they cannot print the lenses). On-demand customization of glasses is possible with rapid prototyping.[118]

      Vanessa Friedman, fashion director and chief fashion critic at The New York Times, says 3D printing will have a significant value for fashion companies down the road, especially if it transforms into a print-it-yourself tool for shoppers. "There's real sense that this is not going to happen anytime soon," she says, "but it will happen, and it will create dramatic change in how we think both about intellectual property and how things are in the supply chain." She adds: "Certainly some of the fabrications that brands can use will be dramatically changed by technology."[119]

      Transportation industry

      The Stoofbrugin Amsterdam, the world's first 3D-printed metal bridge

      In cars, trucks, and aircraft, Additive Manufacturing is beginning to transform both (1) unibody and fuselage design and production and (2) Category Archives: 3D Printing tool design and production. For example:

      • In early 2014, Swedish supercar manufacturer Koenigsegg announced the One:1, a supercar that utilizes many components that were 3D printed.[120]Urbee is the name of the first car in the world car mounted using the technology 3D printing (its bodywork and car windows were "printed").[121][122][123]
      • In 2014, Local Motors debuted Strati, a functioning vehicle that was entirely 3D Printed using ABS plastic and carbon fiber, except the powertrain.[124]
      • In May 2015 Airbus announced that its new Airbus A350 XWB included over 1000 components manufactured by 3D printing.[125]
      • In 2015, a Royal Air ForceEurofighter Typhoon fighter jet flew with printed parts. The United States Air Force has begun to work with 3D printers, and the Israeli Air Force has also purchased a 3D printer to print spare parts.[126]
      • In 2017, GE Aviation revealed that it had used design for additive manufacturing to create a helicopter engine with 16 parts instead of 900, with great potential impact on reducing the complexity of supply chains.[127]

      Firearm industry

      AM's impact on firearms involves two dimensions: new manufacturing methods for established companies, and new possibilities for the making of do-it-yourself firearms. In 2012, the US-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to design a working plastic 3D printed firearm "that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer."[128][129] After Defense Distributed released their plans, questions were raised regarding the effects that 3D printing and widespread consumer-level CNC machining[130][131] may have on gun control effectiveness.[132][133][134][135] Moreover, armour Category Archives: 3D Printing tool strategies can be enhanced by taking inspiration from nature and prototyping those designs easily possible using additive manufacturing.[136]

      Health sector

      Surgical uses of 3D printing-centric therapies have a history beginning in the mid-1990s with anatomical modeling for bony reconstructive surgery planning. Patient-matched implants were a natural extension of this work, leading to truly personalized implants that fit one unique individual.[137] Virtual planning of surgery and guidance using 3D printed, personalized instruments have been applied to many areas of surgery including total joint replacement and craniomaxillofacial reconstruction with great success.[138] One example of this is the bioresorbable trachial splint to treat newborns with tracheobronchomalacia[139] developed at the University of Michigan. The use of additive manufacturing for serialized production of orthopedic implants (metals) is also license teamviewer 15 Archives due to the ability to efficiently create porous surface structures that facilitate osseointegration. The hearing aid and dental industries are expected to be the biggest area of future development using the custom 3D printing technology.[140]

      In March 2014, surgeons in Swansea used 3D printed parts to rebuild the face of a motorcyclist who had been seriously injured in a road accident.[141] In May 2018, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, 3D printing has been used for the kidney transplant to save a PicturesToExe Deluxe Crack + Latest Version Download [2021] boy.[142] As of 2012[update], 3D bio-printing technology has been studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet printing techniques, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. In this process, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems.[143] Recently, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, a heart-on-chip has been created which matches properties of cells.[144]

      Thermal degradation during 3D printing of resorbable polymers, same as in surgical sutures, has been studied, and parameters can be adjusted to minimize the degradation during processing. Soft pliable scaffold structures for cell cultures can be printed.[145]

      In 3D printing, computer-simulated microstructures are commonly used to fabricate objects with spatially varying properties. This is achieved by dividing the volume of the desired object into smaller subcells using computer aided simulation tools and then filling these cells with appropriate microstructures during fabrication. Several different candidate structures with similar behaviours are checked against each other and the object is fabricated when an optimal set of structures are found. Advanced topology optimization methods are used to ensure the compatibility of structures in adjacent cells. This flexible approach to 3D fabrication is widely used across various disciplines from biomedical sciences where they are used to create complex bone structures[146] and human tissue[147] to robotics where they are used in the creation of soft robots with movable parts.[148][149] 3D printing also finds its uses more and more in design and fabrication of Laboratory apparatus [150]

