SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs

SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs

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Gurpreet Singh

IIM, Ahmedabad

Expert talk by Mr. Gurpreet Singh (IIM-Ahmedabad) under the Artist in Residence program was conducted by Department of Environmental Science & Engineering for two days i.e. August 30-31, 2019. The SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs apprised the students and faculties about present environmental issues and the ongoing global talk SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs climate change. He also emphasized on the environmental problems i.e. water scarcity in and around the Saurashtra region, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. His talk also highlighted the importance of food security. The enthusiastic eighty-one students and thirteen faculties of Environmental Science & Engineering and Dept. of Microbiology took active participation in this session where the speaker elucidated the example of Lauren Singer’s zero waste lifestyle and enthralled the audience.

Mr. Gurpreet Singh imparted the important steps that need to be undertaken to reduce the pollution of our environment SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs with Climate change. He seemed to be very enthusiastic about restoring the Eco balance of the earth.

He discussed various forthcoming career scopes, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. An interactive session was organized for discussing the shortcomings and value addition for the undergoing projects for the B.Tech and M.Tech final year students. He gave valuable insights to the student project and also encouraged them to review the research done in that particular field.

A plantation drive campaign towards greener campus was augmented to make the students aware and involve more towards a greener lifestyle. The pledge taken by students and faculties to save the environment at the end of the session was a very enlightening move for everyone.

The second day started with a field visit for the ongoing project “Wealth from waste by Vermicomposting”. The valuable insights that he put forth is regarding the use of flexible and ready-to-shift compost bed so that the nearby villagers can make their own resource from their waste.

An interactive discussion with the faculties pertaining towards sustainable development in operations e.g. scope for rainwater harvesting or biogas plant etc. augmented a synergy where the amalgamation of management skills and environmental perspectives generated future horizons towards sustainability. Contemporary methodologies of plantations for the sustainable future were discussed during the session. He updated the students with govt. subsidies and tax benefits for the entrepreneurship in agriculture. He SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs valuable tips and techniques regarding the growth of crops in the regions deprived of water and also suggested the sustainable approach for survival. He had earlier emphasized the effects of climate and the various ways of agriculture that can be fruitful for the agricultural activity within Saurashtra region.

Exhibition of photographs taken by Gurpreet Singh in Saurashtra was done in the afternoon session. Mr. Gurpreet is a Volunteer for photography and short story writing for People’s Archive of Rural India – with six photo-stories named Gender, Education, Camel in Culture, etc. Each and every photograph depicts a story which carves a niche for the illustrated picture. The pictorial description mesmerized the audience and the session was embraced by senior dignitaries SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs faculties.

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Exploration of Mars

Overview of the exploration of Mars

Not to be confused with Colonization of Mars or Human mission to Mars.

Year Missions
2021 11 11


2020 8 8


2019 8 8


2018 9 9


2017 8 8


2016 8 8


2015 SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs 7


2014 7 7


2013 5 5


2012 5 5


2011 4 4


2010 5 5


2009 5 5


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2007 5 5


2006 6 6


2005 5 5


2004 5 5


2003 3 3


2002 2 2


2001 2 2


2000 1 1


1999 1 1


1998 1 1


1997 2 2


1996 0

The planet Mars has been explored remotely by spacecraft. Probes sent from Earth, beginning in the late 20th century, have yielded a large increase in knowledge about the Martian system, focused primarily on understanding its geology and habitability potential.[1] Engineering interplanetary journeys is complicated and the exploration of Mars has experienced a high failure rate, especially the early attempts. Roughly sixty percent of all spacecraft destined for Mars failed before completing their missions and some failed before their observations could begin. Some missions have met with unexpected success, such as the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity which operated for years beyond their specification.[2]

Current status[edit]

A 19th-century hand-drawn map by Giovanni Schiaparelli, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, and a more modern photographic image, with a blended one in the middle.

As of May 2021[update], there are three operational rovers on the surface of Mars, the Curiosity and Perseverance rovers, both operated by the United States of America space agency NASA, as well as the Zhurong rover, part of the Tianwen-1 mission by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).[3][4] There are eight orbiters surveying the planet: Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Orbiter Mission, MAVEN, the Trace Gas Orbiter, the Tianwen-1 orbiter, and the Hope Mars Mission, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, which have contributed massive amounts of information about Mars. The stationary lander InSight is investigating the deep interior of Mars. Various sample return missions are being planned to pick up the samples obtained by the Perseverence rover. An attempted return mission for Mars' moonPhobos (Fobos-Grunt) failed at launch in 2011.[5] In all, there are 13 probes currently surveying Mars including the Ingenuity helicopter, which is scouting sites for Perseverance to study.[6]

The next missions expected to arrive at Mars are:

Martian system[edit]

Main articles: Mars, Martian surface, Atmosphere of Mars, and Moons of Mars

Mars has long been the subject of human interest. Early telescopic observations revealed color changes on the surface that were attributed to seasonal vegetation and apparent linear features were ascribed to intelligent design. Further telescopic SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs found two moons, Phobos and Deimos, polar ice caps and the feature now known as Olympus Mons, the Solar System's tallest mountain. The discoveries piqued further interest in the study and exploration of the red planet. Mars is a rocky planet, like Earth, that formed around the same time, yet with only half the diameter of Earth, and a far thinner atmosphere; it has a cold and desert-like surface.[7]

One way the surface of Mars has been categorized, is by thirty "quadrangles", with each quadrangle named for a prominent physiographic feature within that quadrangle.[8][9]

Launch windows[edit]

Spacecraft launches and Mars distance from Earth in millions of kilometers

The minimum-energy launch windows for a Martian expedition occur at intervals of Ableton Live 10 Crack Registration Code Archives - CrackPur two years and two months (specifically 780 days, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, the planet's synodic period with respect to Earth).[12] In addition, the lowest available transfer energy varies on a roughly 16-year cycle.[12] For example, a minimum occurred in the 1969 and 1971 launch windows, rising to a peak in the late 1970s, and hitting another low in 1986 and 1988.[12]

Past and current missions[edit]

Main article: List of missions to Mars


    Starting in 1960, the Soviets SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs a series of probes to Mars including the first intended flybys and hard (impact) landing (Mars 1962B).[15] The first successful flyby of Mars was on 14–15 July 1965, by NASA's Mariner 4.[16] On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 became the first space probe to orbit another planet when it entered into orbit around Mars.[17] The amount of data returned by probes increased dramatically as technology improved.[15]

    The first to contact the surface were two Soviet probes: Mars 2lander on November 27 and Mars 3 lander on December 2, 1971—Mars 2 failed during descent and Mars 3 about twenty seconds after the first Martian soft landing.[18]Mars 6 failed during descent but did return some corrupted atmospheric data in 1974.[19] The 1975 NASA launches of the Viking program consisted of two orbiters, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, each with a lander that successfully soft landed in 1976. Viking 1 remained operational for six years, Viking 2 for three. The Viking landers relayed the first color panoramas of Mars.[20]

    The Soviet probes Phobos 1 and 2 were sent to Mars in 1988 to study Mars and its two moons, with arcade vst crack Archives focus on SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. Phobos 1 lost contact on the way to Mars. Phobos 2, while successfully photographing Mars and Phobos, failed before it was set to release two landers to the surface of Phobos.[21]

    Mars has a reputation as a difficult space exploration target; SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs 25 of 55 missions through 2019, or 45.5%, have been fully successful, with a further three partially successful and partially failures.[citation needed] However, of the sixteen missions since 2001, twelve have been successful and eight of these are still operational.

