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Sketch 74.1 Crack is derived from the Greek phrase 'schedules', ''accomplished extempore''. This application is a brief freehand drawing, in. Due to the small size of the FutureSplash Viewer, it was particularly suited for download on the Web. Macromedia distributed Flash Player as a free browser. Sketch 60 Crack With Serial Number Free Download 2019 Sketch 60 Crack is a great and very powerful software for digital product design. It really is efficient.

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Adobe Developer ConnectionArchived August 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Adobe.com (July 14, 2009). Retrieved on March 11, 2011.
  • ^"Adobe Open Screen Project". ZDNet. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  • ^"Adobe and Mozilla Foundation to Open Source Flash Player Scripting Engine". Mozilla Foundation Press Center. San Francisco. November 7, 2006. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
  • ^Tamarin ProjectArchived February 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Mozilla.org (October 5, 2010). Retrieved on March 11, 2011.
  • ^"Adobe donates Flex to Apache". Techworld. Archived from the original on November 18, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  • ^ abTim Anderson (November 15, 2015). "Adobe Flex SDK bombshell STUNS developers". The Register. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
  • ^ abJoab Jackson, IDG News Service (November 16, 2011). "Adobe Donates Flex to Apache". PCWorld. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  • ^ abcFlex != FlashArchived January 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, PrintUI, January 27, 2013
  • ^Open Source Flash C++ Compiler, CrossBridgeArchived March 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Adobe Blogs, June 25, 2013
  • ^CrossBridgeArchived September 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Adobe Gaming GitHub Website
  • ^Adobe Open-Sources Flash C/C++ CompilerArchived February 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Phoronix, Michael Larabel, June 26, 2013
  • ^"Gnash Reference Manual". gnu.org. Archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  • ^ ab"Adobe and Industry Leaders Establish Open Screen Project". May 1, 2008. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
  • ^ abMurarka, Anup. "Inside the Open Screen Project". Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
  • ^"Open Screen Project partners". Archived from the original on February 24, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
  • ^"Adobe and Nokia Announce $10 Million Open Screen Project Fund". February 16, 2009. Archived from the original on February 19, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
  • ^ a
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    Adobe Flash

    Deprecated multimedia platform used to add animation and interactivity to websites

    This article is about the multimedia software platform. For the application/animation software, see Adobe Animate. For the player, see Adobe Flash Player.

    "Shockwave Flash" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Adobe Shockwave.

    Adobe Flash is a multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich web applications, desktop applications, mobile apps, mobile games, and embedded web browser video players. Flash displays text, vector graphics, and raster graphics to provide animations, video games, and applications. It allowed streaming of audio and video, and can capture mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera input.

    Artists may produce Flash graphics and animations using Adobe Animate (formerly known as Adobe Flash Professional). Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, or any text editor combined with the Apache Flex SDK. End users view Flash content via Flash Player (for web browsers), Adobe AIR (for desktop or mobile apps), or third-party players such as Scaleform (for video games). Adobe Flash Player (which is available on Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux) enables end users to view Flash content using web browsers. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but since has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR.

    The ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications, and mobile applications. Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop, and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash and published for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Wii U, and Nintendo Switch.

    Flash was initially used to create fully-interactive websites, but this approach was phased out with the introduction of HTML5. Instead, Flash found a niche as the dominant platform for online multimedia content, particularly for browser games. Following an open letter written by Steve Jobs in 2010 stating that he would not approve the use of Flash on their iOS devices due to numerous security flaws, use of Flash declined as Adobe transitioned to the Adobe Air platform. The Flash Player was deprecated in 2017 and officially discontinued at the end of 2020 for all users outside China, as well as non-enterprise users,[1] with many web browsers and operating systems scheduled to remove the Flash Player software around the same time. Adobe continues to develop Adobe Animate, which supports web standards such as HTML5 instead of the Flash format.[2]

    Applications[edit]

    Websites[edit]

    In the early 2000s, Flash was widely installed on desktop computers, and was often used to display interactive web pages and online games, and to play video and audio content.[3] In 2005, YouTube was founded by former PayPal employees, and it used Adobe Flash Player as a means to display compressed video content on the web.[3]

    Between 2000 and 2010, numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals.[4] Notable users include Nike, Hewlett-Packard (more commonly known as HP), Nokia, General Electric, World Wildlife Fund, HBO, Cartoon Network, Disney, and Motorola.[4][5] After Adobe introduced hardware-accelerated 3D for Flash (Stage3D), Flash websites saw a growth of 3D content for product demonstrations and virtual tours.[6][7]

    In 2007, YouTube offered videos in HTML5 format to support the iPhone and iPad, which did not support Flash Player.[3] After a controversy with Apple, Adobe stopped developing Flash Player for Mobile, focusing its efforts on Adobe AIR applications and HTML5 animation.[3] In 2015, Google introduced Google Swiffy, a tool that converted Flash animation to HTML5, which Google used to automatically convert Flash web ads for mobile devices.[8] In 2016, Google discontinued Swiffy and its support.[9] In 2015, YouTube switched to HTML5 technology on most devices by default;[10][11][12] however, YouTube supported the Flash-based video player for older web browsers and devices until 2017.[13]

    Rich Web Applications[edit]

    Main article: Rich web application

    After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in 2000, developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web.[14] Such Web-based applications eventually became known as "Rich Internet Applications"[14] and later "Rich Web Applications".

    In 2004, Macromedia Flex was released, and specifically targeted the application development market.[14] Flex introduced new user interface components, advanced data visualization components, data remoting, and a modern IDE (Flash Builder).[14][15] Flex competed with Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) and Microsoft Silverlight during its tenure.[14] Flex was upgraded to support integration with remote data sources, using AMF, BlazeDS, Adobe LiveCycle, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, and others.[16]

    Between 2006 and 2016, the Speedtest.net web service conducted over 9.0 billion speed tests with a utility built with Adobe Flash.[17][18] In 2016, the service shifted to HTML5 due to the decreasing availability of Adobe Flash Player on PCs.[19]

    Developers could create Flash web applications and rich web applications in ActionScript 3.0 programming language with IDEs, including Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Flex applications were typically built using Flex frameworks such as PureMVC.[16]

    Video games[edit]

    Screenshots and footage of Flash games QWOP, Solipskier, and Hundreds

    Flash video games were popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds, Miniclip, and Armor Games dedicated to hosting of Flash-based games. Popular games developed with Flash include AdventureQuest, Angry Birds, Bubble Shooter, Clash of Clans, FarmVille, Hundreds, Machinarium, N, QWOP, and Solipskier.[citation needed]

    Adobe introduced various technologies to help build video games, including Adobe AIR (to release games for desktop or mobile platforms), Adobe Scout (to improve performance), CrossBridge (to convert C++-based games to run in Flash), and Stage3D (to support GPU-accelerated video games). 3D frameworks like Away3D and Flare3D simplified creation of 3D content for Flash.[citation needed]

    Adobe AIR allows the creation of Flash-based mobile games, which may be published to the Google Play and Apple app stores.[20][21][22]

    Flash is also used to build interfaces and HUDs for 3D video games using Scaleform GFx, a technology that renders Flash content within non-Flash video games. Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine and UDK, CryEngine, and PhyreEngine, and has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than 150 major video game titles since its launch in 2003.[citation needed]

    Film and animation[edit]

    Main articles: List of Flash animated films and List of Flash animated television series

    Adobe Animate is one of the common animation programs for low-cost 2D television and commercial animation, in competition with Anime Studio and Toon Boom Animation.[citation needed]

    Notable users of Flash include DHX Media Vancouver for productions including Pound Puppies, Littlest Pet Shop andMy Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, Fresh TV for Total Drama, Nelvana for 6teen and Clone High, Williams Street for Metalocalypse and Squidbillies, Nickelodeon Animation Studio for El Tigre: The Adventures of Manny Rivera, Starz Media for Wow! Wow! Wubbzy!, among others.[citation needed]

    Flash is less commonly used for feature-length animated films; however, 2009's The Secret of Kells, an Irish film, is animated primarily in Adobe Flash, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature at the 82nd Academy Awards.[citation needed]

    Several popular online series are currently produced in Flash, such as the Emmy Award-winning Off-Mikes, produced by ESPN and Animax Entertainment; Happy Tree Friends; Gotham Girls, produced by Warner Bros.; Crime Time, produced by Future Thought Productions; and Homestar Runner produced by Mike and Matt Chapman.[citation needed]

    Various third-party software packages designed for traditionally trained cartoonists and animators can publish animations in the SWF format.[citation needed]

    History[edit]

    FutureWave[edit]

    The precursor to Flash was SmartSketch, a product published by FutureWave Software in 1993. The company was founded by Charlie Jackson, Jonathan Gay, and Michelle Welsh.[23][24][25][26] SmartSketch was a vector drawing application for pen computers running the PenPoint OS.[27][28] When PenPoint failed in the marketplace, SmartSketch was ported to Microsoft Windows and Mac OS.[24][29]

    As the Internet became more popular, FutureWave realized the potential for a vector-based web animation tool that might challenge MacromediaShockwave technology.[23][24] In 1995, FutureWave modified SmartSketch by adding frame-by-frame animation features and released this new product as FutureSplash Animator on Macintosh and PC.[23][24][30][31]

    FutureWave approached Adobe Systems with an offer to sell them FutureSplash in 1995, but Adobe turned down the offer at that time.[24] Microsoft wanted to create an "online TV network" (MSN 2.0) and adopted FutureSplash animated content as a central part of it.[24]Disney Online used FutureSplash animations for their subscription-based service Disney's Daily Blast.[23][24]Fox Broadcasting Company launched The Simpsons using FutureSplash.[24]

    Macromedia[edit]

    In November 1996, FutureSplash was acquired by Macromedia, and Macromedia re-branded and released FutureSplash Animator as Macromedia Flash 1.0. Flash was a two-part system, a graphics and animation editor known as Macromedia Flash, and a player known as Macromedia Flash Player.[citation needed]

    FutureSplash Animator was an animation tool originally developed for pen-based computing devices. Due to the small size of the FutureSplash Viewer, it was particularly suited for download on the Web. Macromedia distributed Flash Player as a free browser plugin in order to quickly gain market share. By 2005, more computers worldwide had Flash Player installed than any other Web media format, including Java, QuickTime, RealNetworks, and Windows Media Player.[32]

    Macromedia upgraded the Flash system between 1996 and 1999 adding MovieClips, Actions (the precursor to ActionScript), Alpha transparency, and other features. As Flash matured, Macromedia's focus shifted from marketing it as a graphics and media tool to promoting it as a Web application platform, adding scripting and data access capabilities to the player while attempting to retain its small footprint.[citation needed]

    In 2000, the first major version of ActionScript was developed, and released with Flash 5. Actionscript 2.0 was released with Flash MX 2004 and supported object-oriented programming, improved UI components and other programming features. The last version of Flash released by Macromedia was Flash 8, which focused on graphical upgrades such as filters (blur, drop shadow, etc.), blend modes (similar to Adobe Photoshop), and advanced features for FLV video.[citation needed]

    Adobe[edit]

    On December 3, 2005, Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia[33] along with the entire Macromedia product line including Flash, Dreamweaver, Director/Shockwave, Fireworks, and Authorware.[citation needed]

    In 2007, Adobe's first version release was Adobe Flash CS3 Professional, the ninth major version of Flash. It introduced the ActionScript 3.0 programming language, which supported modern programming practices and enabled business applications to be developed with Flash. Adobe Flex Builder (built on Eclipse) targeted the enterprise application development market, and was also released the same year. Flex Builder included the Flex SDK, a set of components that included charting, advanced UI, and data services (Flex Data Services).[citation needed]

    In 2008, Adobe released the tenth version of Flash, Adobe Flash CS4. Flash 10 improved animation capabilities within the Flash editor, adding a motion editor panel (similar to Adobe After Effects), inverse kinematics (bones), basic 3D object animation, object-based animation, and other text and graphics features. Flash Player 10 included an in-built 3D engine (without GPU acceleration) that allowed basic object transformations in 3D space (position, rotation, scaling).[citation needed]

    Also in 2008, Adobe released the first version of Adobe Integrated Runtime (later re-branded as Adobe AIR), a runtime engine that replaced Flash Player, and provided additional capabilities to the ActionScript 3.0 language to build desktop and mobile applications. With AIR, developers could access the file system (the user's files and folders), and connected devices such as a joystick, gamepad, and sensors for the first time.[citation needed]

    In 2011, Adobe Flash Player 11 was released, and with it the first version of Stage3D, allowing GPU-accelerated 3D rendering for Flash applications and games on desktop platforms such as Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X.[34] Adobe further improved 3D capabilities from 2011 to 2013, adding support for 3D rendering on Android and iOS platforms, alpha-channels, compressed textures, texture atlases, and other features.[35][36] Adobe AIR was upgraded to support 64-bit computers, and to allow developers to add additional functionality to the AIR runtime using AIR Native Extensions (ANE).

    In May 2014, Adobe announced that Adobe AIR was used in over 100,000 unique applications and had over 1 billion installations logged worldwide.[37] Adobe AIR was voted the Best Mobile Application Development product at the Consumer Electronics Show on two consecutive years (CES 2014 and CES 2015).[38][39]

    In 2016, Adobe renamed Flash Professional, the primary authoring software for Flash content, to Adobe Animate to reflect its growing use for authoring HTML5 content in favor of Flash content.[40]

    Open Source[edit]

    Adobe has taken steps to reduce or eliminate Flash licensing costs. For instance, the SWF file format documentation is provided free of charge[41] after they relaxed the requirement of accepting a non-disclosure agreement to view it in 2008.[42] Adobe also created the Open Screen Project which removes licensing fees and opens data protocols for Flash.