      3D printing has also been employed by researchers in the pharmaceutical field. During the last few years there's been a surge in academic interest regarding drug delivery with the aid of AM techniques. This technology offers a unique way for materials to be utilized in novel formulations.[151] AM manufacturing allows for the usage of materials and compounds in the development of formulations, in ways that are not possible with conventional/traditional techniques in the pharmaceutical field, e.g. tableting, cast-molding, etc. Moreover, one of the major advantages of 3D printing, especially in the case of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), is the personalization of the dosage form that can be achieved, thus, targeting the patient's specific needs.[152] In the not-so-distant future, 3D printers are expected to reach hospitals and pharmacies in order to provide on demand production of personalized formulations according to the patients' needs.[153]

      In 2018, 3D printing technology was used for the first time to create a matrix for cell immobilization in fermentation. Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized on 3D-printed nylon beads was chosen as a model study. It was shown that those 3D-printed beads were capable of promoting high density cell attachment and propionic acid production, which could be adapted to other fermentation bioprocesses.[154]

      In 2005, academic journals had begun to report on the possible artistic applications of 3D printing technology.[155] As of 2017[update], domestic 3D printing was reaching Category Archives: 3D Printing tool consumer audience beyond hobbyists and enthusiasts. Off the shelf machines were increasingly capable of producing practical household applications, for example, ornamental objects. Some practical examples include a working clock[156] and gears printed for home woodworking machines among other purposes.[157] Web sites associated with home 3D printing tended to include backscratchers, coat hooks, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, door knobs, etc.[158]

      Education sector

      3D printing, and open source 3D printers in particular, are the latest technology making inroads into the classroom.[159][160][161] Some authors have claimed that 3D printers offer an unprecedented "revolution" in STEM education.[162][163] The evidence for such claims comes from both the low-cost ability for rapid prototyping in the classroom by students, but also the fabrication of low-cost high-quality scientific equipment from open hardware designs forming open-source labs.[164] Future applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source scientific Category Archives: 3D Printing tool heritage and museum-based digital twin

      In the last several years 3D printing has been intensively used by in the cultural heritage field for preservation, restoration and dissemination purposes.[166] Many Europeans and North American Museums have purchased 3D printers and actively recreate Soundtoys 5.3.2 Crack Archives pieces of their relics[167] and archaeological monuments such as Tiwanaku in Bolivia.[168] The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the British Museum have started using their 3D printers to create museum souvenirs that are available in the museum shops.[169] Other museums, like the National Museum of Military History and Varna Historical Museum, have gone further and sell through the online platform Threeding digital models of their artifacts, created using Artec 3D scanners, in 3D printing friendly file format, which everyone can 3D print at home.[170]

      The application of 3D printing for the representation of architectural assets has many challenges. In 2018, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, the structure of Iran National Bank was traditionally surveyed and modelled in computer graphics(CG) software (Cinema4D) and was optimised for 3D printing. The team tested the technique for the construction of the part and it was successful. After testing the procedure, the modellers reconstructed the structure in Cinema4D and exported the front part of the model to Netfabb. The entrance of the building was chosen due to the 3D printing limitations and the budget of the project for producing the maquette. 3D Printing was only one of the capabilities enabled by the produced 3D model of the bank, but due to the project limited brief, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, the team did not continue modelling for the virtual representation or other applications.[171] In 2021, Parsinejad et al. comprehensively compared the hand surveying method for 3D reconstruction ready for 3D printing with Digital Recording (adoption of Photogrammetry method).[171]