    Missions that ended prematurely after Phobos 1 and 2 (1988) include (see Probing difficulties section for more details):

    Following the 1993 failure of the Mars Observer orbiter, the NASA Mars Global Surveyor achieved Mars orbit in 1997. This mission was a complete success, having finished its primary mapping mission in early 2001. Contact was lost with the probe in November 2006 during its third extended program, spending exactly 10 operational years in space. The NASA Mars Pathfinder, carrying a robotic exploration vehicle Sojourner, landed in the Ares Vallis on Mars in the summer of 1997, returning many images.[22]

    Mars Landing Sites (16 December 2020)

    NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter entered Mars orbit in 2001.[23]Odyssey'sGamma Ray Spectrometer detected significant amounts of hydrogen in the upper metre or so of regolith on Mars. This hydrogen is thought to be contained in large deposits of water SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs Mars Express mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) reached Mars in 2003. It carried the Beagle 2 lander, which was not heard from after being released and was declared lost in February 2004. Beagle 2 was located in January 2015 by HiRise camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) having landed safely but failed to fully deploy its solar panels and antenna.[25][26] In early 2004, the Mars ExpressPlanetary Fourier Spectrometer team announced the orbiter had detected methane in the Martian atmosphere, a potential biosignature. ESA announced in June 2006 the discovery of aurorae on Mars by the Mars Express.[27]

    In January 2004, the NASA twin Mars Exploration Rovers named Spirit (MER-A) and Opportunity (MER-B) landed on the surface of Mars. Both have met and exceeded all their science objectives. Among the most significant scientific returns has been conclusive evidence that liquid water existed at some time in the past at both landing sites. Martian dust devils and windstorms have occasionally cleaned both rovers' solar panels, and thus increased their lifespan.[28]Spirit rover (MER-A) was active until 2010, when it stopped sending data because it got stuck in a SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs dune and was unable to reorient itself to recharge its batteries.[5]

    On 10 March 2006, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) probe arrived in orbit to conduct a two-year science survey. The orbiter began mapping the Martian terrain and weather to find suitable landing sites for upcoming lander missions. The MRO captured the first image of a series of active avalanches near the planet's north pole in 2008.[29]

    Rosetta came within 250 km of Mars during its 2007 flyby.[30]Dawn flew by Mars in February 2009 for a gravity assist on its way to investigate Vesta and Ceres.[31]

    Phoenix landed on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008.[32] Its robotic arm dug into the Martian soil and the presence of water ice was confirmed on June 20, 2008.[33][34] The mission concluded on November 10, 2008 after contact was lost.[35] In 2008, the price of transporting material from the surface of Earth to the surface of Mars was approximately US$309,000 per kilogram.[36]

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission was launched on November 26, 2011 and it delivered the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012 UTC. It is larger and more advanced than the Mars Exploration Rovers, with a velocity of up to 90 meters per hour (295 feet per hour).[37] Experiments include a laser chemical sampler that can deduce the composition of rocks at a distance of 7 meters.[38]

    MAVEN orbiter was launched on 18 November 2013, and on 22 September 2014, it was injected into an areocentric elliptic orbit 6,200 km (3,900 mi) by 150 km (93 mi) above the planet's surface to study its atmosphere. Mission goals include determining how the planet's atmosphere and water, presumed to have once been substantial, were lost over time.[39]

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched their Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) on November 5, 2013, and it was inserted into Mars orbit on September 24, 2014. India's ISRO is the fourth space agency to reach Mars, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, after the Soviet space program, NASA and ESA.[40] India successfully placed a spacecraft into Mars orbit, and became the first country to do so in its maiden attempt.[41]

    The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter arrived at Mars in 2016 and deployed the Schiaparelli EDM lander, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, a test lander. Schiaparelli crashed on surface, but it transmitted key data during its parachute descent, so the test was declared a partial success.[42]

    Overview of missions[edit]

    The following entails a brief overview of Mars exploration, oriented towards orbiters and flybys; see also Mars landing and Mars rover.

    Early Soviet missions[edit]

    Main articles: Mars 1M, Mars 1, and Mars program


    Between 1960 and 1969, the Soviet Union launched nine probes intended to reach Mars. They all failed: three at launch; three failed to reach near-Earth orbit; one during the burn to put the spacecraft into trans-Mars trajectory; and two during the interplanetary orbit.

    The Mars 1M programs (sometimes dubbed Marsnik in Western media) was the first Soviet unmanned spacecraft interplanetary exploration program, which consisted of two flyby probes launched towards Mars in October 1960, Mars 1960A and Mars 1960B (also known as Korabl 4 and Korabl 5 respectively). After launch, the third stage pumps on both launchers were unable to develop enough pressure to commence ignition, so Earth parking orbit was not achieved. The spacecraft reached an altitude SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs 120 km before reentry, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs.

    Mars 1962A was a Mars flyby mission, launched on October 24, 1962 and Mars 1962B an intended first Mars lander mission, launched in SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs December of the same year (1962). Both failed from either breaking up as they were going into Earth orbit or having the upper stage explode in orbit during the burn to put the spacecraft into trans-Mars trajectory.[5]

    The first success[edit]
    SpacecraftOrbiter or flyby outcomeLander outcome
    Mars 1FailureFailure
    Mars 2SuccessFailure
    Mars 3Partial successPartial success
    Mars 4FailureN/A
    Mars 5Partial successN/A
    Mars 6SuccessFailure
    Mars 7SuccessFailure
    Phobos 1FailureNot deployed
    Phobos 2Partial successNot deployed

    Mars 1 (1962 Beta Nu 1), an automatic interplanetary spacecraft launched to Mars on November 1, 1962, was the first probe of the Soviet Mars probe program to achieve interplanetary orbit. Mars 1 was intended to fly by the planet at a distance of about 11,000 km and take images of the surface as well as send back data on cosmic radiation, micrometeoroid impacts and Mars' magnetic field, radiation environment, atmospheric structure, and possible organic compounds.[43][44] Sixty-one radio transmissions were held, initially at 2-day intervals and later at 5-day intervals, from which a large amount of interplanetary data was collected. On 21 March 1963, when the spacecraft was at a distance of 106,760,000 km from Earth, on its way to Mars, communications ceased due to failure of its antenna orientation system.[43][44]

    In 1964, both Soviet probe launches, of Zond 1964A on June 4, and Zond 2 on November 30, (part of the Zond program), resulted in failures. Zond 1964A had a failure at launch, while communication was lost with Zond 2 en route to Mars after a mid-course maneuver, in early May 1965.[5]