    Adobe has also open-sourced many components relating to Flash.

    Adobe has not been willing to make complete source code of the Flash Player available for free software development and even though free and open source alternatives such as Shumway and Gnash have been built, they are no longer under active development.[52] The only fully functional third-party Flash Player is the commercially available Scaleform GFx Player, which is game development middleware designed for integration into non-Flash video games.[citation needed]

    Open Screen Project[edit]

    On May 1, 2008, Adobe announced the Open Screen Project, with the intent of providing a consistent application interface across devices such as personal computers, mobile devices, and consumer electronics.[53] When the project was announced, seven goals were outlined: the abolition of licensing fees for Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR, the removal of restrictions on the use of the Shockwave Flash (SWF) and Flash Video (FLV) file formats, the publishing of application programming interfaces for porting Flash to new devices, and the publishing of The Flash Cast protocol and Action Message Format (AMF), which let Flash applications receive information from remote databases.[53]

    As of February 2009[update], the specifications removing the restrictions on the use of SWF and FLV/F4V specs have been published.[54] The Flash Cast protocol—now known as the Mobile Content Delivery Protocol—and AMF protocols have also been made available,[54] with AMF available as an open source implementation, BlazeDS.

    The list of mobile device providers who have joined the project includes Palm, Motorola, and Nokia,[55] who, together with Adobe, have announced a $10 million Open Screen Project fund.[56] As of 2012[update], the Open Screen Project is no longer accepting new applications according to partner BSQuare. However, paid licensing is still an option for device makers who want to use Adobe software.[citation needed]

    End of life[edit]

    See also: Adobe Flash Player § End of life

    One of Flash's primary uses on the Internet when it was first released was for building fully immersive, interactive websites. These were typically highly creative site designs that provided more flexibility over what the current HTML standards could provide as well as operate over dial-up connections.[57] However, these sites limited accessibility by "breaking the Back Button", dumping visitors out of the Flash experience entirely by returning them to whatever page they had been on prior to first arriving at the site. Fully Flash-run sites fell out of favor for more strategic use of Flash plugins for video and other interactive features among standard HTML conventions, corresponding with the availability of HTML features like cascading style-sheets in the mid-00's.[58] At the same time, this also led to Flash being used for new apps, including video games and animations.[59] Precursors to YouTube but featuring user-generated Flash animations and games such as Newgrounds became popular destinations, further helping to spread the use of Flash.[57]

    Toward the end of the millennium, the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) was released, corresponding with development of Dynamic HTML. Fifteen years later, WAP had largely been replaced by full-capability implementations and the HTML5 standard included more support for interactive and video elements. Support for Flash in these mobile browsers was not included. In 2010, Apple's Steve Jobs famously wrote Thoughts on Flash, an open letter to Adobe criticizing the closed nature of the Flash platform and the inherent security problems with the application to explain why Flash was not supported on iOS.[60][61] Adobe created the Adobe AIR environment as a means to appease Apple's concerns, and spent time legally fighting Apple over terms of its App Store to allow AIR to be used on the iOS. While Adobe eventually won, allowing for other third-party development environments to get access to the iOS, Apple's decision to block Flash itself was considered the "death blow" to the Flash application.[59] In November 2011, about a year after Jobs' open letter, Adobe announced it would no longer be developing Flash and advised developers to switch to HTML5.[62]

    In 2011, Adobe ended support for Flash on Android.[62] Adobe stated that Flash platform was transitioning to Adobe AIR and OpenFL, a multi-target open-source implementation of the Flash API.[63] In 2015, Adobe rebranded Flash Professional, the main Flash authoring environment, as Adobe Animate to emphasize its expanded support for HTML5 authoring, and stated that it would "encourage content creators to build with new web standards" rather than use Flash.[64]

    In July 2017, Adobe deprecated Flash, and announced its End-Of-Life (EOL) at the end of 2020, and will cease support, distribution, and security updates for Flash Player.[1]

    With Flash's EOL announced, many browsers took steps to gradually restrict Flash content (caution users before launching it, eventually blocking all content without an option to play it). By January 2021, all major browsers were blocking all Flash content unconditionally. Only IE11, niche browser forks, and some browsers built for China plan to continue support. Furthermore, excluding the China variant of Flash, Flash execution software has a built-in kill switch which prevents it from playing Flash after January 12, 2021.[65] In January 2021, Microsoft released an optional update KB4577586 which removes Flash Player from Windows; in July 2021 this update was pushed out as a security update and applied automatically to all remaining systems.[66]

    Post EOL support[edit]

    Main article: Adobe Flash Player § Post-EOL support

    Adobe Flash will still be supported in China and worldwide on some specialized enterprise platforms beyond 2020.[67]

    Content preservation projects[edit]

    As early as 2014, around the same time that Adobe began encouraging Flash developers to transition their works to HTML5 standards, others began efforts to preserve existing Flash content through emulation of Flash in open standards. While some Flash applications were utilitarian, several applications had been shown to be experimental art, while others had laid the foundation of the independent video game development.[68] An early project was Mozilla's Shumway, an open source project that attempted to emulate the Flash standard in HTML5, but the project was shuttered as the team found that more developers were switching to HTML5 than seeking to keep their content in Flash, coupled with the difficulties in assuring full compatibility. Google had developed the Swiffy application, released in 2014, to convert Flash applications to HTML5-compatible scripts for viewing on mobile devices, but it was shut down in 2016.[68]

    Closer to Flash's EOL date in 2020, there were more concentrated efforts simply to preserve existing Flash applications, including websites, video games, and animations beyond Flash's EOL.[59][69][70] The Internet Archive introduced Ruffle and Emularity Flash emulators to emulate Flash games and animations without the security holes in November 2020, opening a new collection for creators and users to save and preserve Flash content.[71][72] The Flashpoint project collected more than 38,000 Flash applications, excluding those that were commercial products, and offered as a large freely available archive for users to download.[73][74]Kongregate, one of the larger sites that offered Flash games, has been working with the Strong Museum of Play to preserve its games.[68]

    Format[edit]

    FLA[edit]

    Flash source files are in the FLA format and contain graphics and animation, as well as embedded assets such as bitmap images, audio files, and FLV video files. The Flash source file format was a proprietary format and Adobe Animate and Adobe Flash Pro were the only available authoring tools capable of editing such files. Flash source files (.fla) may be compiled into Flash movie files (.swf) using Adobe Animate. Note that FLA files can be edited, but output (.swf) files cannot.

    SWF[edit]

    Main article: SWF

    Flash movie files were in the SWF format, traditionally called "ShockWave Flash" movies, "Flash movies", or "Flash applications", usually have a .swf file extension, and may be used in the form of a web page plug-in, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a self-executing Projector movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Flash Video files[spec 1] have a .flv file extension and are either used from within .swf files or played through a flv-aware player, such as VLC, or QuickTime and Windows Media Player with external codecs added.

    The use of vector graphics combined with program code allows Flash files to be smaller—and thus allows streams to use less bandwidth—than the corresponding bitmaps or video clips. For content in a single format (such as just text, video, or audio), other alternatives may provide better performance and consume less CPU power than the corresponding Flash movie, for example, when using transparency or making large screen updates such as photographic or text fades.

    In addition to a vector-rendering engine, the Flash Player includes a virtual machine called the ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM) for scripting interactivity at run-time, with video, MP3-based audio, and bitmap graphics. As of Flash Player 8, it offered two video codecs: On2 TechnologiesVP6 and Sorenson Spark, and run-time JPEG, Progressive JPEG, PNG, and GIF capability.

    3D[edit]

    Main article: Stage3D

    Flash Player 11 introduced a full 3D shader API, called Stage3D, which is fairly similar to WebGL.[75][76] Stage3D enables GPU-accelerated rendering of 3D graphics within Flash games and applications, and has been used to build Angry Birds, and a couple of other notable games.

    Various 3D frameworks have been built for Flash using Stage3D, such as Away3D 4,[76]CopperCube,[77]Flare3D,[78] and Starling.[79] Professional game engines like Unreal Engine[80][81] and Unity also export Flash versions which use Stage3D to render 3D graphics.

    Flash Video[edit]

    Main article: Flash Video

    Virtually all browser plugins for video are free of charge and cross-platform, including Adobe's offering of Flash Video, which was introduced with Flash version 6. Flash Video had been a popular choice for websites due to the large installed user base and programmability of Flash. In 2010, Apple publicly criticized Adobe Flash, including its implementation of video playback for not taking advantage of hardware acceleration, one reason Flash was not to be found on Apple's mobile devices. Soon after Apple's criticism, Adobe demoed and released a beta version of Flash 10.1, which used available GPU hardware acceleration even on a Mac. Flash 10.2 beta, released December 2010, added hardware acceleration for the whole video rendering pipeline.

    Flash Player supports two distinct modes of video playback, and hardware accelerated video decoding may not be used for older video content. Such content causes excessive CPU usage compared to comparable content played with other players.

    Software Rendered Video
    Flash Player supports software rendered video since version 6. Such video supports vector animations displayed above the video content. This obligation may, depending on graphic APIs exposed by the operating system, prohibit using a video overlay, like a traditional multimedia player would use, with the consequence that color space conversion and scaling must happen in software.[82]
    Hardware Accelerated Video
    Flash Player supports hardware accelerated video playback since version 10.2, for H.264, F4V, and FLV video formats. Such video is displayed above all Flash content and takes advantage of video codec chipsets installed on the user's device. Developers must specifically use the "StageVideo" technology within Flash Player in order for hardware decoding to be enabled. Flash Player internally uses technologies such as DirectX Video Acceleration and OpenGL to do so.

    In tests done by Ars Technica in 2008 and 2009, Adobe Flash Player performed better on Windows than Mac OS X and Linux with the same hardware.[83][84] Performance has later improved for the latter two, on Mac OS X with Flash Player 10.1,[85] and on Linux with Flash Player 11.[86]

    Flash Audio[edit]

    Flash Audio is most commonly encoded in MP3 or AAC (Advanced Audio Coding); however, it can also use ADPCM, Nellymoser (Nellymoser Asao Codec) and Speex audio codecs. Flash allows sample rates of 11, 22 and 44.1 kHz. It cannot have 48 kHz audio sample rate, which is the standard TV and DVD sample rate.

    On August 20, 2007, Adobe announced on its blog that with Update 3 of Flash Player 9, Flash Video will also implement some parts of the MPEG-4 international standards.[87] Specifically, Flash Player will work with video compressed in H.264 (MPEG-4 Part 10), audio compressed using AAC (MPEG-4 Part 3), the F4V, MP4 (MPEG-4 Part 14), M4V, M4A, 3GP, and MOV multimedia container formats, 3GPPTimed Text specification (MPEG-4 Part 17), which is a standardized subtitle format and partial parsing capability for the "ilst" atom, which is the ID3 equivalent iTunes uses to store metadata. MPEG-4 Part 2 and H.263 will not work in F4V file format. Adobe also announced that it will be gradually moving away from the FLV format to the standard ISO base media file format (MPEG-4 Part 12) owing to functional limits with the FLV structure when streaming H.264. The final release of the Flash Player implementing some parts of MPEG-4 standards had become available in Fall 2007.[88]

    Adobe Flash Player 10.1 does not have acoustic echo cancellation, unlike the VoIP offerings of Skype and Google Voice, making this and earlier versions of Flash less suitable for group calling or meetings. Flash Player 10.3 Beta incorporates acoustic echo cancellation.

    ActionScript[edit]

    Main articles: ActionScript and ActionScript Virtual Machine

    Flash programs use ActionScript programming language. It is an enhanced superset of the ECMAScript programming language, with a classical Java-style class model, rather than JavaScript's prototype model.

    Specifications[edit]

    In October 1998, Macromedia disclosed the Flash Version 3 Specification on its website. It did this in response to many new and often semi-open formats competing with SWF, such as Xara's Flare and Sharp's Extended Vector Animation formats. Several developers quickly created a C library for producing SWF. In February 1999, MorphInk 99 was introduced, the first third-party program to create SWF files. Macromedia also hired Middlesoft to create a freely available developers' kit for the SWF file format versions 3 to 5.

    Macromedia made the Flash Files specifications for versions 6 and later available only under a non-disclosure agreement, but they are widely available from various sites.

    In April 2006, the Flash SWF file format specification was released with details on the then newest version format (Flash 8). Although still lacking specific information on the incorporated video compression formats (On2, Sorenson Spark, etc.), this new documentation covered all the new features offered in Flash v8 including new ActionScript commands, expressive filter controls, and so on. The file format specification document is offered only to developers who agree to a license agreement that permits them to use the specifications only to develop programs that can export to the Flash file format. The license does not allow the use of the specifications to create programs that can be used for playback of Flash files. The Flash 9 specification was made available under similar restrictions.[89]

    In June 2009, Adobe launched the Open Screen Project (Adobe link), which made the SWF specification available without restrictions. Previously, developers could not use the specification for making SWF-compatible players, but only for making SWF-exporting authoring software. The specification still omits information on codecs such as Sorenson Spark, however.[90]

    Animation tools[edit]

    Official tools[edit]

    Main article: Adobe Animate

    The Adobe Animate authoring program is primarily used to design graphics and animation and publish the same for websites, web applications, and video games. The program also offers limited support for audio and video embedding and ActionScript scripting.