      Recent other applications

      3D printed soft actuators is a growing application of 3D printing technology which has found its place in the 3D printing applications. These soft actuators are being developed to deal with soft structures and organs especially in biomedical sectors and where the interaction between human and robot is inevitable. The majority of the existing soft actuators are fabricated by conventional methods that require manual fabrication of devices, post processing/assembly, and lengthy iterations until maturity of the fabrication is achieved. Instead of the tedious and time-consuming aspects of the current fabrication processes, researchers are exploring an appropriate manufacturing approach for effective fabrication of soft actuators. Thus, 3D printed soft actuators are introduced to revolutionise the design and fabrication of soft actuators with custom geometrical, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, functional, and control properties in a faster and inexpensive approach. They also enable incorporation of all actuator components into a single structure eliminating the need to use external joints, adhesives, and fasteners. Circuit board manufacturing involves multiple steps which include imaging, drilling, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, plating, soldermask coating, nomenclature printing and surface finishes. These steps include many chemicals such as harsh solvents and acids. 3D printing circuit boards remove the need for many of these steps while still producing complex designs.[172] Polymer ink is used to create the layers of the build while silver polymer is used for creating the traces and holes used to allow electricity to flow.[173] Current circuit board manufacturing can be a tedious process depending on the design. Specified materials are gathered and sent into inner layer processing where images are printed, developed Category Archives: 3D Printing tool etched. The etches cores are Category Archives: 3D Printing tool punched to add lamination tooling. The cores are then prepared for lamination. The stack-up, the buildup of a circuit board, is built and sent into lamination where the layers are bonded. The boards are then measured and drilled. Many steps Category Archives: 3D Printing tool differ from this stage however for simple designs, the material goes through a plating process to plate the holes and surface. The outer image is then printed, developed and etched. After the image is defined, the material must get coated with soldermask for later soldering. Nomenclature is then added so components can be identified later. Then the surface finish is added. The boards are routed out of panel form into their singular or array form and then electrically tested. Aside from the paperwork which must be completed which proves the boards meet specifications, the boards are then packed and shipped. The benefits of 3D printing would be that the final outline is defined from the beginning, no imaging, punching or lamination is required and electrical connections are made with the silver polymer which eliminates drilling and plating. The final paperwork would also be greatly reduced due to the Category Archives: 3D Printing tool of materials required to build the circuit board. Complex designs which may takes weeks to complete through normal processing can be 3D printed, greatly reducing manufacturing time.

      During the COVID-19 pandemic 3d printers were used to supplement the strained supply of PPE through volunteers using their personally owned printers to produce various pieces of personal protective equipment (i.e. frames)

      As of 2021 and the years leading up to it, 3D printing has become both an industrial tool as well as a consumer product. With the price of certain 3D printers becoming ever cheaper and the quality constantly increasing many people have picked up the hobby of 3D printing. As of current estimates there are over 2 million people around the world Category Archives: 3D Printing tool have purchased a 3D printer for hobby use.[174]

      Legal aspects

      Intellectual property

      See also: Free hardware

      3D printing has existed for decades within certain manufacturing industries where many legal regimes, including patents, industrial design rights, copyrights, and trademarks may apply. However, there is not much jurisprudence to say how these laws will apply if 3D printers become mainstream and individuals or hobbyist communities begin manufacturing items for personal use, for non-profit distribution, or for sale.

      Any of the mentioned legal regimes may prohibit the distribution of the designs used in 3D printing, or the distribution or sale of the printed item. To be allowed to do these things, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, where an active intellectual property was involved, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, a person would have to contact the owner and ask for a licence, which may come with conditions and a price. However, many patent, design and copyright laws contain a standard limitation or exception for 'private', 'non-commercial' use of inventions, designs or works of art protected under intellectual property (IP). That standard limitation or exception may leave such private, non-commercial uses outside the scope of IP rights.

      Patents cover inventions including processes, machines, manufacturing, and compositions of matter and have Category Archives: 3D Printing tool finite duration which varies between countries, but generally 20 years from the date of application. Therefore, if a type of wheel is patented, printing, using, or selling such a wheel could be an infringement of the patent.[175]

      Copyright covers an expression[176] in a tangible, fixed medium and often lasts for the life of the author plus 70 years thereafter.[177] If someone makes a statue, they may have a copyright mark on the appearance of that statue, so if someone sees that statue, they cannot then distribute designs to print ArcGIS Pro Crack Free Download Archives identical or similar statue.

      When a feature Bootstrap Studio 5.8.3 Crack + License Key Full Version 2022 both artistic (copyrightable) and functional (patentable) merits, when the question has appeared in US court, the courts have often held the feature is not copyrightable unless it can be separated from the functional aspects of the item.[177] In other countries the law and the courts may apply a different approach allowing, for example, the design of a useful device to be registered (as a whole) as an industrial design on the understanding that, in case of unauthorized copying, only the non-functional features may be claimed under design law whereas any technical features could only be claimed if covered by a Category Archives: 3D Printing tool patent.