    In 1969, and as part of the Mars probe program, the Soviet Union prepared two SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs 5-ton orbiters called M-69, dubbed by NASA as Mars 1969A and Mars 1969B. Both probes were lost in launch-related complications with Adobe acroat dc pro keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock newly developed Proton rocket.[45]


    The USSR intended to have How to open Command Prompt on Windows 10/8/7 with Admin Rights? first artificial satellite of Mars beating the planned American Mariner 8 and Mariner 9 Mars orbiters. In May 1971, one day after Mariner 8 malfunctioned at launch and failed to reach orbit, Cosmos 419 (Mars 1971C), a heavy probe of the Soviet Mars program M-71, also failed to launch. This spacecraft was designed as an orbiter only, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, while the next two probes of project M-71, Mars 2 and Mars 3, were multipurpose combinations of an orbiter and a lander with small skis-walking rovers that would be the first planet rovers outside the Moon. They were successfully launched in mid-May 1971 and reached Mars about seven months later. On November 27, 1971 the lander of Mars 2 crash-landed due to an on-board computer malfunction and became the first man-made object to reach the surface of Mars. On 2 December 1971, the Mars 3 lander became the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing, but its transmission was interrupted after 14.5 seconds.[46]

    The Mars 2 and 3 orbiters sent back a relatively large volume of data covering the period from December 1971 to March 1972, although transmissions continued through to August. By 22 August 1972, after sending back data and a total of 60 pictures, Mars 2 and 3 concluded their missions. The images and data enabled creation of surface relief maps, and gave information on the Martian gravity and magnetic fields.[47]

    In 1973, the Soviet Union sent four more probes to Mars: the Mars 4 and Mars 5 orbiters and the Mars 6 and Mars 7 flyby/lander combinations. All missions except Mars 7 sent back data, with Mars 5 being most successful. Mars 5 transmitted just 60 images before a loss of pressurization in the transmitter housing ended the mission. Mars 6 lander SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs data during descent, but failed upon impact. Mars 4 flew by the planet at a range of 2200 km returning one swath of pictures and radio occultation data, which constituted the first detection of the nightside ionosphere on Mars.[48] Mars 7 probe separated prematurely from the carrying vehicle due to a problem in the operation of one of the onboard systems (attitude control or retro-rockets) and missed the planet by 1,300 kilometres (8.7×10−6 au).[citation needed]

    Mariner program[edit]

    Main articles: Mariner program, Mariner 4, Mariner 6 and 7, and Mariner 9

    The first close-up images taken of Mars in 1965 from Mariner 4 show an area about 330 km across by 1200 km from limb to bottom of frame.

    In 1964, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory made two attempts at reaching Mars. Mariner 3 and Mariner 4 were identical spacecraft designed to carry out the first flybys of Mars. Mariner 3 was launched on November 5, 1964, but the shroud encasing the spacecraft atop its rocket failed to open properly, dooming the mission. Three weeks later, on November 28, 1964, Mariner 4 was launched successfully on a 71⁄2-month voyage to Mars.[citation needed]

    Mariner 4 flew past Mars on July 14, 1965, providing the first close-up photographs of another planet. The pictures, gradually played back to Earth from a small tape recorder on SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs probe, showed impact craters. It provided radically more accurate data about the planet; a surface atmospheric pressure of about 1% of Earth's and daytime temperatures of −100 °C (−148 °F) were estimated. No magnetic field[49][50] or Martian radiation belts[51] were detected, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. The new data meant redesigns for then planned Martian landers, and showed life would have a more difficult time surviving there than previously anticipated.[52][53][54][55]

    NASA continued the Mariner program with another pair of Mars flyby probes, Mariner 6 and 7. They were sent at the next launch window, and reached the planet in 1969. During the following launch window the Mariner program again suffered the loss of one of a pair of probes. Mariner 9 successfully entered orbit about Mars, the first spacecraft SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs to do so, after the launch time failure of its sister ship, Mariner 8. When Mariner 9 reached Mars in 1971, it and two Soviet orbiters (Mars 2 and Mars 3) found that a planet-wide dust storm was in progress. The mission controllers used the time spent waiting for the storm to clear to have the probe rendezvous with, and photograph, Phobos. When the storm cleared sufficiently for Mars' surface to be photographed by Mariner 9, the pictures returned represented a substantial advance over previous missions. These pictures were the first to offer more detailed evidence that liquid water might at one time have flowed on the planetary surface. They also finally discerned the true nature of many Martian albedo features. For example, Nix Olympica was one SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs only a few features that could be seen during the planetary duststorm, revealing it to be the highest mountain (volcano, to be exact) on any planet in the entire Solar System, and leading to its SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs as Olympus Mons.[citation needed]

    Viking program[edit]

    Main articles: Viking program, Viking 1, Viking 2, and Viking spacecraft biological experiments

    The Viking program launched Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft to Mars in 1975; The program consisted of two orbiters and two landers – these were the second and third spacecraft to successfully land on Mars.

    Viking 1 lander site (1st color, July 21, 1976).

    Viking 2 lander site (1st color, September 5, 1976).

    Viking 2 lander site (September 25, 1977).

    (False color image) Frost at Viking 2 site (May 18, 1979).

    Martian sunset over Chryse Planitia at Viking 1 site (August 20, 1976).

    The primary scientific objectives of the lander mission were to search for biosignatures and observe meteorologic, seismic and magnetic properties of Mars. The results of the biological experiments on board the Viking landers remain inconclusive, with a reanalysis of the Viking data published in 2012 suggesting signs of microbial life on Mars.[56][57]

    Scour patterns located in Lunae Palus.

    The Viking orbiters revealed that large floods of water carved deep valleys, eroded grooves into bedrock, and traveled thousands of kilometers. Areas of branched streams, in the southern hemisphere, suggest that rain once fell.[58][59][60]

    Mars Pathfinder, Sojourner rover[edit]

    Main articles: Mars Pathfinder and Mars landing

    Mars Pathfinder was a U.S, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars on July 4, 1997. It consisted of a lander and a small 10.6 kilograms (23 lb) wheeled robotic rover named Sojourner, which was the first rover to operate on the surface of Mars.[61][62] In addition to scientific objectives, the Mars Pathfinder mission was also a "proof-of-concept" for various technologies, such as an airbag landing system and automated obstacle avoidance, both later exploited by the Mars Exploration Rovers.[61]

    Mars Global Surveyor[edit]

    Main article: Mars Global Surveyor

    This image from Mars Global Surveyor spans a region about 1500 meters <a href=Pycharm 2019.3 Crack Archives. Gullies, similar to those formed on Earth, are visible from Newton Basin in Sirenum Terra." src="" width="220" height="218">
    Gullies, similar to those formed on Earth, are visible on this image from Mars Global Surveyor.