    Adobe released Adobe LiveMotion, designed to create interactive animation content and export it to a variety of formats, including SWF. LiveMotion failed to gain any notable user base.[specify]

    In February 2003, Macromedia purchased Presedia, which had developed a Flash authoring tool that automatically converted PowerPoint files into Flash. Macromedia subsequently released the new product as Breeze, which included many new enhancements.

    Third-party tools[edit]

    Main article: Comparison of vector graphics editors

    Various free and commercial software packages can output animations into the Flash SWF format including:

    • Ajax Animator aims to create a Flash development environment
    • Alligator Flash Designer
    • Amara Web
    • AppleKeynote allows users to export presentations to Flash SWF animations
    • CelAction2D
    • Clash
    • Express Animator
    • KoolMoves
    • KToon can edit vectors and generate SWF, but its interface is very different from Macromedia's
    • Anime Studio is a 2D animation software package specialized for character animation, that creates Flash animations
    • OpenOffice Impress
    • Question Writer publishes its quizzes to Flash animations
    • Salasaga
    • Screencast and Screencam, produces demos or tutorials by capturing the screen and generating a Flash animation of the same
    • SWiSH Max is an animation editor with preset animation, developed by an ex-employee of Macromedia, that can output Flash animations
    • Synfig
    • Toon Boom is a traditional animation tool that can output Flash animations
    • Toufee
    • Vyond is a software as a service tool to create animated videos.
    • Xara Photo & Graphic Designer can output Flash animations

    The Flash 4 Linux project was an initiative to develop an open sourceLinux application as an alternative to Adobe Animate. Development plans included authoring capacity for 2D animation, and tweening, as well as outputting SWF file formats. F4L evolved into an editor that was capable of authoring 2D animation and publishing of SWF files. Flash 4 Linux was renamed UIRA. UIRA intended to combine the resources and knowledge of the F4L project and the Qflash project, both of which were Open Source applications that aimed to provide an alternative to the proprietary Adobe Flash.

    Programming tools[edit]

    Official tools[edit]

    Adobe provides a series of tools to develop software applications and video games for Flash:

    Third-party tools[edit]

    Third-party development tools have been created to assist developers in creating software applications and video games with Flash.

    • FlashDevelop is a free and open source Flash ActionScript IDE, which includes a project manager and debugger for building applications on Flash Player and Adobe AIR.
    • Powerflasher FDT is a commercial ActionScript IDE similar to FlashDevelop.
    • Haxe is an open source, high-level object-oriented programming language geared towards web-content creation that can compile SWF files from Haxe programs. As of 2012, Haxe can build programs for Flash Player that perform faster than the same application built with the Adobe Flex SDK compiler, due to additional compiler optimizations supported in Haxe.[citation needed]
    • SWFTools (specifically, swfc) is an open-source ActionScript 3.0 compiler which generates SWF files from script files, which includes SVG tags.
    • swfmill and MTASC also provide tools to create SWF files by compiling text, ActionScript or XML files into Flash animations
    • Ming library, to create SWF files programmatically, has interfaces for C, PHP, C++, Perl, Python, and Ruby. It is able to import and export graphics from XML into SWF.

    Players[edit]

    Proprietary[edit]

    Adobe Flash Player is the multimedia and application player originally developed by Macromedia and acquired by Adobe Systems. It plays SWF files, which can be created by Adobe Animate, Apache Flex, or a number of other Adobe Systems and 3rd party tools. It has support for a scripting language called ActionScript, which can be used to display Flash Video from an SWF file.

    Scaleform GFx is a commercial alternative Flash player that features fully hardware-accelerated 2D graphics rendering using the GPU. Scaleform has high conformance with both Flash 10 ActionScript 3[91] and Flash 8 ActionScript 2. Scaleform GFx is a game development middleware solution that helps create graphical user interfaces or HUDs within 3D video games. It does not work with web browsers.

    IrfanView, an image viewer, uses Flash Player to display SWF files.

    Open source[edit]

    OpenFL, a cross-platform open-source implementation of the Adobe Flash API,[63] supports importing SWF assets.[92]

    Lightspark is a free and open-source SWF player that supports most of ActionScript 3.0 and has a Mozilla-compatible plug-in.[93] It will fall back on Gnash, a free SWF player supporting ActionScript 1.0 and 2.0 (AVM1) code. Lightspark supports OpenGL-based rendering for 3D content. The player is also compatible with H.264 Flash videos on YouTube.

    Gnash aimed to create a software player and browser plugin replacement for the Adobe Flash Player. Gnash can play SWF files up to version 7, and 80% of ActionScript 2.0.[94] Gnash runs on Windows, Linux and other platforms for the 32-bit, 64-bit, and other operating systems, but development has slowed significantly in recent years.

    Shumway was an open source Flash Player released by Mozilla in November 2012. It was built in JavaScript and is thus compatible with modern web browsers.[95][96][97] In early October 2013, Shumway was included by default in the Firefox nightly branch.[98] Shumway rendered Flash contents by translating contents inside Flash files to HTML5 elements, and running an ActionScript interpreter in JavaScript.[99] It supported both AVM1 and AVM2, and ActionScript versions 1, 2, and 3.[100] Development of Shumway ceased in early 2016.[101]

    In the same year that Shumway was abandoned, work began on Ruffle, a flash emulator written in Rust. It also runs in web browsers, by compiling down to WebAssembly and using HTML5 Canvas.[102] In 2020, the Internet Archive added support for emulating SWF by adding Ruffle to its emulation scheme.[103]

    Availability[edit]

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    Desktop computers[edit]

    Adobe Flash Player[edit]

    Main article: Adobe Flash Player § Availability

    Adobe Flash has been deprecated, outside of China.[1] On Linux the PPAPI plug-in is available; the NPAPI version wasn't updated to new major versions for a while[104] until Adobe changed its mind on stopping support and its former plan to discontinue "in 2017".[105]

    Adobe Flash Player is available in four flavors:

    • ActiveX-based Plug-in
    • NPAPI-based Plug-in
    • PPAPI-based Plug-in
    • Projector

    The ActiveX version is an ActiveX control for use in Internet Explorer and any other Windows applications that support ActiveX technology. The Plug-in versions are available for browsers supporting either NPAPI or PPAPI plug-ins on Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. The projector version is a standalone player that can open SWF files directly.[106]

    Adobe AIR[edit]

    Main article: Adobe AIR § Platforms

    Adobe AIR shares some code with Adobe Flash Player and essentially embeds it.

    Mobile devices[edit]

    Adobe Flash Player[edit]

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    Adobe Flash Player was available for a variety of mobile operating systems, including Android (between versions 2.2[107] and 4.0.4[108]), Pocket PC/Windows CE, QNX (e.g. on BlackBerry PlayBook), Symbian, Palm OS, and webOS (since version 2.0[109]). Flash Player for smart phones was made available to handset manufacturers at the end of 2009.[110]

    However, in November 2011, Adobe announced the withdrawal of support for Flash Player on mobile devices.[111]

    Adobe is reaffirming its commitment to "aggressively contribute" to HTML5.[112][113] Adobe announced the end of Flash for mobile platforms or TV, instead focusing on HTML5 for browser content and Adobe AIR for the various mobile application stores[114][115][116][117] and described it as "the beginning of the end".[118] BlackBerry LTD (formerly known as RIM) announced that it would continue to develop Flash Player for the PlayBook.[119]

    There is no Adobe Flash Player for iOS devices (iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch). However, Flash content can be made to run on iOS devices in a variety of ways:

    • Flash content can be bundled inside an Adobe AIR app, which will then run on iOS devices. (Apple did not allow this for a while, but they relaxed those restrictions in September 2010.[120])
    • If the content is Flash video being served by Adobe Flash Media Server 4.5, the server will translate and send the video as HTTP Dynamic Streaming or HTTP Live Streaming, both of which can be played by iOS devices.[121]
    • Some specialized mobile browsers manage to accommodate Flash via streaming content from the cloud directly to a user's device. Some examples are Photon Browser[122] and Puffin Web Browser.[123]

    The mobile version of Internet Explorer for Windows Phone cannot play Flash content;[124] however, Flash support is still present on the tablet version of Windows.[125]

    Adobe AIR[edit]

    Main article: Adobe AIR

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    AIR applications can be published as native phone applications on certain mobile operating systems, such as Android (ARM Cortex-A8 and above[126]) and AppleiOS.[127]

    Portable electronic devices[edit]

    Adobe Flash Lite is a lightweight version of Adobe Flash Player intended for mobile phones[128][self-published source?] and other portable electronic devices like Chumby and iRiver.

    Alternatives on the web[edit]

    For a list of non-web alternative players, see § Open source.

    OpenFL[edit]

    Main article: OpenFL

    OpenFL is an open-source software framework that mirrors the Adobe Flash API. It allows developers to build a single application against the OpenFL APIs, and simultaneously target multiple platforms including iOS, Android, HTML5 (choice of Canvas, WebGL, SVG or DOM), Windows, macOS, Linux, WebAssembly, Flash, AIR, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita, Xbox One, Wii U, TiVo, Raspberry Pi, and Node.js.[129] OpenFL mirrors the Flash API for graphical operations. OpenFL applications can be written in Haxe, JavaScript (EcmaScript 5 or 6+), or TypeScript.[130]

    More than 500 video games have been developed with OpenFL,[131] including the BAFTA-award-winning game Papers, Please, Rymdkapsel, Lightbot, and Madden NFL Mobile.

    HTML5[edit]

    Main article: Comparison of HTML5 and Flash

    HTML5 is often cited as an alternative to Adobe Flash technology usage on web pages. Adobe released a tool that converts Flash to HTML5,[132] and in June 2011, Google released an experimental tool that does the same.[133][134] In January 2015, YouTube defaulted to HTML5 players to better support more devices.[135]

    Flash to HTML5[edit]

    The following tools allow converting Flash content to HTML5:

    The following tools run Flash content in an HTML5-enabled browser, but do not convert to a HTML5 webpage:

    Criticisms[edit]

    Mobile support[edit]

    Websites built with Adobe Flash will not function on most modern mobile devices running Google Android or iOS (iPhone, iPad). The only alternative is using HTML5 and responsive web design to build websites that support both desktop and mobile devices.

    However, Flash is still used to build mobile games using Adobe AIR. Such games will not work in mobile web browsers but must be installed via the appropriate app store.

    Vendor lock-in[edit]

    See also: Vendor lock-in

    The reliance on Adobe for decoding Flash makes its use on the World Wide Web a concern—the completeness of its public specifications are debated, and no complete implementation of Flash is publicly available in source code form with a license that permits reuse. Generally, public specifications are what makes a format re-implementable (see future proofing data storage), and reusable codebases can be ported to new platforms without the endorsement of the format creator.

    Adobe's restrictions on the use of the SWF/FLV specifications were lifted in February 2009 (see Adobe's Open Screen Project). However, despite efforts of projects like Gnash, Swfdec, and Lightspark, a complete free Flash player is yet to be seen, as of September 2011. For example, Gnash cannot use SWF v10 yet.[143] Notably, Gnash was listed on the Free Software Foundation's high priority list, from at least 2007, to its removal in January 2017.[144]

    Notable advocates of free software, open standards, and the World Wide Web have warned against the use of Flash:

    The founder of Mozilla Europe, Tristan Nitot, stated in 2008:[145]

    Companies building websites should beware of proprietary rich-media technologies like Adobe's Flash and Microsoft's Silverlight. (...) You're producing content for your users and there's someone in the middle deciding whether users should see your content.

    Representing open standards, inventor of CSS and co-author of HTML5, Håkon Wium Lie explained in a Google tech talk of 2007, entitled "the <video> element", the proposal of Theora as the format for HTML5 video:[146]

    I believe very strongly, that we need to agree on some kind of baseline video format if [the video element] is going to succeed. Flash is today the baseline format on the web. The problem with Flash is that it's not an open standard.

    Representing the free software movement, Richard Stallman stated in a speech in 2004 that:[147] "The use of Flash in websites is a major problem for our community."

    Accessibility and usability[edit]

    Usability consultant Jakob Nielsen published an Alertbox in 2000 entitled, Flash: 99% Bad, stating that "Flash tends to degrade websites for three reasons: it encourages design abuse, it breaks with the Web's fundamental interaction principles, and it distracts attention from the site's core value."[148] Some problems have been at least partially fixed since Nielsen's complaints: text size can be controlled using full page zoom and it has been possible for authors to include alternative text in Flash since Flash Player 6.

    Flash blocking in web browsers[edit]

    Some websites rely heavily on Flash and become unusable without Flash Player, or with Flash blocked.

    Flash content is usually embedded using the or HTML element.[149] A web browser that does not fully implement one of these elements displays the replacement text, if supplied by the web page. Often, a plugin is required for the browser to fully implement these elements, though some users cannot or will not install it.

    Since Flash can be used to produce content (such as advertisements) that some users find obnoxious or take a large amount of bandwidth to download, some web browsers, by default, do not play Flash content until the user clicks on it, e.g. Konqueror, K-Meleon.

    Most current browsers have a feature to block plugins, playing one only when the user clicks it. Opera versions since 10.5 feature native Flash blocking. Opera Turbo requires the user to click to play Flash content, and the browser also allows the user to enable this option permanently. Both Chrome[150] and Firefox[151] have an option to enable "click to play plugins". Equivalent "Flash blocker" extensions are also available for many popular browsers: Firefox has Flashblock and NoScript, Internet Explorer has Foxie, which contains a number of features, one of them named Flashblock. WebKit-based browsers under macOS, such as Apple's Safari, have ClickToFlash.[152] In June 2015, Google announced that Chrome will "pause" advertisements and "non-central" Flash content by default.[153]

    Firefox (from version 46) rewrites old Flash-only YouTube embed code into YouTube's modern embedded player that is capable of using either HTML5 or Flash.[154] Such embed code is used by non-YouTube sites to embed YouTube's videos, and can still be encountered, for example, on old blogs and forums.