      Gun legislation and administration

      Main article: 3D printed firearms

      The US Department of Homeland Security and the Joint Regional Intelligence Center released a memo stating that "significant advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing capabilities, availability of free digital 3D printable files for firearms components, and difficulty regulating file sharing may present public safety risks from unqualified gun seekers who obtain or manufacture 3D printed guns" and that "proposed legislation to ban 3D printing of weapons may deter, but cannot completely prevent, their production. Even if the practice is prohibited by new legislation, online distribution of these 3D printable files will be as difficult to control as any other illegally traded music, movie or software files."[178] Currently, it is not prohibited by law to manufacture firearms for personal use in the United States, as long as the firearm is not produced with the intent to be sold or transferred, and meets a few basic requirements, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. A license is required to manufacture firearms for sale or distribution. The law prohibits a person from assembling a non–sporting semiautomatic rifle or shotgun from 10 or more imported parts, as well as firearms that cannot be detected by metal detectors or x–ray machines. In addition, the making of an NFA firearm requires a tax payment and advance approval by ATF.[179]

      Attempting to restrict the distribution of gun plans via the Internet has been likened to the futility of preventing the widespread distribution of DeCSS, which enabled DVD ripping.[180][181][182][183] After the US government had Defense Distributed take down the plans, they were still widely available via the Pirate Bay and other file sharing sites.[184] Downloads of the plans from the UK, Germany, Spain, and Brazil were heavy.[185][186] Some US legislators have proposed regulations on 3D printers to prevent them from being used for printing guns.[187][188] 3D printing advocates have suggested that such regulations would be futile, could cripple the 3D printing industry, and could infringe on free speech rights, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, with early pioneer of 3D printing Professor Hod Lipson suggesting that gunpowder could be controlled instead.[189][190][191][192][193][194]

      Internationally, where gun controls are generally stricter than in the United States, some commentators have said the impact may be more strongly felt since alternative firearms are not as easily obtainable.[195] Officials in the United Kingdom have noted that producing a 3D printed gun would be illegal under their gun control laws.[196]Europol stated Category Archives: 3D Printing tool criminals have access to other sources of weapons but noted that as technology improves, the risks of an effect would increase.[197][198]

      Aerospace regulation

      In the United States, the FAA has anticipated a desire to use additive manufacturing techniques and has been considering how best to regulate this process.[199] The FAA has jurisdiction over such fabrication because all aircraft parts must be made under FAA production approval or under other FAA regulatory categories.[200] In December 2016, the FAA approved the production of a 3D printed fuel nozzle for the GE LEAP engine.[201] Aviation attorney Jason Dickstein has suggested that additive manufacturing is merely a production method, and should be regulated like any other production method.[202][203] He has suggested that the FAA's focus should be on guidance to explain compliance, rather than on changing the existing rules, and that existing regulations and guidance permit a company "to develop a robust quality system that adequately reflects regulatory needs for quality assurance."[202]

      Health and safety

      Main article: Health and safety hazards of 3D printing

      See also: Health and safety hazards of nanomaterials

      A video on research done on printer emissions

      Research on the health and safety concerns of 3D printing is new and in development due to the recent proliferation of 3D printing devices. In 2017, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has published a discussion paper on the processes and materials involved in 3D printing, potential implications of this technology for occupational safety and health and avenues for controlling potential hazards.[204]

      Impact

      Additive manufacturing, starting with today's infancy period, requires manufacturing firms to be flexible, ever-improving users of all available technologies to remain competitive. Advocates of additive manufacturing also predict that this arc of technological development will counter globalization, as end users will do much of their own manufacturing rather than engage in trade to buy products from other people and corporations.[12] The real integration of the newer additive technologies into commercial production, however, is Category Archives: 3D Printing tool a matter of complementing traditional subtractive methods rather than displacing them entirely.[205]

      The futurologistJeremy Rifkin[206] claimed that 3D printing signals the beginning of a third industrial revolution,[207] succeeding the production line assembly that dominated manufacturing starting in the late 19th century.