    After the 1992 failure of NASA's Mars Observer orbiter, NASA retooled and launched Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). Mars Global Surveyor launched on November 7, 1996, and entered orbit on September 12, 1997. After a year and a half trimming its orbit from a looping ellipse to a circular track around the planet, the spacecraft began its primary mapping mission in March 1999. It observed the planet from a low-altitude, nearly polar orbit over the course of one complete Martian year, the equivalent of nearly two Earth years. Mars Global Surveyor completed its primary mission on January 31, 2001, and completed several extended mission phases.[citation needed]

    The mission studied the entire Martian surface, atmosphere, and interior, and returned more data about the red planet than all previous Mars missions combined. The data has been archived and remains available publicly.[63]

    This color-coded elevation map was produced from data collected by Mars Global Surveyor. It shows an area around Northern Kasei Valles, showing relationships among Kasei Valles, Bahram Vallis, Vedra Vallis, Maumee Vallis, and Maja Valles. Map location is in Lunae Palus quadrangle and includes parts of Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia.
    A color-coded elevation map produced from data collected by Mars Global Surveyorindicating the result of floods on Mars.

    Among key scientific findings, Global Surveyor took pictures of gullies and debris flow features that suggest there may be current sources of liquid water, similar to an aquifer, at or near the surface of the planet. Similar channels on Earth are formed by flowing water, but on Mars the temperature is normally too cold and the atmosphere too thin to sustain liquid water. Nevertheless, many scientists hypothesize that liquid groundwater can sometimes surface on Mars, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, erode gullies and channels, and pool at the bottom before freezing and evaporating.[citation needed]

    Magnetometer readings showed that the planet's magnetic field is not globally generated in the planet's core, but is localized in particular areas of SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs crust. New temperature data and closeup images of the Martian moon Phobos showed that its surface is composed of powdery material at least 1 metre (3 feet) thick, caused by millions of SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs of meteoroid impacts. Data from the spacecraft's laseraltimeter gave scientists their first 3-D views of Mars' north polar ice cap.[citation needed]

    Faulty software uploaded to the vehicle in June 2006 caused the spacecraft to orient its solar panels incorrectly several months later, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, resulting in battery overheating and subsequent failure.[64] On November 5, 2006 MGS lost contact with Earth.[65] NASA ended efforts to restore communication on January 28, 2007.[66]

    Mars Odyssey and Mars Express[edit]

    Main articles: 2001 Mars Odyssey and Mars Express

    In 2001, NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter arrived at Mars. Its mission is to use spectrometers and imagers to hunt for evidence of past or present water and volcanic activity on Mars. In 2002, it was announced that the probe's gamma-ray spectrometer and neutron spectrometer had detected large amounts of hydrogen, indicating that there are SpyHunter 5 Crack + License key [MAC+Windows] Archives deposits of water ice in the upper three meters of Mars' soil within 60° latitude of the south pole.[citation needed]

    On June 2, 2003, the European Space Agency's Mars Express set off from Baikonur Cosmodrome to Mars. The Mars Express craft consists of the Mars Express Orbiter and the stationary lander Beagle 2. The lander carried a digging device and the smallest mass spectrometer created to date, as well as a SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs of other devices, on a robotic arm in order to accurately analyze soil beneath the dusty surface to look for biosignatures and biomolecules.[citation needed]

    The orbiter entered Mars orbit on December 25, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, 2003, and Beagle 2 entered Mars' atmosphere the same day. However, attempts to contact the lander failed. Communications attempts continued throughout January, but Beagle 2 was declared lost in mid-February, and a joint inquiry was launched by the UK and ESA. The Mars Express Orbiter confirmed the presence of water ice and carbon dioxide ice at the planet's south pole, while NASA had previously confirmed their presence at the north pole of Mars.[citation needed]

    The lander's fate remained a mystery until it was located intact on the surface of Mars in a series of images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.[67][68] The images suggest that two of the spacecraft's four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecraft's communications antenna. Beagle 2 is the first British and first European probe to achieve a soft landing on Mars.[citation needed]

    MER, Opportunity rover, Spirit rover, Phoenix lander[edit]

    Main articles: Mars Exploration Rover, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, Opportunity rover, Spirit rover, and Phoenix lander

    See also: Mars landing

    Polar surface as SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs by the Phoenixlander.

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER), started in 2003, was a robotic space mission involving two rovers, Spirit (MER-A) and Opportunity, (MER-B) that explored the Martian surface geology. The mission's heat up crack Archives objective was to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs mission was part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, which includes three previous successful landers: the two Viking program landers in 1976; and Mars Pathfinder probe in 1997.[citation needed]

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter[edit]

    Main article: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. The US$720 million spacecraft was built by Lockheed Martin under the supervision of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched August 12, 2005, and entered Mars orbit on March 10, 2006.[70]

    The MRO contains a host of scientific instruments such as the HiRISE camera, CTX camera, CRISM, and SHARAD. The HiRISE camera is used to analyze Martian landforms, whereas CRISM and SHARAD can detect water, ice, and minerals on and below the surface. Additionally, MRO is paving the way for upcoming generations of spacecraft through daily monitoring of Martian weather and surface conditions, searching for future landing sites, and testing a new telecommunications system that enable it to send and receive information at an unprecedented bitrate, compared to previous Mars spacecraft. Data transfer to and from the spacecraft occurs faster than all previous interplanetary missions combined and allows it to serve as an important relay satellite for other missions.[citation needed]

    Rosetta and Dawn swingbys[edit]

    Main articles: Rosetta (spacecraft) and Dawn Mission

    The ESARosetta space probe mission to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko flew within 250 km of Mars on February 25, 2007, in a gravitational slingshot designed to slow and redirect the spacecraft.[71]

    The NASA Dawn spacecraft used the gravity of Mars in 2009 to change direction and velocity on its way to Vesta, and tested out Dawn's cameras and other instruments on Mars.[72]


    Main article: Fobos-Grunt

    On November 8, 2011, Russia's Roscosmos launched an ambitious mission called Fobos-Grunt. It consisted of a lander aimed to retrieve a sample back to Earth from Mars' moon Phobos, and place the Chinese Yinghuo-1 probe in Mars' orbit. The Fobos-Grunt mission suffered a complete control and communications failure shortly after launch and was left stranded in low Earth orbit, later falling back to Earth.[73] The Yinghuo-1 satellite and Fobos-Grunt underwent destructive re-entry on January 15, 2012, finally disintegrating over the Pacific Ocean.[74][75][76]

    Curiosity rover[edit]

    Main articles: Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity rover, and Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory mission with its rover named Curiosity, was launched on November 26, 2011,[77][78] and landed on Mars on August 6, 2012 on Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater. The rover carries instruments designed to look for past or present conditions relevant to the past or present habitability of Mars.[79][80][81][82]


    NASA's MAVEN is an orbiter mission to study the upper atmosphere of Mars.[83] It will also serve as a communications relay satellite for robotic landers and rovers on the surface of Mars. MAVEN was launched 18 November 2013 and reached Mars on 22 September 2014.[citation needed]