    Security[edit]

    See also: Adobe Flash Player § Security, and Browser security § Plugins and extensions

    For many years Adobe Flash Player's security record[155] has led many security experts to recommend against installing the player, or to block Flash content.[156][157] The US-CERT has recommended blocking Flash,[158] and security researcher Charlie Miller recommended "not to install Flash";[159] however, for people still using Flash, Intego recommended that users get trusted updates "only directly from the vendor that publishes them."[160] Adobe Flash Player has over 1078 CVE entries,[161] of which over 842 lead to arbitrary code execution, and past vulnerabilities have enabled spying via web cameras.[162][163][164][165] Security experts have long predicted the demise of Flash, saying that with the rise of HTML5 "...the need for browser plugins such as Flash is diminishing".[166]

    Active moves by third parties to limit the risk began with Steve Jobs in 2010 saying that Apple would not allow Flash on the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad – citing abysmal security as one reason.[167] Flash often used the ability to dynamically change parts of the runtime on languages on OSX to improve their own performance, but caused general instability. In July 2015, a series of newly discovered vulnerabilities resulted in Facebook's chief security officer, Alex Stamos, issuing a call to Adobe to discontinue the software entirely[168] and the Mozilla Firefox web browser, Google Chrome, and Apple Safari to blacklist all earlier versions of Flash Player.[169][170][171]

    Flash cookies[edit]

    Main article: Local shared object

    Like the HTTP cookie, a flash cookie (also known as a "Local Shared Object") can be used to save application data. Flash cookies are not shared across domains. An August 2009 study by the Ashkan Soltani and a team of researchers at UC Berkeley found that 50% of websites using Flash were also employing flash cookies, yet privacy policies rarely disclosed them, and user controls for privacy preferences were lacking.[172] Most browsers' cache and history suppress or delete functions did not affect Flash Player's writing Local Shared Objects to its own cache in version 10.2 and earlier, at which point the user community was much less aware of the existence and function of Flash cookies than HTTP cookies.[173] Thus, users with those versions, having deleted HTTP cookies and purged browser history files and caches, may believe that they have purged all tracking data from their computers when in fact Flash browsing history remains. Adobe's own Flash Website Storage Settings panel, a submenu of Adobe's Flash Settings Manager web application, and other editors and toolkits can manage settings for and delete Flash Local Shared Objects.[174]

    See also[edit]

    [edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ abc"Flash & The Future of Interactive Content". Adobe Inc. July 25, 2017. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
    2. ^AIR Roadmap Update, Chris Campbell, Adobe Blog, July 25, 2017 9:08 AM
    3. ^ abcdWARREN, CHRISTINA (November 20, 2012). "The Life, Death and Rebirth of Adobe Flash". Mashable. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
    4. ^ abPinho, Carlos (July 7, 2009). "50 Beautiful Flash Websites". Smashing Magazine. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
    5. ^Looking back at the best Flash sites of 2009Archived October 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Adobe Developer Connection, 14 December 2009
    6. ^DAVLIN, ANN (June 15, 2011). "35 Of The Best 3D Flash Websites Ever". Smashing 3D. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
    7. ^20 Best 3D Websites, Web Designer Drops, September 15, 2012
    8. ^Google to automatically convert Flash web ads to HTML5, IT Pro Magazine, Caroline Preece, 27 Feb 2015
    9. ^"Google is killing its Swiffy tool for converting Flash files into HTML5 on July 1". venturebeat.com. June 15, 2016.
    10. ^YOUTUBE NOW PLAYS HTML5 VIDEO BY DEFAULT, ESCHEWS ADOBE FLASH, Popular Science, Dan Moren, January 28, 2015
    11. ^YouTube ditches Adobe Flash for HTML5 on most browsers, The Inquirer, Chris Merriman, Jan 28 2015
    12. ^So long, Flash! YouTube now defaults to HTML5 on the web, PC World Magazine, Ian Paul, Jan 28, 2015
    13. ^"YouTube Flash app for TVs no longer available - YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
    14. ^ abcdeMcCune, Doug (February 23, 2009). Adobe Flex 3.0 For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. Chapter 1, "From HTML to RIA". ISBN .
    15. ^Rocchi, Cesare (2011). Data Visualization with Flash Builder. Focal Press. ISBN .
    16. ^ abFain, Yakov (March 16, 2010). Enterprise Development with Flex: Best Practices for RIA Developers. O'Reilly Media, Inc. ISBN .
    17. ^"Speedtest.net by Ookla – The Global Broadband Speed Test".
    18. ^What are the requirements to use Speedtest.net?, Speedtest.net
    19. ^The world's most popular internet speed test finally drops Adobe Flash, The Next Web, Owen Williams, 7 December 2015
    20. ^"Adobe AIR". TechSpot. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
    21. ^"Do I need Adobe AIR, or should I remove it? [Explained]". Windows Report - Error-free Tech Life. July 24, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
    22. ^"Adobe Flash Platform * Submitting your iPhone application to the App Store". help.adobe.com. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
    23. ^ abcdGrandmasters of Flash: An Interview with the Creators of Flash, Cold Hard Flash
    24. ^ abcdefghMACROMEDIA FLASH BACK, Digital Archaeology
    25. ^PC Graphics & Video, Volume 6, Issues 1–6, Advanstar Communications, 1997
    26. ^Personal Computer Magazine, PC Communications Corporation, 1995
    27. ^Waldron, Rick (August 27, 2006). "The Flash History". Flashmagazine. Retrieved June 18, 2001.
    28. ^Gay, Jonathan (2001). "The History of Flash". Adobe Systems Inc. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
    29. ^The History of Flash: Back to GraphicsArchived January 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
    30. ^The History of Flash: The Dawn of Web AnimationArchived January 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
    31. ^"Grandmasters of Flash: An Interview with the Creators of Flash". ColdHardFlash.com. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
    32. ^"Flash Player in 2005". ZDNet. Archived from the original on May 16, 2007. Retrieved December 26, 2008.
    33. ^Flynn, Laurie J. (April 19, 2005). "Adobe Buys Macromedia for $3.4 Billion (Published 2005)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
    34. ^Joseph Labrecque (2011). What's New in Flash Player 11. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 17. ISBN .
    35. ^Adobe Flash Roadmap, Adobe
    36. ^[1]Archived July 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Introducing Flash Player 11.4/AIR 3.4 beta!, by Thibault Imbert (Adobe employee), ByteArray
    37. ^"1 Billion AIR Installations". Ben Forta. May 9, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
    38. ^Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2014 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence
    39. ^Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2015 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence
    40. ^Barrett, Brian. "Sadly, Adobe Flash Isn't Dead. It Just Changed Its Name". WIRED. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
    41. ^SWF Technology Center

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      • Lightness

        Use Lightness to perfect the lighting in your shots. Lift the shadows and pull in highlights to reveal hidden detail. Adjust Brightness to enhance photos that are a little too bright or too dark. Or increase contrast to make the colors, textures, and subjects in your shots stand out.

      • Hue & Saturation

        Shift all the colors in your image along the color spectrum, make colors richer and more brilliant, or adjust their vibrancy. The Hue & Saturation adjustment also features an Auto button that lets you make photos more vivid and vibrant using the power of breakthrough machine learning.

      • Color Balance

        Change the balance of all the colors in your photo by adjusting the intensity of red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, and yellow.

      • Selective Color

        The Selective Color adjustment lets you easily adjust precise color ranges in your image, like the blues, yellows, or greens, without affecting any of the others. It features 8 individual color ranges divided according to the color spectrum.

      • Levels

        Levels is a great adjustment for almost any photo as it’s designed to be both versatile and easy to use. So you can quickly improve the most important aspects of a photo, like the brightness, contrast, and colors, all in one place.

      • Curves

        The Curves adjustment is one of the most powerful in all of image editing, letting you adjust almost every aspect of the lighting and colors in your shots with an incredible level of depth and precision.

      • Replace Color

        Use the Replace Color adjustment to replace any color in your image with any other. You can pick both the color you want to replace and its replacement in any way like. For example, using the built-in Color Picker to pick a color directly from your image, or using the native Colors window.

      • Fade

        Wash out the contrasts in your photo to give it a faded look.

      • Black & White

        Featuring a range of options that help bring out the contrasts, textures, lighting, and shadows in your black-and-whites, the Black & White adjustment lets you create beautiful black and white photography, even from your color photos.

      • Color Monochrome

        Use the Color Monochrome effect to turn all the colors in your image into shades of a single color. You can also blend the new monochrome with your original image using Intensity.

      • Sepia

        Instantly give your photo an aged, vintage look by changing all the colors into shades of sepia.

      • Channel Mixer

        Mix the balance of the red, green, and blue color channels to create intense color effects in your images.

      • Invert

        The Invert adjustment instantly inverts all the colors in your image in their opposite colors.

      • Custom LUT

        Transform the look of an image using a LUT file – a color preset created in Pixelmator Pro or another image editing, video, or graphics app.

      • Vignette

        Add an artistic vignette around photos to create a retro look or draw attention to your subjects.

      • Sharpen

        The Sharpen adjustment gives you a way to quickly make all the details in your photo clearer by increasing overall sharpness.

      • Grain

        Add a touch of natural film grain to emulate the look of analog film in your digital photos.

      Close
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      Textures

      Welcome to day 6 of freebie week on Designrfix. Today we have assembled a stunning collection of high quality free Photoshop patterns and textures. So if you are in search of some really cool patterns and textures for your latest project, this post is not to be missed. Feel free to download and use them in your next design. Hope you enjoy and tune in tomorrow for the last installment of freebies! Get custom essay writing help to day to have more time for your own.

      Want more articles from Freebie Week? Check out some of our previous posts:

      60 Must Have Free Photoshop Brushes

      Free Download: Ultra Clean Blueline HTML5 Template

      60 Gorgeous And Creative Free Fonts For Designers

      Free PSD Files: 50+ Must Have Photoshop Files For Designers

      40 Free Well Designed Social Networking Icons

      Photoshop Patterns

      1. Wood Patterns

      Wood Patterns

      This free set of six design featuring wood patterns will add texture to your designs.

      When using Photoshop CS3, the patterns will function. You can use them for both personal and commercial purposes without paying a cent. It’s not necessary to provide credit, but it would be nice if you did.

      2. Free Leather Patterns

      Free Leather Patterns

      14 leather patterns to use as backdrops for websites, posters, and invites.

      Photoshop CS3 or higher is required for use of the patterns. Both personal and commercial use is free.

       

      The author does not need to receive credit for their work, but it is appreciated.

      3. Rusty Patterns Vol. 2

      Rusty Patterns Vol. 2

      Rust’s patterns are a way of identifying types against their syntax. Patterns consist of: Literature. Tuples, arrays, enums, and structs. Rusty patterns, such as the ones below, provide an uncommon source of inspiration.

       4. Fabric Seamless Patterns

      Fabric Seamless Patterns

      The following are 10 new seamless fabric patterns that you can download for free. There are numerous seasonal projects that can be made from this freebie, including invitations, flyers, cards, scrapbooks, websites, etc.

      There are many ways in which a pattern can be designed. Using Adobe Illustrator or Photoshop to create vector graphics is one of the most common ways to create patterns. You are going to learn how to create a sewing pattern that you can use to sew and print.

      5. Free Paper Seamless Patterns

      Free Paper Seamless Patterns

      Here is a new set of free seamless paper designs that prepared for you. There are many ways to use them, from flyers to wallpaper to the backgrounds on Twitter, and they can be used for a variety of holiday projects

      Designers and developers have always had a wealth of resources within the web community. In order to provide the best web design and development, we must implement Subtle Patterns as a method of giving back to the students of the future.

      6. Free Denim Patterns

      Free Denim Patterns

      Here are the eight patterns of denim available. Everything from flyers to desktop backgrounds to twitter backgrounds can be texture with them.

      Photoshop CS3 and up is required to use the patterns. The patterns can be used for both personal and commercial purposes. You are no longer required to attribute them, but it is always appreciated.

      7. Seamless Colorful Grunge Polka dot Patterns

      Seamless Colorful Grunge Polkadot Patterns

      It is common for web designers to use polka dot patterns in print and website designs. There are many design applications for these patterns, including stationary, children’s products, packaging, and fashion. It is also possible to utilize these patterns for the texture of your artwork in Photoshop.

      A number of websites, such as Twitter, use patterns as their background. In addition to their use as scrapbooking backgrounds, polka dots are also frequently used for textiles and fabrics. Printables, greeting cards, and invitations are suitable for use with these templates.

      8. Free Carbon Fiber Photoshop Patterns

      Free Carbon Fiber Photoshop Patterns

      Due to its unique pattern, the new carbon fiber texture has been described as a source of inspiration for designers. You’ll stay glued to their site for days because they have the best carbon fiber textures on the web. You don’t have to pay a dime to see these textures!

      9. Free Web BackgroundsFree Web Backgrounds

      For website backgrounds, classic patterns are a good choice. Trendy color schemes are featured in a delightful gallery of seamless patterns. A pattern generator lets you create patterns, according to your preferences.

      Make your website design pop with these free website background patterns. This collection includes patterns that are subtle and patterns that grab your attention. These patterns are available for free and for purchase.

      10. Free Seamless TV Noise Patterns

      Free Seamless TV Noise Patterns

      It is becoming increasingly common to use noise textures in order to add a sparkle to designs. It is possible to choose from a large variety of these bright and fascinating textures. You can apply them as layers in Photoshop to brighten your design. You can use it for designing desktop, laptop, and other projects because it has an appealing noise texture.