      Social change

      Since the 1950s, a number of writers and social commentators have speculated in some depth about the social and cultural changes that might result from the advent of commercially affordable additive manufacturing technology.[208] In recent years, 3D printing is creating significant impact in the humanitarian and development sector. Its potential to facilitate distributed manufacturing is resulting in supply chain and logistics benefits, by reducing the need for transportation, warehousing and wastage. Furthermore, social and economic development is being advanced through the creation of local production economies.[108]

      Others have suggested that as more and more 3D printers start to enter people's homes, the conventional relationship between the home and the workplace might get further eroded.[209] Likewise, it has also been suggested that, as it becomes easier for businesses to transmit designs for new objects around the globe, so the need for high-speed freight services might also become less.[210] Finally, given the ease with which certain objects can now be replicated, it remains to be seen whether changes will be made to current copyright legislation so as to protect intellectual property rights with the new technology widely available.

      As 3D printers became more accessible to consumers, online social platforms have developed to support the community.[211] This includes websites that allow users to access information such as how to build a 3D printer, as well as social forums that discuss how to improve 3D print quality and discuss 3D printing news, as well as social media websites that are dedicated to share 3D models.[212][213][214] RepRap is a wiki based website that was created to hold all information on 3d printing, and has developed into a community that aims to bring 3D printing to everyone. Furthermore, there are other sites such as Pinshape, Thingiverse and MyMiniFactory, which were created initially to allow users to post 3D files for anyone to print, allowing for decreased transaction cost of sharing 3D files. These websites have allowed greater social interaction between users, creating communities dedicated to 3D printing.

      Some call attention to the conjunction of Commons-based peer production with 3D printing and other low-cost manufacturing techniques.[215][216][217] The self-reinforced fantasy of a system of eternal Category Archives: 3D Printing tool can be overcome with the development of economies of scope, and here, society can play an important role contributing to the raising of the whole productive structure to a higher plateau of more sustainable and customized productivity.[215] Further, it is true that many issues, problems, and threats arise due to the democratization of the means of production, and especially regarding the physical ones.[215] For instance, the recyclability of advanced nanomaterials is still questioned; weapons manufacturing could become easier; not to mention the implications for counterfeiting[218] and on intellectual property.[219] It might be maintained that in contrast to the industrial paradigm whose competitive dynamics were about economies of scale, Commons-based peer production 3D printing could develop economies of scope. While the advantages of scale rest on cheap global transportation, the economies of scope share infrastructure costs (intangible and tangible productive resources), taking advantage of the capabilities of the fabrication tools.[215] And following Neil Gershenfeld[220] in that "some of the least developed parts of the world need some of the most advanced technologies," Commons-based peer production and 3D printing may offer the necessary tools for thinking globally but acting locally in response to certain needs.

      Larry Summers wrote about the "devastating consequences" of 3D printing and other technologies (robots, artificial intelligence, etc.) for those who perform routine tasks. In his view, "already there are more American men on disability insurance than doing production work in manufacturing. And the trends are all in the wrong direction, particularly for the less skilled, as the capacity of capital embodying artificial intelligence Category Archives: 3D Printing tool replace Category Archives: 3D Printing tool as well as Category Archives: 3D Printing tool work will increase rapidly in the years ahead." Summers recommends more vigorous cooperative efforts to address the "myriad devices" (e.g., tax havens, bank secrecy, money laundering, and regulatory arbitrage) enabling the holders of great wealth to "a paying" income and estate taxes, and to make it more difficult to accumulate great fortunes without requiring "great social contributions" in return, including: more vigorous enforcement of anti-monopoly laws, reductions in "excessive" protection for intellectual property, greater encouragement Category Archives: 3D Printing tool profit-sharing schemes that may benefit workers and give them a stake in wealth accumulation, strengthening of collective bargaining arrangements, improvements VRay 5 Crack Sketchup + (100% Working) License Key 2022 corporate governance, strengthening of financial regulation to eliminate subsidies to financial activity, easing of land-use restrictions that may cause the real estate of the rich to keep rising in value, better training for young people and retraining for displaced workers, and increased public and private investment in infrastructure development—e.g., in energy production and transportation.[221]