    Mars Orbiter Mission[edit]

    The Mars Orbiter Mission, also called Mangalyaan, was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).[84] It was successfully inserted into Martian orbit on 24 September 2014. The mission is a technology demonstrator, and as secondary objective, it will also study the Martian atmosphere. This is India's first mission to Mars, and with it, ISRO became the fourth space agency to successfully reach Mars after the Soviet Union, NASA (USA) and ESA (Europe). It also made ISRO the second space agency to reach Mars orbit on its first attempt (the first national one, after the international ESA), and also the first Asian country to successfully send an orbiter to Mars. It was completed in a record low budget of $71 million,[85][86] making it the least-expensive Mars mission to date.[87]

    Trace Gas Orbiter and EDM[edit]

    Main articles: Trace Gas Orbiter and Schiaparelli EDM lander

    The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter is an atmospheric research orbiter built in collaboration between ESA and Roscosmos. It was injected into Mars orbit on 19 October SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs to gain a better understanding of methane (CH
    4) and other trace gases present in the Martian atmosphere that could be evidence for possible biological or geological activity. The Schiaparelli EDM lander was destroyed when trying to land on the surface of Mars.[88]

    InSight and MarCO[edit]

    Main article: InSight

    In August 2012, NASA selected InSight, a $425 million lander mission with a heat flow probe and seismometer, to determine the deep interior structure of Mars.[89][90][91] Two flyby CubeSats called MarCO were launched with InSight on 5 May 2018[92] to provide real-time telemetry during the entry and landing of InSight. The CubeSats separated from the Atlas V booster 1.5 hours after launch and traveled their own trajectories to Mars.[93][94][95]InSight landed successfully on Mars on 26 November 2018.[96]


    The United Arab Emirates launched the Hope Mars Mission, in July 2020 on the Japanese H-IIA booster.[97] It was successfully placed into orbit on 9 February 2021. It is studying the Martian atmosphere and weather.

    Tianwen-1 and the Zhurong rover[edit]

    Tianwen-1 is a Chinese mission, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, launched on 23 July 2020. It includes an orbiter, a lander and a 240 kilograms rover.[98] The orbiter was placed into orbit on 10 February 2021. The Zhurong rover successfully soft landed on 14 May 2021 and deployed on 22 May 2021 while dropping a remote selfie camera on 1 June 2021.[4]

    Mars 2020, Perseverance rover, Ingenuity helicopter[edit]

    The Mars 2020 mission by NASA was launched on 30 July 2020 on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral. It is based on the Mars Science Laboratory design. SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs scientific payload is focused on astrobiology.[99] It includes the Perseverance rover and the Ingenuity helicopter. Unlike older rovers that relied on solar power, Perseverance is nuclear powered, to survive longer than its predecessors in this harsh, dusty environment. The car-size rover weighs about 1 ton, with a robotic arm that reaches about 7 feet, zoom cameras, a chemical analyzer and a rock drill.[100][101]

    After traveling 293 million miles to reach Mars over the course of more than six months, Perseverance successfully landed on February 18, 2021. Its initial mission is set for at least one Martian year, or 687 Earth days. It will search for signs of ancient life and explore the red planet's surface.[102][103]

    NASA missions to Mars (28 September 2021)
    (Perseverance rover; Ingenuity Mars Helicopter; InSight lander; Odyssey orbiter; MAVEN orbiter; Curiosity rover; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter)

    As of October 19, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, 2021, Perseverance had captured the first sounds from Mars. Recordings consisted of five hours of Martian wind gusts, rover wheels crunching over gravel, and motors whirring as the spacecraft moves its arm. The sounds give researchers clues about the atmosphere, such as how far sound travels on the planet.[citation needed]

    Future missions[edit]

    See also: Mars sample return mission

    • As part of the ExoMars program, ESA and the Roscosmos plan to send the Rosalind Franklin rover in 2022 to search for evidence of past or present microscopic life on Mars.[104] The lander to deliver the rover is called Kazachok, and it will perform scientific studies for about 2 years.
    • EscaPADE (Escape and Plasma Acceleration and Dynamics Explorers) by the University of California, Berkeley, is a planned twin-spacecraft NASA Mars orbiter mission to study the structure, composition, variability and dynamics of Mars' magnetosphere and atmospheric escape processes.[105] The EscaPADE orbiters were originally to be launched in 2022 as secondary payloads on a Falcon Heavy together with the Psyche and Janus missions, but will now be remanifested on different flight, yet to be determined.[106]
    • India's ISRO plans to send a follow-up mission to its Mars Orbiter Mission in 2024;[107] it is called Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (MOM-2) and it will consist of an orbiter, and probably a rover.[108]


    • The Finnish-Russian Mars MetNet concept would use multiple small meteorological stations on Mars to establish a widespread observation network to investigate the planet's atmospheric structure, physics and meteorology.[109] The MetNet precursor or demonstrator was considered for a piggyback launch on Fobos-Grunt,[110] and on the two proposed to fly on the 2016 and 2020 ExoMars spacecraft.[109]
    • The Mars-Grunt is a Russian mission concept to bring a sample of Martian soil to Earth.[111]
    • A ESA-NASA team produced a three-launch architecture concept for a Mars sample return, which uses a rover to cache small samples, a Mars ascent stage to send it into orbit, and an orbiter to rendezvous with it above Mars and take it to Earth.[112] Solar-electric propulsion could allow a one launch sample return instead Panda Dome Premium 20.00.00 With Crack Download 2022 three.[113]
    • The Mars Scout Program's SCIM would involve a probe SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs the upper atmosphere of Mars to collect dust and air for return to Earth.[114]
    • JAXA is working on a mission concept called MELOS rover that would look for biosignatures of extant life on Mars.[115]

    Other future mission concepts include polar probes, Martian aircraft and a network of small meteorological stations.[112] Longterm areas of study may include Martian lava tubes, resource utilization, and electronic charge carriers in rocks.[116][117] Micromissions are another possibility, such as piggybacking a small spacecraft on an Ariane 5 rocket and using a lunar gravity assist to get to Mars.[118]

    Human mission proposals[edit]

    Concept for NASA Design Reference Mission Architecture 5.0 (2009).

    Main article: Human mission to Mars

    The human exploration of Mars has been an Jogos de LGBTQ+ de Graça para Baixar since SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs earliest days SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs modern rocketry; Robert H. Goddard credits the idea of reaching Mars as his own inspiration to study the physics and engineering of SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs flight.[119] Proposals for human exploration of Mars have been made throughout the history of space exploration; currently there are multiple active plans and programs to put humans on Mars within the next ten to thirty years, both governmental and private, some of which are listed below.


    Artistic simulated photo looking out a portal spacecraft coming for a Mars landing.