      11. 12 Free Minimal Web Patterns

      12 Free Minimal Web Patterns

      There are 12 designs in this Photoshop pattern pack that have minimum pixel dimensions for use on web backgrounds. You can add that distinctive style to your website designs with the help of these delicate patterns.

      12. Wood Pattern Background

      Wood Pattern Background

      Wooden pattern backgrounds give devices and apps an organic feel, and they are widely used in design. These wooden elements can be used in a variety of ways, including as backgrounds, combined with other design elements, or used independently and to establish the character of your website, app, or graphic design.

      The team has uncovered some astounding high resolution wood textures that can be used for commercial purposes. There are dark, damaged and worn-out, grunge, and vintage wood textures in these collections.

      13. Subtle wood panels

      Subtle wood panels

      You can download Free high resolution jpg images of wood panel stock photos there. You can find almost every file commercially available there.

      14. Waves

      Waves

      New wave patterns make it easy to create stunning projects that will impress your clients. Your projects involving water can have an oceanic feel with the use of these wavy patterns. Every digital artist or graphic designer should have these Photoshop Patterns.

      15. PSD Carbon Fiber Pattern Background

       Psd Carbon Fiber Pattern Background

      In addition to its unique pattern, carbon fiber is a source of inspiration for designers thanks to its new texture. The author have a large selection of carbon fiber textures that you won’t find anywhere else on the internet, which will keep you glued to our site for a long time. You can download them for free today!

      16. Carbon fibre v2Carbon fibre v2

      17. Squares

      Squares

      There is now a new trend in abstract art with square Photoshop brushes. By adding these new features, abstract art templates become even more beautiful and stylish. These can be achieved with square Photoshop brushes. A large living room wall or floor can be covered with this type of template. A touch of glamour is added to the room and a fashion statement is made. You can also use these Speckle Brushes as screen savers. Likewise, you can use them on your mobile device or laptop.

      18. 3px tile

      3px tile

      19. Vaio

      Vaio

      20. Diagonal Striped Brick

      Diagonal Striped Brick

      21. Large leather

      Large leather

      In app development, web design, and graphic design, leather patterns are very popular. Luxury and refinement define them as they resemble real leather and feel like it.

      You can use these in any design software or online image editor that supports JPG format. You can also use some in Photoshop or vector format. In some cases, attribution is required.

      22. GPlay

      GPlay

      This pattern features a variety of gray shades in a triangle shape. This pattern looks great used with graphics and elements displayed from an angled position.

      23. Graphy

      Graphy

      It is not easy to manually create dotted lines and different line weights in Photoshop. The following format will assist you in generating graph patterns for any digital paper. Textured solid paper is great for using this format.

      To get a grid with darker major divisions, make a second grid of the same Grid Size as the first. You can widen or color the stroke after saving the picture to a new layer.

      24. Subtle Light Tile Pattern Vol2

      Subtle Light Tile Pattern Vol2
      With the 3 tile patterns, you will be able to create your next web project with a unique and subtle background that perfectly complements the content.

      25. Subtle Light Tile Pattern Vol5

      Subtle Light Tile Pattern Vol5

      In light tile patterns volume 5, you can create a subtle and unique background with light patterns suitable for any web project that you may be working on.

       26. Subtle Light Tile Pattern vol1

       Subtle Light Tile Pattern vol1 If you wanted to create a delicate and unique light web background for your next project, you may want to check out this light tile designs.

      27. Subtle Light Tile Pattern Vol3

      Subtle Light Tile Pattern Vol3

      With this set of soft light patterns, you can add texture to your blog or use them as a background on your website that adds more visual interest.

      28. Grungy Textures

      Grungy Textures

      As grunge overlays, these distressed textures look great and provide a nice grunge look. Make a grunge background with free textures by simply using these grunge textures. Grunge textures are freely downloadable and can be used to create grunge effects.

      29. 2 Old Postcards textures

      2 Old Postcards textures

      Using this texture, you will be able to create artworks and photoshop edits using the postcard texture. It is possible to create new designs using Old postcards.

      30. 6 Old sheets of paper textures

      6 Old sheets of paper textures

      31. Free Grunge Flag Textures

      Free Grunge Flag Textures

      Flag Grunge Texture is now available in stock as a stock photo. The free and royalty-free photos and images on this website can be downloaded at your discretion. For a limited time period their use can be made available in commercial designs.

      32. Wrapping Paper – High Resolution Textures 1

      Wrapping Paper - High Resolution Textures 1

      Featuring a high resolution texture, this paper is classic. You don’t need to give credit to use the images for personal or commercial purposes. This should not be re-distributed. Your next project will benefit from high-resolution images.

      33. Free Grunge Paper Effect Kit

      Free Grunge Paper Effect Kit

      In addition to 12 Photoshop brushes, a PSD file with layers, a sample PSD, and the original paper scans as JPEGs, this set also includes a PSD file. These downloads allow you to create grungy paper overlay effects easily. The textures and brushes in this package allow you to add an aged, ruined appearance to your projects.

      34. Vintage Badge Templates – Brushes, Vectors and Textures

      Vintage Badge Templates – Brushes, Vectors and Textures

      The package includes both brushes and badges in vector format. In addition, you can customize the badges to include any text you wish and to embellish them with your own images. There are 8 old paper textures you can choose from when you download the badges.

      35. Free Water Droplet Textures

      Free Water Droplet Textures

      In graphic design, we cannot overemphasize how beautifully textures work. These images can be used as the centerpiece of a flyer or poster or as the background for the entire design. You may download a few high-quality textures.

      Nature and water droplets are the inspiration for these textures. Take a look at them here and you might use them in the future.

      36. Psd Water Drops Background Texture

      Psd Water Drops Background Texture

      These Photoshop water droplets are available in three different sizes, so you can create any kind of background that you want. Each of these water drop designs can be easily printed on paper or used for the web.

      37. 6 Hi-Res Wood Textures

      6 Hi-Res Wood Textures

      The wood textures they came back with from the skiing trip to Austria are all made up of wood textures. The following are some of the best of them. The set includes six images of wood or bark of high-quality in a variety of sizes. Your experience with them is going to be a lot of fun!

      38. 9 Free Hi-Res Wood Panels Textures

      9 Free Hi-Res Wood Panels Textures

      We have a high quality texture this time. This time we are focusing on wood. Wood textures are increasingly being used as backgrounds for websites. There’s no sign of this trend going away anytime soon. They can easily be used as web background images with a little tweaking, and are a stunning 32642448 pixel size, which makes them suitable for print projects.

      39. Seamless Wooden Hedge Texture

      Seamless Wooden Hedge Texture

      Your work will also be unique since all patterns are unique. This is especially true when considering the high resolution.

      For horizontally or vertically repeated images, using seamless patterns is important. It is desirable for a web page background to remain seamless regardless of screen resizing or scrolling.

      40. 5 Old Wood Textures Pack 1

      5 Old Wood Textures Pack 1

      There are some great aged wood textures to be found here. The 5 vintage wood textures are perfect for a retro classic look, as they are made from classic vintage wood.

      41. Wood Texture and Laminate Texture Pack 02

      Wood Texture and Laminate Texture Pack 02

      The following 7 textures are available for wood and laminate. Intended to create a wood background or element, these wood texture files are ideal for use with Adobe Photoshop and InDesign. If you are planning to use this for personal or commercial purposes, please check the license. Have fun!

      42. Seamless Wood Texture

      Seamless Wood Texture

      Photos from My Free Textures’ website are copyrighted and available as royalty-free stock photography with the exception that they may not be used to develop either a similar or competitive service, such as a stock photography platform.

      Thus, as long as you attribute and credit this website with the use of your photo, you are allowed to utilize this photographic work in your upcoming projects.

      43. Cracked Mud Texture

      Cracked Mud Texture

      Web and graphic designers widely use natural textures in their work and these textures are popular. When you use original textures, you can make your creations look more realistic and change their look entirely. Web and visual designers can use textures to their advantage.

      Designers love freebies, which is why Design Boom compiles them. Here are some cracked mud textures today. Your designs can benefit from them.

      44. Rock Texture with Black Pebbles

      Rock Texture with Black Pebbles

      This is a black pebble surface that is textured. A rock texture created from black shiny pebbles that have been wet with water. You can see if this rock texture is available as a commercial or personal license.

       45. 5 Concrete Textures Pack 1

       5 Concrete Textures Pack 1

      There are 5 high resolution textures of concrete to choose from.  Picked out and reworked the perfect image for you to use in all your graphic work.

      46. 5 Dirty Grunge Textures Pack 1

      5 Dirty Grunge Textures Pack 1

      Contains five grungy and dirty textures that are of the highest quality. The grunge textures that you will find in this package are 300DPI high resolution, perfect for a wide range of uses.

      47. Wall and Terrain Textures

      Wall and Terrain Textures

      48. 5 Dirty Grunge Textures Pack 2

      5 Dirty Grunge Textures Pack 2

      The volume 2 of grunge textures is now available. Featuring 5 high resolution layers with great details, the texture is very realistic and detailed.

      49. 5 Minimalist Dark Textures Pack 1

      5 Minimalist Dark Textures Pack 1

      The following are five minimalist dark textures. By hand-picking a handful of great textures and adding a bit of modification,  created these dark textures.

      50. Stone Texture

      Stone Texture

      Use stone texture image library to find the perfect image for your next project. The stone textures that are available for download are free.

      51. Concrete Texture

      Concrete Texture

      The ideal texture for your concrete can be found by finding the right texture. The following are free images that you may use in upcoming projects of yours.

      52. Creased Fabric Set: 14 Free Hi-Res Textures

      Creased Fabric Set: 14 Free Hi-Res Textures

      High resolution creases of cloth textures such as cotton, wool, denim, synthetic, and other cloth types. All of us should be able to find something enjoyable to do. It is important to note all images have a massive size of 3008 px by 2000 px.

      53. Free Hi-Res Plain Fabric Textures Part 1

      Free Hi-Res Plain Fabric Textures Part 1

      This texture pack contains 12 high-resolution textures for plain cloth. The product line includes a variety of materials, from wool to cotton to denim to synthetic. On average, these images have a resolution of 2800 by 1900 pixels.

      54. Free Stained Canvas Backgrounds

      Free Stained Canvas Backgrounds

      There are 12 different stained canvas patterns included in this free texture pack. If you want your artwork to have an aged look, you can use the Free Stained Canvas Backgrounds.

      55. Free Black Canvas Textures

      Free Black Canvas Textures

      The canvas is dark colored with 9 different patterns that vary in size, each one in a different color. Create logos with these textures and use them in your logo compositions.

       56. Grungy-Light Textures

      Grungy-Light Textures

      There is something grungy-light about the textures. These images can be used to give any image or background a soft, grungey appearance. Don’t be afraid to breathe some life into your work!

      57. Free Watercolor Smudges – Vectors, Textures and Brushes

      Free Watercolor Smudges – Vectors, Textures and Brushes

      There are 10 hand-painted watercolor smudges and drips included in this set. In addition to vectors and brushes, the package contains jpg textures.

      58. Free Rusted Steel Texture Pack

      Free Rusted Steel Texture Pack

      Using rusted steel as a texture is the most grunge of all the textures. The following are five rusty textures you can download for free.

      59. Burned and Scratched Textures

      Burned and Scratched Textures

      A set of eight dirty metal textures including scraped metal, burned metal, and dirt. If you want your work to be alive, do not be afraid to put a little life into it. The following Burned and Scratched Textures are available for free download.

      60. 5 Rotten Rusty Textures Pack 1

      5 Rotten Rusty Textures Pack 1

      The following 5 textures produce rusty, rotten, and corroded effects. Ideal for those who would like to add a sense of depth and personality to their designs. There is no cost to download these textures.

      61. Grunge Concrete Texture

      Grunge Concrete Texture

      The grunge textures used in designs give them a more organic and realistic quality.  These Texture are widely used to create book covers, product features, flyers, and backgrounds for web pages.  The free high quality Photoshop raw files can be grunged up. Several grunge textures exist, including subtle, heavy, and medium.  Create the perfect output by adjusting the blend mode and opacity.

      62. Grunge

      Rebecca-Parker-Stock-134

      These distressed textures look great as grunge overlays, providing a nice grunge look. With these grunge textures, you can easily make a grunge background. Grunge textures are free to download and may be used for grunge effects.

      63. Freebie Pack – 4 Free High Resolution Grunge Textures

      Freebie Pack – 4 Free High Resolution Grunge Textures

      The use of textures in graphic design is endless. Adding a nice texture to a flat design can add depth and realism. It is possible to use these images for print, web and 3D graphics as well.

      For personal and professional uses, you can download free high resolution grunge textures.

      64. 3 Grunge Textures

      3 Grunge Textures from FreeStockTextures.com

      There are three heavy grunge textures included in this pack in order to give your design a worn-out look. Print projects or web projects are a great use of these. It contains 3 textures, one JPG and two PNG, that are designed for grunge designs.

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      The Pan-STARRS1 data Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives home page

      Welcome to the starting point for access to data from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS).  This page provides a brief summary Traktor Pro 3.5.0 Crack Full Torrent Free Download [Latest] the facilities and data products to guide Pan-STARRS archive users.  More complete information is provided on linked pages (see below).