      Michael Spence wrote that "Now comes a . powerful, wave of digital technology that is replacing labor in increasingly complex tasks. This process of labor substitution and disintermediation has been underway for some time in service sectors—think of ATMs, online banking, enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, mobile payment systems, and much more. This revolution is spreading to the production of goods, where robots and 3D printing are displacing labor." In his view, the vast majority of the cost of digital technologies comes at the start, in the design of hardware (e.g. 3D printers) and, more important, in creating the software that enables machines to carry out various tasks. "Once this is achieved, the marginal cost of the hardware is relatively low (and declines as scale rises), and the marginal cost of replicating the software is essentially zero, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. With a huge potential global market to amortize the upfront fixed costs of design and testing, the incentives to invest [in digital technologies] are compelling."[222]

      Spence believes that, unlike prior digital technologies, which drove firms to deploy underutilized pools of valuable labor around the world, the motivating force in the current wave of digital technologies "is cost reduction via the replacement of labor." For example, as the cost of 3D printing technology declines, it is "easy to imagine" that production may become "extremely" local and customized. Moreover, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool, production may occur in response to actual demand, not anticipated or forecast demand. Spence believes that labor, no matter how inexpensive, will become a less important asset for growth and employment expansion, with labor-intensive, process-oriented manufacturing becoming less effective, and that re-localization will appear in both developed and developing countries. In his view, production will not disappear, but it will be less labor-intensive, and all countries will eventually need to rebuild their growth models around digital technologies and the human capital supporting their deployment and expansion. Spence writes that "the world we are entering is one in which the most powerful global flows will be ideas and digital capital, not goods, services, and traditional capital. Adapting to this will require shifts in mindsets, policies, investments (especially in human capital), and quite possibly models of employment and distribution."[222]

      Naomi Wu regards the usage of 3D printing in the Chinese classroom (where rote memorization is standard) to teach design principles and creativity as the most exciting recent development of the technology, and Category Archives: 3D Printing tool generally regards 3D printing as being the next desktop publishing revolution.[223]

      Environmental change

      The growth of additive manufacturing could have a large impact on the environment. As opposed to traditional manufacturing, for instance, in which pieces are cut from larger blocks of material, additive manufacturing creates products layer-by-layer and prints only relevant parts, wasting much less material and thus wasting less energy in producing the raw materials needed.[224] By making only the bare structural necessities of products, additive manufacturing also could make a profound contribution to lightweighting, reducing the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of vehicles and other forms of transportation.[225] A case study on an airplane component made using additive manufacturing, for example, found that the component's use saves 63% of relevant energy and carbon dioxide emissions over the course of the product's lifetime.[226] In addition, previous life-cycle assessment of additive manufacturing has estimated that adopting the technology could further lower carbon dioxide emissions since 3D printing creates localized production, and products would not need to be transported long distances to reach their final destination.[227]

      Continuing to adopt additive manufacturing does pose some environmental downsides, however. Despite additive manufacturing reducing waste from the subtractive manufacturing process by up to 90%, the additive manufacturing process creates other forms of waste such as non-recyclable material (metal) powders. Additive manufacturing has not yet reached its theoretical material efficiency potential of 97%, but it may get closer Category Archives: 3D Printing tool the technology continues to increase productivity.[228]

      Some large FDM printers which melt High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets may also accept sufficiently clean recycled material such as chipped milk bottles. In addition these printers can use shredded material coming from faulty builds or unsuccessful prototype versions thus reducing overall project wastage and materials handling and storage, Category Archives: 3D Printing tool. The concept has been explored in the RecycleBot.

      See also

      References

      1. ^"3D printing scales up". The Economist. 5 September 2013.
      2. ^Excell, Jon (23 May 2010). "The rise of additive manufacturing". The Engineer. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
      3. ^"Learning Course: Additive Manufacturing – Additive Fertigung". tmg-muenchen.de.
      4. ^Lam, Hugo K.S.; Ding, Li; Cheng, T.C.E.; Zhou, Honggeng (1 January 2019). "The impact of 3D printing implementation on stock returns: A contingent dynamic capabilities perspective". International Journal of Operations & Production Management. 39 (6/7/8): 935–961. doi:10.1108/IJOPM-01-2019-0075. ISSN 0144-3577. S2CID 211386031.
      5. ^ ab"Most used 3D Category Archives: 3D Printing tool technologies 2017–2018

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