    Human exploration by the United States was identified as a long-term goal in the Vision for Space Exploration announced in 2004 by then US President George W. Bush.[120] The planned Orion spacecraft would be used to send a human expedition to Earth's moon by 2020 as a stepping SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs to a Mars expedition. On September 28, 2007, NASA administrator Michael D. Griffin stated that NASA aims to put a person on Mars by 2037.[121]

    On December 2, 2014, NASA's SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs Human Exploration Systems and Operations Mission Director Jason Crusan and Deputy Associate Administrator for Programs James Reuthner announced tentative support for the Boeing "Affordable Mars Mission Design" including radiation shielding, centrifugal artificial gravity, in-transit consumable resupply, and a lander which can return.[122][123] Reuthner suggested that if adequate funding was forthcoming, the proposed mission would be expected in the early 2030s.[124]

    On October 8, 2015, NASA published its official plan for human exploration and colonization of Mars. They called it "Journey to Mars". The plan operates through three distinct phases leading up to fully sustained colonization.[125]

    • The first stage, already underway, is the "Earth Reliant" phase. This phase continues utilizing the International Space Station until 2024; validating deep space technologies and studying the effects of long duration space missions on the human body.
    • The second stage, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, "Proving Ground," moves away from Earth reliance and ventures into cislunar space for most of its tasks. This is when NASA plans to capture an asteroid, test deep space habitation facilities, and validate capabilities required for human exploration of Mars. Finally, phase three is the transition to independence from Earth resources.
    • The last stage, the "Earth Independent" phase, includes long term missions on the lunar surface which leverage surface habitats that only require routine maintenance, and the harvesting of Martian resources for fuel, water, and building materials, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. NASA is still aiming for human missions to Mars in the 2030s, though Earth independence could take decades longer.[126]
    Journey to Mars – Science, Exploration, Technology.

    On August 28, 2015, NASA funded a year long simulation to study the effects of a year long Mars mission on six scientists, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. The scientists lived in a bio dome on a Mauna Loa mountain in Hawaii with limited connection to the outside world and were only allowed outside if they were wearing SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs human Mars exploration plans have evolved through the NASA Mars Design Reference Missions, a series of design studies for human exploration of Mars.

    In 2017 the focus of NASA shifted to a return to the Moon by 2024 with the Artemis program, a flight to Mars could follow after this project.


    The long-term goal of the private corporation SpaceX is the establishment of routine flights to Mars to enable colonization.[129][130][131] To this end, the company is developing Starship, a spacecraft capable of crew transportation to Mars and other celestial bodies, along with its booster Super Heavy. In 2017 SpaceX announced plans to send two uncrewed Starships to Mars by 2022, followed by two more uncrewed flights and two crewed flights in 2024.[130] Starship is planned to have a payload of at least 100 tonnes.[132] Starship is designed to use a combination of aerobraking and propulsive descent, utilizing fuel produced from a Mars (in situ resource utilization) facility.[130] As of mid 2021, the Starship development program has seen successful testing of several Starship prototypes.[133]


    Mars Direct, a low-cost human mission proposed by Robert Zubrin, founder of the Mars Society, would use heavy-lift Saturn V class rockets, such as the Ares V, to skip orbital construction, LEO rendezvous, and lunar fuel depots. A modified proposal, called "Mars to Stay", involves not returning the first immigrant explorers immediately, if ever (see Colonization of Mars).[120][121][134][135]

    Probing difficulties[edit]

    The challenge, complexity and length of Mars missions have led to many mission failures.[136] The high failure rate of missions attempting to explore Mars is informally called the "Mars Curse" or "Martian Curse".[137] The phrase "Galactic Ghoul"[138] or "Great Galactic Ghoul", referring to a fictitious space monster that subsists on a diet of Mars probes, and is sometimes facetiously used to "explain" the recurring difficulties.[139][140][141][142]

    Two Soviet probes were sent to Mars in 1988 as part of the Phobos program. Phobos 1 operated normally until an expected communications session on 2 September 1988 failed to occur. The problem was traced to a software error, which deactivated Phobos 1's attitude thrusters, causing the spacecraft's solar arrays to no longer point at the Sun, depleting Phobos 1's batteries, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. Phobos 2 operated normally throughout its cruise and Mars orbital insertion phases on January 29, 1989, gathering data on the Sun, interplanetary medium, Mars, and Phobos. Shortly before the final phase of the mission – during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 m of Phobos' surface and release two landers, one a mobile 'hopper', the other a stationary platform – contact with Phobos 2 was lost. The mission ended when the spacecraft signal failed to be successfully reacquired on March 27, 1989. The cause of the failure was determined to be a malfunction of the on-board computer.[citation needed]

    Just a few years later in 1992 Mars Observer, launched by NASA, failed as it approached Mars. Mars 96, an orbiter launched SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs November 16, 1996 by Russia failed, when the planned second burn of the Block D-2 fourth stage did not occur.[143]

    Following the success of Global Surveyor and Pathfinder, another spate of failures occurred in 1998 and 1999, with the Japanese Nozomi orbiter and NASA's Mars Climate Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, and Deep Space 2 penetrators all suffering various fatal errors. The Mars Climate Orbiter was noted for mixing up U.S. customary units with metric units, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, causing the orbiter to burn up while entering Mars' atmosphere.[144]

    The European Space Agency has also attempted to land two probes on the Martian surface; Beagle 2, a British-built lander that failed to deploy its solar arrays properly after touchdown in December 2003, and Schiaparelli, which was flown along the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Contact with the Schiaparelli EDM lander was lost 50 seconds before touchdown.[145] It was later confirmed that the lander struck the surface at a high velocity, possibly exploding.[146]

    See also[edit]

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    Indian streaming service operated by Star India

    Hotstar (also known as Disney+ Hotstar[b]) is an Indian brand of subscription video on-demandover-the-topstreaming service owned by Star India and operated by Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution, both a division of The Walt Disney Company.

    The brand was first introduced as Hotstar, for a streaming service carrying content from Star India's local networks, including films, television series, live sports, and original programming, as well as featuring content licensed from third-parties such as HBO and Showtime among others. Amid the significant growth of mobile broadband in India, Hotstar quickly became the dominant streaming service in the country.

    Following the acquisition of Star India's parent company 21st Century Fox by Disney in 2019, Hotstar was integrated with the company's new global streaming brand Disney+ as Disney+ Hotstar in April 2020. The co-branded service added Disney+ original programming, and films and television series from its main content brands of Walt Disney Studios, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, and National Geographic alongside the domestic and third-party content already carried on the platform.

    Outside of India, the Disney+ Hotstar service also operates in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand, which similarly combines entertainment content licensed from local, third-party studios, with the larger Disney+ library. Disney+ Hotstar is also expected to launch in the Philippines and Vietnam in 2022. In Canada, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Hotstar operates as a streaming service targeting overseas Indians, focusing on Star India's domestic entertainment and sports content; Disney+ operates as a standalone service in these markets.


    First Hotstar logo from 2015 until 2020.