      Pan-STARRS is a system for wide-field astronomical imaging developed and operated by the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) is the first part of Pan-STARRS to be completed and is the basis for both Data Releases 1 and 2 (DR1 and DR2).  The PS1 survey used a 1.8 meter telescope and its 1.4 Gigapixel camera (GPC1; see PS1 GPC1 camera) to image the sky in five broadband  filters (g, r, i, z, y). The PS1 Science Consortium funded the operation of the Pan-STARRS1 telescope, situated at Haleakala Observatories near the summit of Haleakala in Hawaii, for the purposes of astronomical research. The PS1 consortium is made up of astronomers and engineers from 14 institutions from six countries.

      The data from Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives are archived at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore Maryland, and can be accessed through MAST, the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. Additional support for the PS1 public science archive is provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

      The Jogos de Corrida de Graça para Baixar site for Pan-STARRS1 in Hawaii also describes the project.

      Quick links to the MAST PS1 Archive User Interface

      The current PS1 data release is DR2 (2019 January 28). Use the following links to jump right to the MAST PS1 Science Archive interfaces and get started using PS1 data!

      Object Catalog Search: https://catalogs.mast.stsci.edu/
      Image Cutout Server: https://ps1images.stsci.edu/cgi-bin/ps1cutouts
      Casjobs SQL Server: https://mastweb.stsci.edu/ps1casjobs

      See How to retrieve Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives use PS1 data for more information on these access mechanisms. Note that all of these allow programmatic scripted access, and there are sample Python Jupyter notebook scripts.

      Users of the current PS1 DR2 data should be aware of a few issues and inconsistencies in the data.
      (1) Approximately 4.9 square degrees (0.016% of the survey area) has sources that are missing due to various issues in the database population procedures. These are expected to be filled in during the coming months.
      (2) The stack positions (raStack, decStack) have considerably larger systematic Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives errors than the mean epoch positions (raMean, decMean).
      (3) The astrometric and photometric keywords in the image headers are slightly inconsistent with the astrometry and photometry for catalog objects. The catalog quantities are more accurate due to post-image-processing improvements.
      (4) Some images near the celestial pole have registration issues that lead to poor photometry and astrometry.
      (5) There are some astrometry issues at the ~0.5" level near the pole (mostly above 85 deg declination) which have caused problems with the stacking. As a result, both warp and stack images may have incorrect WCS, and in extreme cases double objects may be visible in the stacks. There will also be errors in the stack positions (but not mean epoch positions) in the catalogues.
      (6) FITS image headers use the obsolete PC001001, PC001002, etc., keywords for the WCS. The fluxes have been non-linearly scaled using an asinh transformation. The files also use the tile-compressed image format. The full skycell FITS images do not have a RADESYS keyword, which leads some software (including DS9 v8) to incorrectly interpret the coordinates as being equinox 1950 rather than equinox 2000. The fix is to insert the keyword RADESYS = 'FK5' in the header.

      See the PS1 DR2 caveats page for more details.

      What data is available in DR1 and in DR2?

      The full data processing procedures and data products that result from them are described in PS1 data processing procedures.  

      PS1 data products are served from an archive operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland.

      • The PS1 archive includes images and catalogs from several defined surveys, including observations of three quarters of the sky ("3PI Survey," which is available in DR1 and DR2) carried out several times per filter and over a four-year time span.  In addition, there were nightly Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives of ten smaller fields distributed across the sky (the "Medium Deep Survey," not part of DR1 or DR2).
      • The PS1 archive includes a  simple image search form for retrieving image cutouts and full images and a catalog search form to search the catalogs for objects near a sky position. A CasJobs SQL interface allows expert users to craft more sophisticated queries.

      The following  image and catalog products are available in DR1:

      • Stack images are co-added images made from the multiple exposures taken over the survey.  Stacks provide the best signal-to-noise, and the source catalogs created from the stacks are recommended as a starting point for data analysis.
      • PS1 source extraction and catalogs describes how point-source and extended-object photometry is measured from the stack images. These source extractions are made available in DR1.
      • Mean values of the point-source and extended-object photometry from the  warp images are also available in DR1.

      The following  image and  catalog products are available in DR2:

      • Warp images are the result of resampling and realigning the camera images into a skycell of the  PS1 Sky Tessellation, a set of common pixel-grid images with simple projections from the sky. Warps are astrometrically and photometrically calibrated.
      • Extracted photometry for point sources and extended objects from the  warp images are available in DR2. The DR2 source database allows users to extract information on any time variation of source photometry or astrometry.
      • All data from DR1 are available in DR2 as well. Note that the DR1 database remains available for access.

      PS1 data release dates

      • PS1 DR1 occurred on December 19, 2016.
      • PS1 DR2 occurred on January 28, 2019.

      PS1 thumbnail sketch

      Want a short, succinct summary of PS1, how it was executed and what kinds of data have been produced?  Check out the slide deck below.  It is now a few months old, and so details should come from these pages, but it presents a good summary of the project.

      metcalfe_nam2015.pdf

      How to use the PS1 documentation

      You are on the home page of the web pages at STScI created to document and explain PS1 and its data products.  This first release of PS1 documentation is intentionally minimal in order to focus on the main issues a potential user of the PS1 dataset will face.  Details will be added as time permits and as questions arise from users.

      These user information pages for PS1 are intended to be individually focused and broken down into a well-linked tree.  They approximate the structure of Wikipedia.

      In particular, this structure makes it possible for users to search specifically within the Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives of this documentation, reducing false positives significantly.  We welcome suggestions and comments that can improve our presentation. Contact [email protected] with suggestions.

      PS1 user information topics

      There are five primary informational topics, with links below, that provide further details:

      How to get help

      Credit where it is due

      Here is the text for acknowledging PS1 in your publications:

      The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

      In addition, please cite the following papers describing the instrument, survey, and data analysis as appropriate:

      1. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys, Chambers, K.C., et al.
      2. Pan-STARRS Data Processing System, Magnier, E. A., et al.
      3. Pan-STARRS Pixel Processing: Detrending, Warping, Stacking, Waters, C. Z., et al.
      4. Pan-STARRS Pixel Analysis: Source Detection and Characterization, Magnier, E. A., et al.
      5. Pan-STARRS Photometric and Astrometric Calibration, Magnier, E. A., et al.
      6. The Pan-STARRS1 Database and Data Products, Flewelling, H. A., et al.

      People and organizations that built and supported PS1

      Fourteen organizations in six nations (plus two funding organizations) supported the Adobe Photoshop CC 2021 22.5.1 Crack + Serial Number Free Download survey.

      Many individuals contributed to the creation of the Pan-STARRS survey and archive.

      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
      Powered by Wordpress

      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Adobe Flash

    Deprecated multimedia platform used to add animation and interactivity to websites

    This article is about the multimedia software platform. For the application/animation software, see Adobe Animate. For the player, see Adobe Flash Player.

    "Shockwave Flash" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Adobe Shockwave.

    Adobe Flash is a multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich web applications, desktop applications, mobile apps, mobile games, and embedded web browser video players. Flash displays text, vector graphics, and raster graphics to provide animations, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, video games, and applications. It allowed streaming of audio and video, and can capture mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera input.

    Artists may produce Flash graphics and animations using Adobe Animate (formerly known as Adobe Flash Professional). Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, or any text editor combined with the Apache Flex SDK. End users view Flash content via Flash Player (for web browsers), Adobe AIR (for desktop or mobile apps), or third-party players such as Scaleform (for video games). Adobe Flash Player (which is available on Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux) enables end users to view Flash content using Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives browsers. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but since has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR.

    The ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications, and mobile applications. Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop, and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash and published for Windows, macOS, Android, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Wii U, and Nintendo Switch.

    Flash was initially used to create fully-interactive websites, but this approach was phased out with the introduction of HTML5. Instead, Flash found a niche as the dominant platform for online multimedia content, particularly for browser games. Following an open letter written by Steve Jobs in 2010 stating that he would not approve the use of Flash on their iOS devices due to numerous security flaws, use of Flash declined as Adobe transitioned to the Adobe Air platform. The Flash Player was deprecated in 2017 and officially discontinued at the end of 2020 for all users outside China, as well as non-enterprise users,[1] with many web browsers and operating systems scheduled to remove the Flash Player software around the same time. Adobe continues to develop Adobe Animate, which supports web standards such as HTML5 instead of the Flash format.[2]

    Applications[edit]

    Websites[edit]

    In the early 2000s, Flash was widely installed on desktop computers, and was often used to display interactive web pages and online games, and to play video and audio content.[3] In 2005, YouTube was founded by former PayPal employees, and it used Adobe Flash Player as a means to display compressed video content on the web.[3]

    Between 2000 and 2010, numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals.[4] Notable users include Nike, Hewlett-Packard (more commonly known as HP), Nokia, General Electric, World Wildlife Fund, HBO, Cartoon Network, Disney, and Motorola.[4][5] After Adobe introduced hardware-accelerated 3D for Flash (Stage3D), Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Flash websites saw a growth of 3D content for product demonstrations and virtual tours.[6][7]

    In 2007, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, YouTube offered videos in HTML5 format to support the iPhone and iPad, which did not support Flash Player.[3] After a controversy with Apple, Adobe stopped developing Flash Player for Mobile, focusing its efforts on Adobe AIR applications and HTML5 animation.[3] In 2015, Google introduced Google Swiffy, a tool that converted Flash animation to HTML5, which Google used to automatically convert Flash web ads for mobile devices.[8] In 2016, Google discontinued Swiffy and its support.[9] In 2015, YouTube switched to HTML5 technology on most devices by default;[10][11][12] however, YouTube supported the Flash-based video player for older web browsers and devices until 2017.[13]

    Rich Web Applications[edit]

    Main article: Rich web application

    After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in 2000, developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web.[14] Such Web-based applications eventually became known as "Rich Internet Applications"[14] and later "Rich Web Applications".

    In 2004, Macromedia Flex was released, and specifically targeted the application development market.[14] Flex introduced new user interface components, advanced data visualization components, data remoting, and a modern IDE (Flash Builder).[14][15] Flex competed with Asynchronous JavaScript Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives XML (AJAX) and Microsoft Silverlight during its tenure.[14] Flex was upgraded to support integration with remote data sources, using AMF, BlazeDS, Adobe LiveCycle, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, and others.[16]

    Between 2006 and 2016, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, the Speedtest.net web service conducted over 9.0 billion speed tests with a utility built with Adobe Flash.[17][18] In 2016, the service shifted to HTML5 due to the decreasing availability of Adobe Flash Player on PCs.[19]

    Developers could create Flash web applications and rich web applications in ActionScript 3.0 programming language with IDEs, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, including Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Flex applications were typically built using Flex frameworks such as PureMVC.[16]

    Video games[edit]

    Screenshots and footage of Flash games QWOP, Solipskier, and Hundreds

    Flash video games were popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds, Miniclip, and Armor Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives dedicated to hosting of Flash-based games. Popular games developed with Flash include AdventureQuest, Angry Birds, Bubble Shooter, Clash of Clans, FarmVille, Hundreds, Machinarium, N, QWOP, and Solipskier.[citation needed]

    Adobe introduced various technologies to help build video games, including Adobe AIR (to release games for desktop or mobile platforms), Adobe Scout (to improve performance), CrossBridge (to convert C++-based games to run in Flash), and Stage3D (to support GPU-accelerated video games). 3D frameworks like Away3D and Flare3D simplified creation of 3D Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives for Flash.[citation needed]

    Adobe AIR allows the creation of Flash-based mobile games, which may be published to the Google Play and Apple app stores.[20][21][22]

    Flash is also used to build interfaces and HUDs for 3D video games using Scaleform GFx, a technology that renders Flash content within non-Flash video games. Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine and UDK, CryEngine, and PhyreEngine, and has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than 150 major video game titles since its launch in 2003.[citation needed]

    Film and animation[edit]

    Main articles: List of Flash animated films and List of Flash animated television series

    Adobe Animate is one of the common animation programs for low-cost 2D television and commercial animation, in competition with Anime Studio and Toon Boom Animation.[citation needed]

    Notable users of Flash include DHX Media Vancouver for productions including Pound Puppies, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Littlest Pet Shop andMy Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, Fresh TV for Total Drama, Nelvana for 6teen and Clone High, Williams Street for Metalocalypse and Squidbillies, Nickelodeon Animation Studio for El Tigre: The Adventures of Manny Rivera, Starz Media for Wow! Wow! Wubbzy!, among others.[citation needed]

    Flash is less commonly used for feature-length animated films; however, 2009's The Secret of Kells, an Irish film, is animated primarily in Adobe Flash, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature at the 82nd Academy Awards.[citation needed]

    Several popular online series are currently produced in Flash, such as the Emmy Award-winning Off-Mikes, produced by ESPN and Animax Entertainment; Happy Tree Friends; Gotham Girls, produced by Warner Bros.; Crime Time, produced by Future Thought Productions; and Homestar Runner produced by Mike and Matt Chapman.[citation needed]

    Various third-party software packages designed for traditionally trained cartoonists and animators can publish animations in the SWF format.[citation needed]

    History[edit]

    FutureWave[edit]

    The precursor to Flash was SmartSketch, a product published by FutureWave Software in 1993. The company was founded by Charlie Jackson, Jonathan Gay, and Michelle Welsh.[23][24][25][26] SmartSketch was a vector drawing application for pen computers running the PenPoint OS.[27][28] When PenPoint failed in the marketplace, SmartSketch was ported to Microsoft Windows and Mac OS.[24][29]

    As the Internet became more popular, FutureWave realized the potential for a vector-based web animation tool that might challenge MacromediaShockwave technology.[23][24] In 1995, FutureWave modified SmartSketch by adding frame-by-frame animation features and released this new product as FutureSplash Animator on Macintosh and PC.[23][24][30][31]

    FutureWave approached Adobe Systems with an offer to sell them FutureSplash in 1995, but Adobe turned down the offer at that Windows 8.1 Product Key Generator 2021 [Cracked] Microsoft wanted to create an "online TV network" (MSN 2.0) and adopted FutureSplash animated content as a central part of it.[24]Disney Online used FutureSplash animations for their subscription-based service Disney's Daily Blast.[23][24]Fox Broadcasting Company launched The Simpsons using FutureSplash.[24]

    Macromedia[edit]

    In November 1996, FutureSplash was acquired by Macromedia, and Macromedia re-branded and Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives FutureSplash Animator as Macromedia Flash 1.0. Flash was a two-part system, a graphics and animation editor known as Macromedia Flash, and a player known as Macromedia Flash Player.[citation needed]

    FutureSplash Animator was an animation tool Microsoft Office 2019 crack serial keygen developed for pen-based computing devices. Due to Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives small size of the FutureSplash Viewer, it was particularly suited for download on the Web. Macromedia distributed Flash Player as a free browser plugin in order to quickly gain market share. By 2005, more computers worldwide had Flash Player installed than any other Web media format, including Java, QuickTime, RealNetworks, and Windows Media Player.[32]

    Macromedia upgraded the Flash system between Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives and 1999 adding MovieClips, Actions (the precursor to ActionScript), Alpha transparency, and other features. As Flash matured, Macromedia's focus shifted from marketing it as a graphics and media tool to promoting it as a Web application platform, adding Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives and data access capabilities to the player while attempting to retain its small footprint.[citation needed]

    In 2000, the first major version of ActionScript was developed, and released with Flash 5. Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives 2.0 was released with Flash MX 2004 and supported object-oriented programming, improved UI components and other programming features. The last version of Flash released by Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives was Flash 8, which focused on graphical upgrades such as filters (blur, drop shadow, etc.), blend modes (similar to Adobe Photoshop), and advanced features for FLV video.[citation needed]

    Adobe[edit]

    On December 3, 2005, Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia[33] along with the entire Macromedia product line including Flash, Dreamweaver, Director/Shockwave, Fireworks, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, and Authorware.[citation needed]

    In 2007, Adobe's first version release was Adobe Flash CS3 Professional, the ninth major version of Flash. It introduced the ActionScript 3.0 programming language, which supported modern programming practices and enabled business applications to be developed with Flash. Adobe Flex Builder (built on Eclipse) targeted the enterprise application development market, and was also released the same year. Flex Builder included the Flex SDK, a set of components that included charting, advanced UI, and data services (Flex Data Services).[citation needed]

    In 2008, Adobe released the tenth version of Flash, Adobe Flash CS4. Flash 10 improved animation capabilities within the Flash editor, adding a motion editor panel (similar to Adobe After Effects), inverse kinematics (bones), basic 3D object animation, object-based animation, and other text and graphics features. Flash Player 10 included an in-built 3D engine (without GPU acceleration) that allowed basic object transformations in 3D space (position, rotation, scaling).[citation needed]

    Also in 2008, Adobe released the first version of Adobe Integrated Runtime (later re-branded as Adobe AIR), a runtime engine that replaced Flash Player, and provided additional capabilities to the ActionScript 3.0 language to build desktop and mobile applications. With AIR, developers could access the file system (the user's files and folders), and connected devices such as a joystick, gamepad, and sensors for the first time.[citation needed]

    In 2011, Adobe Flash Player 11 was released, and with it the first version of Stage3D, allowing GPU-accelerated 3D rendering for Flash applications and games on desktop platforms such as Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X.[34] Adobe further improved 3D capabilities from 2011 to 2013, adding support for 3D rendering on Android and iOS platforms, alpha-channels, compressed textures, texture atlases, and other features.[35][36] Adobe AIR was upgraded to support 64-bit computers, and to allow developers to add additional functionality to the AIR runtime using AIR Native Extensions (ANE).

    In May 2014, Adobe announced that Adobe AIR was used in over 100,000 unique applications and had over 1 billion installations logged worldwide.[37] Adobe AIR was voted the Best Mobile Application Development product at the Consumer Electronics Show on two consecutive years (CES 2014 and CES 2015).[38][39]

    In 2016, Adobe renamed Flash Professional, the primary authoring software for Flash content, to Adobe Animate to reflect its growing use for authoring HTML5 content in favor of Flash content.[40]

    Open Source[edit]

    Adobe has taken steps to reduce or eliminate Flash licensing costs. For instance, the SWF file format documentation is provided free of charge[41] after they relaxed the requirement of accepting a non-disclosure agreement to view it in 2008.[42] Adobe also created the Open Screen Project which removes licensing fees and opens data protocols for Flash.

    Adobe has also open-sourced many components relating to Flash.

    Adobe Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives not been willing to make complete source code of the Flash Player available for free software development and even though free and open source alternatives such as Shumway and Gnash have been built, they are no longer under active development.[52] The only fully functional third-party Flash Player is the commercially available Scaleform GFx Player, which is game development middleware designed for integration into non-Flash video games.[citation needed]

    Open Screen Project[edit]

    On May 1, 2008, Adobe announced the Open Screen Project, with the intent of providing a consistent application interface across devices such as personal computers, mobile devices, and consumer electronics.[53] When the project was announced, seven goals were outlined: the abolition of licensing fees for Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR, the removal of restrictions on the use of the Shockwave Flash (SWF) and Flash Video (FLV) file formats, the publishing of application programming interfaces for porting Flash to new devices, and the publishing of The Flash Cast protocol and Action Message Format (AMF), which let Flash applications receive information from remote databases.[53]

    As of February 2009[update], the specifications removing the restrictions on the use of SWF and FLV/F4V specs have been published.[54] The Flash Cast protocol—now known as the Mobile Content Delivery Protocol—and AMF protocols have also been made available,[54] with AMF available as an open source implementation, BlazeDS.

    The list of mobile device providers who have joined the project includes Palm, Motorola, and Nokia,[55] who, together with Adobe, have announced a $10 million Open Screen Project fund.[56] As of 2012[update], the Open Screen Project is no longer accepting new applications according to partner BSQuare. However, paid licensing is still an option for device makers who want to use Adobe software.[citation needed]

    End of life[edit]

    See also: Adobe Flash Player § End of life

    One of Flash's primary uses on the Internet when it was first released was for building fully immersive, interactive websites. These were typically highly creative site designs that provided more flexibility over what the current HTML standards could provide as well as operate over dial-up connections.[57] However, these sites limited accessibility by "breaking the Back Button", dumping visitors out of the Flash experience entirely by returning them to whatever page they had been on prior to first arriving at the site. Fully Flash-run sites fell out of favor for more strategic use of Flash plugins for video and other Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives features among standard HTML conventions, corresponding with the availability of HTML features like cascading style-sheets in the mid-00's.[58] At the same time, this also led to Flash being used for new apps, including video games and animations.[59] Precursors to YouTube but featuring user-generated Flash animations and games such as Newgrounds became popular destinations, further helping to spread the use of Flash.[57]

    Toward the end of the millennium, the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) was released, corresponding with development of Dynamic HTML. Fifteen years later, WAP had largely been replaced by full-capability implementations and the Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives Digital Millennium Copyright Act Policy included more support for interactive and video elements. Support for Flash in these mobile browsers was not included. In 2010, Apple's Steve Jobs famously wrote Thoughts on Flash, an open letter to Adobe criticizing the closed nature of the Flash platform and the inherent security problems with the application to explain why Flash was not supported on iOS.[60][61] Adobe created the Adobe AIR environment as a means to appease Apple's concerns, and spent time legally fighting Apple over terms of its App Store to allow AIR to be used on the iOS. While Adobe eventually won, allowing for other third-party development environments to get access to the iOS, Apple's decision to block Flash itself was considered the "death blow" to the Flash application.[59] In November 2011, about a year after Jobs' open letter, Adobe announced it would no longer be developing Flash and advised developers to switch to HTML5.[62]

    In 2011, Adobe ended support for Flash on Android.[62] Adobe stated that Flash platform was transitioning to Adobe AIR and OpenFL, a multi-target open-source implementation of the Flash API.[63] In 2015, Adobe rebranded Flash Professional, the main Flash authoring environment, as Adobe Animate to emphasize its expanded support for HTML5 authoring, and stated that it would "encourage content creators to build with new web standards" rather than use Flash.[64]

    In July 2017, Adobe deprecated Flash, and announced its End-Of-Life (EOL) at the end of 2020, NCH Debut Video Capture 5.32 Crack Archives will cease support, distribution, and security updates for Flash Player.[1]

    With Flash's EOL announced, many browsers took steps to gradually restrict Flash content (caution users before launching it, eventually blocking all content without an option to play it). By January 2021, all major browsers were blocking all Flash content unconditionally. Only IE11, niche browser forks, and some browsers built for China plan to continue support. Furthermore, excluding the China variant of Flash, Flash execution software has a built-in kill switch which prevents it from playing Flash after January 12, 2021.[65] In January 2021, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Microsoft released an optional update KB4577586 which removes Flash Player from Windows; in July 2021 this update was pushed out as a security update IDM Crack 6.37 Build 7 Latest Version with Serial Keys Archives applied automatically to all remaining systems.[66]

    Post EOL support[edit]

    Main article: Adobe Flash Player § Post-EOL support

    Adobe Flash will still be supported in China and worldwide on some specialized enterprise platforms beyond 2020.[67]

    Content preservation projects[edit]

    As early as 2014, around the same time that Adobe began encouraging Flash developers to transition their works to HTML5 standards, others began efforts to preserve existing Flash content through emulation of Flash Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives open standards. While some Flash applications were utilitarian, several applications had been shown to be experimental art, while others had laid the foundation of the independent video game development.[68] An early project was Mozilla's Shumway, an open source project that attempted to emulate the Flash standard in HTML5, but the project was shuttered as the team found that Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives developers were switching to HTML5 than seeking to keep their content in Flash, coupled with the difficulties in assuring full compatibility. Google had developed the Swiffy application, released in 2014, to convert Flash applications to HTML5-compatible scripts for viewing Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives mobile devices, but it was shut down in 2016.[68]

    Closer to Flash's EOL date in 2020, there were more concentrated efforts simply to preserve existing Flash applications, including websites, video games, and animations beyond Flash's EOL.[59][69][70] The Internet Archive introduced Ruffle and Emularity Flash emulators to emulate Flash games and animations without the security holes in November 2020, opening a new collection for creators and users to save and preserve Flash content.[71][72] The Flashpoint project collected more than 38,000 Flash applications, excluding those that were commercial products, and offered as a large freely available archive for users to download.[73][74]Kongregate, one of the larger sites that offered Flash games, has been working with the Strong Museum of Play to preserve its games.[68]

    Format[edit]

    FLA[edit]

    Flash source files are in the FLA format and contain graphics and animation, as well as embedded assets such as bitmap images, audio files, and FLV video files. The Flash source file format was a proprietary format and Adobe Animate and Adobe Flash Pro were the only available authoring tools capable of editing such files. Flash source files (.fla) may be compiled into Flash movie files (.swf) using Adobe Animate. Note that FLA files can be edited, but output (.swf) files cannot.

    SWF[edit]

    Main article: SWF

    Flash movie files were in the SWF format, traditionally called "ShockWave Flash" movies, "Flash movies", or "Flash applications", usually have a .swf file extension, and may be used in the form of a web page plug-in, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a self-executing Projector movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Flash Video files[spec 1] have a .flv file extension and are either used from within .swf files or played through a flv-aware player, such as VLC, or QuickTime and Windows Media Player with external codecs added.

    The use of vector graphics combined with program code allows Flash files to be smaller—and thus allows streams to use less bandwidth—than the corresponding bitmaps or video clips. For content in a single format (such as just text, video, or audio), other alternatives may provide better performance and consume less CPU power than the corresponding Flash movie, for example, when using transparency or making large screen updates such as photographic or text fades.

    In addition to a vector-rendering engine, the Flash Player includes a virtual machine called the ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM) for scripting interactivity at run-time, with video, MP3-based audio, and bitmap graphics. As of Flash Player 8, it offered two video codecs: On2 TechnologiesVP6 and Sorenson Spark, and run-time JPEG, Progressive JPEG, PNG, and GIF capability.

    3D[edit]

    Main article: Stage3D

    Flash Player 11 introduced a full 3D shader API, called Stage3D, which is fairly similar to WebGL.[75][76] Stage3D enables GPU-accelerated rendering of 3D graphics within Flash games and applications, and has been used to build Angry Birds, and a couple of other notable games.

    Various 3D frameworks have been built for Flash using Stage3D, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, such as Away3D 4,[76]CopperCube,[77]Flare3D,[78] and Starling.[79] Professional game engines like Unreal Engine[80][81] and Unity also export Flash versions which use Stage3D to render 3D graphics.

    Flash Video[edit]

    Main article: Flash Video

    Virtually all browser plugins for video are free of charge and cross-platform, including Adobe's offering of Flash Video, which was introduced with Flash version 6. Flash Video had been a popular Download Before We Leave + Crack [PT-BR] for websites due to the large installed user base and programmability of Flash. In 2010, Apple publicly criticized Adobe Flash, including its implementation of video playback for not taking advantage of hardware acceleration, one reason Flash was not to be found on Apple's mobile devices. Soon after Apple's criticism, Adobe demoed and released a beta version of Flash 10.1, which used available GPU hardware acceleration even on a Mac. Flash 10.2 beta, released December 2010, added hardware acceleration for the whole video rendering pipeline, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives.