    Star India officially launched Hotstar on 11 February 2015 after fifteen months of development, coinciding with the 2015 Cricket World Cup and upcoming 2015 Indian Premier League (for which Star had acquired the streaming rights). The ad-supported service initially featured a library of over 35,000 hours of content in seven regional languages, as well as live streaming coverage of sports such as football and kabaddi, and cricket on a delay. Star CEO Sanjay Gupta felt that there "[weren't] many platforms available to Indian consumers offering high-quality, curated content besides, say, YouTube", and explained that the service would appeal most prominently to the growing young adult demographic, and feature "very targeted" advertising. He estimated that by 2020, the service could account for nearly a quarter of Star's annual revenue.[3][4]

    In April 2016, Hotstar launched a subscription tier primarily oriented towards international content and the possibility of premium sports content. The service launched alongside a new deal to carry HBO content uncut on the platform, with its introduction coinciding with the season 6premiere of Game of Thrones.[5]

    The 2016 launch of the LTE-only wireless carrier Jio spurred the growth of mobile broadband in India, and was credited in turn for having bolstered the growth of streaming video in the country, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs. While services of US origin such as Amazon Prime Video and Netflix saw some growth in the Indian market, Hotstar has remained the dominant streaming service.[6] By July 2017, Hotstar's apps had reached 300 million downloads, and it was reported as being the top video streaming app in the country.[7][8]

    In May 2018, it was reported that the service had 75–100 million active users per-month.[9] In September 2018, Hotstar CEO Ajit Mohan left to become the vice-president and managing director of Facebook India.[10] That month, it was reported that the service had begun to restructure its leadership to have separate executives for its ad-supported and premium services, and, aided by new funding from Star US Holdings, planned to increase its production of premium original content to better-compete with Amazon and Netflix, amidst concerns that the service was beginning to haemorrhage cash.[11]

    By 2019, the service had over 150 million active users monthly. In March 2019, ahead of the 2019 Indian Premier League, Hotstar migrated existing subscribers of its All Annual Sports plan to a new entry-level plan known as Hotstar VIP. Intended as an introductory option, it includes access to sports content (including the IPL, 2019 Cricket World Cup, and English Premier League football), SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, early access to serials before their television broadcast, and original series from the new Hotstar Specials banner. It is also payable via cash. Chief product officer Varun Narang described the offering as "a value proposition built with the Indian audience at the heart of it".[12]

    Acquisition by Disney, integration with Disney+[edit]

    Star, and in turn Hotstar, were acquired by The Walt Disney Company in 2019, as part of its acquisition of their US parent company21st Century Fox.[13][14]

    During a February 2020 earnings call, Iger SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs that its recently launched international streaming brand Disney+ and its original programming would be integrated into Hotstar as part of a re-launch on 29 March 2020. Iger stated that the service's launch,—originally scheduled to coincide with the opening of the 2020 Indian Premier League, would take advantage of Hotstar's "proven platform" and existing customer base. The Motley Fool described Hotstar as being Disney's "secret weapon" in the market, due to its already-dominant position.[15][13][14]

    Hotstar began to soft launch the expanded service for some users in March. On 20 March 2020, in recognition of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated postponement of the IPL season, Disney announced that it had postponed the launch to 3 April.[16][17] The service officially launched with a "virtual red carpet premiere" of The Lion King and Disney+ series The Mandalorian, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, featuring actors Rana Daggubati, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, Katrina Kaif, Shraddha Kapoor, Hrithik Roshan, and Tiger Shroff participating in live interactions.[18] The price of the Hotstar Premium service was also increased with the launch.[19]

    On 2 May, Star announced that it would distribute the service for free to migrant workers in Singapore through 21 July, to improve morale amid their impact from COVID-19.[20] In June 2020, Hotstar named Sunil Rayan, formerly of Google, as its new president.[21]

    Integration with The Disney Bundle in the United States[edit]

    On 31 August 2021, Disney announced that the original stand-alone Hotstar service in the United States will be shut down in 2022. The company also announced that they will be migrating the general entertainment content like Hotstar Specials, Star India's programming, and blockbuster movies to SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs sister service Hulu starting 1 September 2021. The sports rights which Hotstar holds in the country including the Indian Premier League, Board of Control for Cricket in India, International Cricket Council, and Pro Kabaddi League will be migrated to ESPN+.[22]

    It was announced on 17 November 2021, Hotstar will shut down its US operations on 30 November 2021.


    Main articles: List of Hotstar original programming, List of Hotstar original films, List of Disney+ original programming, and List of Disney+ original films


    The Disney+ Hotstar subscription is oriented towards domestic content, including series from Star's Indian-language television networks and the Hotstar Specials banner, early access to Star's Indian television serial programs before their television premiere, cricket coverage, Premier League football from the United Kingdom,[24][25][26] and access to content from the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[18] and also adds access to international films and series, including Disney+ original programming and the core Disney+ libraries of The Walt Disney Studios and Walt Disney Television, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm (including the Star Wars franchise), SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, and National Geographic,[18][19] with select titles for general entertainment from Disney subsidiaries including FX, Freeform, Hulu, ABC Signature, 20th Television, 20th Century Studios, Searchlight Pictures, Touchstone Pictures, and Hollywood Pictures, in addition to licensed content from third-party providers.[24][25][26]

    Some early original content on the service included the news comedy program On Air With AIB, and CinePlay. In March 2019, the service launched a new premium original content brand, Hotstar Specials, with the first production being Roar of the Lion—a docudrama miniseries chronicling the Chennai Super Kings in the 2018 Indian Premier League. Hotstar stated that these series would be at least six episodes in length, be available in seven regional languages SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, and Telugu)[27] and focus on providing "big-scale, high-quality drama". Hotstar partnered with a large number of Indian filmmakers to produce series for the brand.[28][29][30]

    In December 2015, Hotstar gained domestic streaming rights to current and past HBO original series, as part of Star's larger deal with the network.[31] It reached a similar deal with Showtime in July 2017.[32] Rights to new Showtime content later moved to Viacom18's Voot (a sister of Showtime via SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs company ViacomCBS).[33]

    In October 2018, Hotstar partnered with Hooq to offer its content on its premium service, including rights to films and series from its co-owners Sony Pictures and Warner Bros., SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, as well as its other content partners.[34] The partnership ended following Hooq's liquidation in April 2020.[35]

    In June 2020, Hotstar announced that it would begin to offer direct-to-streaming premieres of Indian films under the "Disney+ Hotstar Multiplex" banner due to COVID-19-related cinema closures, beginning with Fox Star Studios' Dil Bechara on 24 July 2020, followed by The Big Bull, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, Khuda Haafiz, Laxmii, Bhuj: The Pride of India, Sadak 2, and Mookuthi Amman.[36]

    Southeast Asia (excluding Singapore)[edit]

    In addition to content from Disney's library, the Southeast Asian versions of Disney+ Hotstar also had a large focus on domestic acquisitions. In Indonesia, Hotstar reached content supply agreements with studios such as Falcon Pictures, MD Pictures, Rapi Films, Soraya Intercine Films, Screenplay Films, and Starvision Plus among others, and also acquired first-run direct-to-streaming releases (which SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs being marketed as Hotstar Originals). To appeal to the local Hindu population, the service also carries Bollywood films subtitled and/or dubbed into the Indonesian language.[37][38]

    The Malaysian version of the service has similarly reached deals with studios such as Skop Productions, Revolution Media Films, Primeworks Studios, WAU Animation, Act 2 Pictures, Les’ Copaque Production and Red Films to carry films on the platform, with some being released direct-to-streaming.[39]

    The Thai version reached agreements with studios and broadcasters such as GDH, GMM 25, Kantana Group, One 31, and Sahamongkolfilm, and has licensed content from other East Asian regions such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, and Taiwan.[40][41]

    Device support and service features[edit]

    Hotstar is available for streaming via supported web browsers on PC, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, Mac, and smartphones, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs well as apps on iOS and Apple TV, Android and Android TV, with regional support for devices such as Roku in Canada, United States and United Kingdom, Fire TV, Fire HD and Samsung Smart TVs in India, Canada, United States and United Kingdom, and LG webOS TVs in India, Canada, United States, and Malaysia.

    Hotstar allows users to stream on two devices concurrently and downloads for offline viewing depending on individual content licenses. Most content is able to be streamed in resolutions up to 1080p. In April 2020, Hotstar started rolling out Dolby Digital 5.1 sound on Android TV, Apple TV, Roku, Fire TV, and Fire HD,[42] and later 4KUltra HD in Dolby Vision and HDR10 in August 2020 only on Apple TV and Android TV, noting that Dolby Vision and HDR10 will be available for mobile devices later, which were made available for iOS since May 2021.[43] In India, the service is operated as both a free ad-supported service, and two subscription-based tiers. The ad-supported service includes access to selected Indian films and Star series after their television broadcast.

    Starting 1 September 2021, Indian users will be able to choose from a range of three new subscription plans, SofterWare Archives - Malik SoftsMobile for INR 499/- per year (a single device, mobile-only plan), Super for INR 899/- per year (access to 2 devices across mobile, web and living room devices) and Premium for INR 1499/- per year (access to 4 devices across mobile, web and living room devices).[44]


    On 4 September 2017, Star Sports acquired the entirety of the media rights to the Indian Premier League, with Hotstar acting as the international digital rightsholder. The service served worldwide until Hotstar launched an international subscription service in Canada and the United States, aimed towards providing its domestic Indian content and sports.[45][46] Hotstar launched in the United Kingdom on 13 September 2018, to coincide with the 2018 Asia Cup.[47] On 4 January 2019, Star discontinued their international linear pay television channels in Tunelf Spotify Music Converter 1.1.0 - Sep 2020 crack serial keygen US. (such as StarPlus), pivoting its focus in the region to Hotstar.[48]

    In August 2019, Disney CEO Bob Iger stated that plans were in place for expansion of Hotstar into Southeast Asia.[49] In August 2020, it was announced that Disney+ Hotstar would launch in Indonesia on 5 September 2020, marking the unified service's first expansion outside of India.[50] On 19 SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs 2020, Star India announced the launch of Hotstar in Singapore, which took place on 1 November 2020.[51] On 25 February 2021, it was reported that Disney+ Hotstar would launch in Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand in 2021.[52] The service launched in Malaysia on 1 June 2021,[39] and Thailand on 30 June.[53] The launch date for the Philippines has yet to be announced, tentatively by early 2022.[54] Later on, there was a report Jogos de RPG de Estratégia de Graça para Baixar the service is expected to launch in the Philippines and Vietnam in 2022.[55]

    On 27 July 2021, it was reported that Hotstar original content would likely be licensed to sister services Hulu in the United States, Star in Canada, Europe, Africa, Middle East and parts of Asia Pacific, and Star+ in Latin America in the future.[56] On 31 August, Disney announced that it will phase out Hotstar in the US and will fold programming into Hulu and ESPN+. It expects that Hotstar will be shut down in the US by late 2022.[57]

      Available as Disney+ Hotstar

      Available as Hotstar

      Confirmed launch

      Third-party distribution

      Transition into distribution deal with Hulu for the latter original programming (in late 2022)


    Hotstar generated at least 345 million views throughout the 2015 Cricket World Cup, and approximately over 200 million views during the 2015 Indian Premier League season.[59][60]

    The 2019 Indian Premier League repeatedly broke records for concurrent viewership on Hotstar, with the 2019 final setting a new "global record" peak of 18.6 million. US website TechCrunch credited these gains to the extensive growth of internet usage in the country.[61] This was surpassed SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs the semi-final of the 2019 Cricket World Cup between India and New Zealand, with 25.3 million. After the India-Pakistan match earlier in the tournament, Hotstar surpassed almost 100 million daily users.[62]


    The HBO series Last Week Tonight faced several instances of censorship on Hotstar since the purchase of the service by Disney; two episodes were edited to remove jokes referencing Disney characters, including a November 2019 episode on the US census relating to a PSA featuring Mickey Mouse (where Oliver claimed the character was a "crack addict"; a scene was also cropped to obscure a graphic relating to the joke),[63] and a remark about Donald Duck's penis being "shaped like a corkscrew" during an episode discussing China's one-child policy.[64][65] In February 2020, Hotstar refused to carry an episode that contained segments critical of Indian prime minister Narendra Modi, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, which had alleged that his policy of Hindu nationalism was a growing threat to democracy in India.[66][67][68]

    The programme's host SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs Oliver addressed all three instances of censorship by Hotstar in the 8 March 2020 episode. He placed a larger emphasis on the censorship of Disney references, however (alluding to his role of Zazu in Disney's 2019 CGI remake of The Lion King), jokingly arguing that he resented the censorship of his "factually accurate" Donald Duck joke more than the Modi episode being pulled.[64][65]

    The service was highly criticised IDM Serial key 2021 crack serial keygen ridiculed upon its launch in Thailand for the censorship and editing of Disney content, where violent and/or suggestive scenes were cut out or blurred, with a majority of titles being cropped to fit 16:9 widescreen televisions and/or also sped up to 25 frames per second (PAL).[69] On 14 July 2021, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs, during a live podcast hosted by Thai news reporter Jomquan Laopetch, Disney Southeast Asia and Thailand general manager, direct-to-consumer Winradit Kolasastraseni stated that he was aware of the issues and admitted they were the QC team's fault; the service has been replacing censored/edited video files with their original SpectraLayers Pro 8.0 Crack Full Version Download since then.[70]

    See also[edit]

    • Hulu, a sister streaming service owned and operated by Disney for general entertainment content in United States markets.
    • Star, a similar streaming brand used by Disney for general entertainment content in other markets, which is offered within the Disney+ infrastructure.
    • Star+, SofterWare Archives - Malik Softs sister streaming service using a similar brand owned and operated by Disney for general entertainment content in Latin America markets.


    1. ^Optional in India, but member subscription is required to access additional content.
    2. ^in India and parts of Southeast Asia
    3. ^as Hotstar
    4. ^Rebranded as Disney+ Hotstar
    5. ^Transition into distribution deal with Hulu for Hotstar original programming in late 2022


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