    Flash Player supports two distinct modes of video playback, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, and hardware accelerated video decoding may not be used for older video content. Such content causes excessive CPU usage compared to comparable content played with other players.

    Software Rendered Video
    Flash Player supports software rendered video since version 6. Such video supports vector animations displayed above the video content. This obligation may, depending on graphic APIs exposed by the operating system, prohibit using a video overlay, like a traditional multimedia player would use, with the consequence that color space conversion and scaling must happen in software.[82]
    Hardware Accelerated Video
    Flash Player supports hardware accelerated video playback since version 10.2, for H.264, F4V, and FLV video formats. Such video is displayed above all Flash content and takes advantage of video codec chipsets installed on the user's device. Developers must specifically use the "StageVideo" technology within Flash Player in order for hardware decoding to be enabled. Flash Player internally uses technologies such as DirectX Video Acceleration and OpenGL to do so.

    In tests done by Ars Technica in 2008 and 2009, Adobe Flash Player performed better on Windows than Mac OS X and Linux with the same hardware.[83][84] Performance has later improved for the latter two, on Mac OS X with Flash Player 10.1,[85] and on Linux with Flash Player 11.[86]

    Flash Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives Audio is most commonly encoded in MP3 or AAC (Advanced Audio Coding); however, it can also use ADPCM, Nellymoser (Nellymoser Asao Codec) and Speex audio codecs. Flash allows sample rates of 11, 22 and 44.1 kHz. It cannot have 48 kHz audio sample rate, which is the standard TV and DVD sample rate, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives.

    On August 20, 2007, Adobe announced on its blog that with Update 3 of Flash Player 9, Flash Video will also implement some parts of the MPEG-4 international standards.[87] Specifically, Flash Player will work with video compressed in H.264 (MPEG-4 Part 10), audio compressed using AAC (MPEG-4 Part 3), the F4V, MP4 (MPEG-4 Part 14), M4V, M4A, 3GP, and MOV multimedia container formats, 3GPPTimed Text specification (MPEG-4 Part 17), which is a standardized subtitle format and partial parsing capability for the "ilst" atom, which is the ID3 equivalent iTunes uses to store metadata. MPEG-4 Part 2 and H.263 will not work in F4V file format. Adobe also announced that it will be gradually moving away from the FLV format to the standard ISO base media file format (MPEG-4 Part 12) owing to functional limits with the FLV structure when streaming H.264. The final release of the Flash Player implementing some parts of MPEG-4 standards had become available in Fall 2007.[88]

    Adobe Flash Player 10.1 does not have acoustic echo cancellation, unlike the VoIP offerings of Skype and Google Voice, making this and earlier versions of Flash less suitable for group calling or meetings. Flash Player 10.3 Beta incorporates acoustic echo cancellation.

    ActionScript[edit]

    Main articles: ActionScript and ActionScript Virtual Machine

    Flash programs use ActionScript programming language. It is an enhanced superset of the ECMAScript programming language, with a classical Java-style class model, rather than JavaScript's prototype model.

    Specifications[edit]

    In October 1998, Macromedia disclosed the Flash Version 3 Specification on its website. It did this in response to many new and often semi-open formats competing with SWF, such as Xara's Flare and Sharp's Extended Vector Animation formats. Several developers quickly created a C library for producing SWF. In February 1999, MorphInk 99 was introduced, the first third-party program to create SWF files. Macromedia also hired Middlesoft to create a freely available developers' kit for the SWF file format versions 3 to 5.

    Macromedia made the Flash Files specifications for versions 6 and later available only under a non-disclosure agreement, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, but they are widely available from various sites.

    In April 2006, the Flash SWF file format specification was released with details on the then newest version format (Flash 8). Although still lacking specific information on the incorporated video compression formats (On2, Sorenson Spark, etc.), this new documentation covered all the new features offered in Flash v8 including new ActionScript commands, expressive filter controls, and so on. The file format specification document is offered only to developers who agree to a license agreement that permits them to use the specifications only to develop programs that can export to the Flash file format. The license does not allow the use of the specifications to create programs that can be used for playback of Flash files. The Flash 9 specification was made available under similar restrictions.[89]

    In June 2009, Adobe launched the Open Screen Project (Adobe link), which made the SWF specification available without restrictions. Previously, developers could not use the specification for making SWF-compatible players, but only for making SWF-exporting authoring software. The specification still omits information on codecs such as Sorenson Spark, however.[90]

    Animation tools[edit]

    Official tools[edit]

    Main article: Adobe Animate

    The Adobe Animate authoring program is primarily used to design graphics and animation and publish the same for websites, CINEMA 4D Crack [Latest] applications, and video games. The program also offers limited support for audio and video embedding and ActionScript scripting.

    Adobe released Adobe LiveMotion, designed to create interactive animation content and export it to a variety of formats, including SWF. LiveMotion failed to gain any notable user base.[specify]

    In February 2003, Macromedia purchased Presedia, which had developed a Flash authoring tool that automatically converted PowerPoint files into Flash. Macromedia subsequently released the new product as Breeze, which included many new enhancements.

    Third-party tools[edit]

    Main article: Comparison of vector graphics editors

    Various free and commercial software packages can output animations into the Flash SWF format including:

    • Ajax Animator aims to create a Flash development environment
    • Alligator Flash Designer
    • Amara Web
    • AppleKeynote allows users to export presentations to Flash SWF animations
    • CelAction2D
    • Clash
    • Express Animator
    • KoolMoves
    • KToon can edit vectors and generate SWF, but its interface is very different from Macromedia's
    • Anime Studio is a 2D animation software package specialized for character animation, that creates Flash animations
    • OpenOffice Impress
    • Question Writer publishes its quizzes to Flash animations
    • Salasaga
    • Screencast and Screencam, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, produces demos or tutorials by capturing the screen and generating a Flash animation of the same
    • SWiSH Max is an animation editor with preset animation, developed by an ex-employee of Macromedia, that can output Flash animations
    • Synfig
    • Toon Boom ravity vst Archives a traditional animation tool that can output Flash animations
    • Toufee
    • Vyond is a software as a service tool to create animated videos.
    • Xara Photo & Graphic Designer can output Flash animations

    The Flash 4 Linux project was an initiative to develop an open sourceLinux application as an alternative to Adobe Animate. Development plans included authoring capacity for 2D animation, and tweening, as well as outputting SWF file formats. F4L evolved into an editor that was capable of authoring 2D animation and publishing of SWF files. Flash 4 Linux was renamed UIRA. UIRA intended to combine the resources and knowledge of the F4L project and the Qflash project, both of which were Open Source applications that aimed to provide an alternative to the proprietary Adobe Flash.

    Programming tools[edit]

    Official tools[edit]

    Adobe provides a series of tools to develop software applications and video games for Flash:

    Third-party tools[edit]

    Third-party development tools have been created to assist developers in creating software applications and video games with Flash.

    • FlashDevelop is a free and open source Flash ActionScript IDE, which includes a project manager and debugger for building applications on Flash Player and Adobe AIR.
    • Powerflasher FDT is a commercial ActionScript IDE similar to FlashDevelop.
    • Haxe is an open source, high-level object-oriented programming language geared towards web-content creation that can compile SWF files from Haxe programs. As of 2012, Haxe can build programs for Flash Player that perform faster than the same application built with the Adobe Flex SDK compiler, due to additional compiler optimizations supported in Haxe.[citation needed]
    • SWFTools (specifically, swfc) is an open-source ActionScript 3.0 compiler which generates SWF files from script files, which includes SVG tags.
    • swfmill and MTASC also provide tools to create SWF files by compiling text, ActionScript or XML files into Flash animations
    • Ming library, to create SWF files programmatically, has interfaces for C, PHP, C++, Perl, Python, and Ruby. It is able to import and export graphics from XML into SWF.

    Players[edit]

    Proprietary[edit]

    Adobe Flash Player is the multimedia and application player originally developed by Macromedia and acquired by Adobe Systems. It plays SWF files, which can be created by Adobe Animate, Apache Flex, or a number of Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives Adobe Systems and 3rd party tools. It has support for a scripting language called ActionScript, which can be used to display Flash Video from an SWF file.

    Scaleform GFx is a commercial alternative Flash player that features fully hardware-accelerated 2D graphics rendering using the GPU. Scaleform has high conformance with both Flash 10 ActionScript 3[91] and Flash 8 ActionScript 2. Scaleform GFx is a game development middleware solution that helps create graphical user interfaces or HUDs within 3D video games. It does not work with web browsers.

    IrfanView, an image viewer, uses Flash Player to display SWF files.

    Open source[edit]

    OpenFL, a cross-platform open-source implementation of the Adobe Flash API,[63] supports importing SWF assets.[92]

    Lightspark is a free and open-source SWF player that supports most of ActionScript 3.0 and has a Mozilla-compatible plug-in.[93] It will fall back on Gnash, a free SWF player supporting ActionScript 1.0 and 2.0 (AVM1) code. Lightspark supports OpenGL-based rendering for 3D content. The player is also compatible with H.264 Flash videos on YouTube.

    Gnash aimed to create a software player and browser plugin replacement for the Adobe Flash Player, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives. Gnash can play SWF files up to version 7, and 80% of ActionScript 2.0.[94] Gnash runs on Windows, Linux and other platforms for the 32-bit, 64-bit, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, and other operating systems, but development has slowed significantly in recent years.

    Shumway was an open source Flash Player released by Mozilla in November 2012. It was Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives in JavaScript and is thus compatible with modern web browsers.[95][96][97] In early October 2013, Shumway was included by default in the Firefox nightly branch.[98] Shumway rendered Flash contents by translating contents inside Flash files to HTML5 elements, and running an ActionScript interpreter in JavaScript.[99] It supported both AVM1 and AVM2, and ActionScript versions 1, 2, and 3.[100] Development of Shumway ceased in early 2016.[101]

    In the same year that Shumway was abandoned, work began on Ruffle, a flash emulator written in Rust. It also runs in web browsers, by compiling down to WebAssembly and using HTML5 Canvas.[102] In 2020, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, the Internet Archive added support for emulating SWF by adding Ruffle to its emulation scheme.[103]

    Availability[edit]

    Ambox current red Americas.svg

    This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May 2021)

    Desktop computers[edit]

    Adobe Flash Player[edit]

    Main article: Adobe Flash Player § Availability

    Adobe Flash has been deprecated, outside of China.[1] On Linux the PPAPI plug-in is available; the NPAPI version wasn't updated to new major versions for a while[104] until Adobe changed its mind on stopping support and its former plan Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives discontinue "in 2017".[105]

    Adobe Flash Player is available in four flavors:

    • ActiveX-based Plug-in
    • NPAPI-based Plug-in
    • PPAPI-based Plug-in
    • Projector

    The ActiveX version is an ActiveX control for use in Internet Explorer and any other Windows applications that support ActiveX technology. The Plug-in versions are available for browsers supporting either NPAPI or PPAPI plug-ins on Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. The projector version is a standalone player that can open SWF files directly.[106]

    Adobe AIR[edit]

    Main article: Adobe AIR § Platforms

    Adobe AIR shares some code with Adobe Flash Player and essentially embeds it.

    Mobile devices[edit]

    Adobe Flash Player[edit]

    Ambox current red Americas.svg

    This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(December 2018)

    Adobe Flash Player was available for a variety of mobile operating systems, including Android (between versions 2.2[107] and 4.0.4[108]), Pocket PC/Windows CE, QNX (e.g. on BlackBerry PlayBook), Symbian, Palm OS, and webOS (since version 2.0[109]). Flash Player for smart phones was made available to handset manufacturers at the end of 2009.[110]

    However, in November 2011, Adobe announced the withdrawal of support for Flash Player on mobile devices.[111]

    Adobe is reaffirming its commitment to "aggressively contribute" to HTML5.[112][113] Adobe announced the end of Flash for mobile platforms or TV, instead focusing on HTML5 for browser content and Adobe AIR for the various mobile application stores[114][115][116][117] and described it as "the beginning of the end".[118] BlackBerry LTD (formerly known as RIM) announced that it would continue to develop Flash Player for the PlayBook.[119]

    There is no Adobe Flash Player for iOS devices (iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch). However, Flash content can be made to run on iOS devices in a variety of ways:

    • Flash content can be bundled inside an Adobe AIR app, which will then run on iOS devices. (Apple did not allow this for a while, but they relaxed those restrictions Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives September 2010.[120])
    • If the content is Flash video being served by Adobe Flash Media Server 4.5, the server will translate and send the video as HTTP Dynamic Streaming or HTTP Live Streaming, both of which can be played by iOS devices.[121]
    • Some specialized mobile browsers manage to accommodate Flash via streaming content from the cloud directly to a user's device. Some examples are Photon Browser[122] and Puffin Web Browser.[123]

    The mobile version of Internet Explorer for Windows Phone cannot play Flash content;[124] however, Flash support is still present on the tablet version of Windows.[125]

    Adobe AIR[edit]

    Main article: Adobe AIR

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    This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2016)

    AIR applications can be published as native phone applications on certain mobile operating systems, such as Android (ARM Cortex-A8 and above[126]) and AppleiOS.[127]

    Portable electronic devices[edit]

    Adobe Flash Lite is a lightweight version of Adobe Flash Player intended for mobile phones[128][self-published source?] and other portable electronic devices like Chumby and iRiver.

    Alternatives on the web[edit]

    For a list of Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives alternative players, see § Open source.

    OpenFL[edit]

    Main article: OpenFL

    OpenFL is an open-source software framework that mirrors the Adobe Flash API. It allows developers to build a single application against the OpenFL APIs, and simultaneously target multiple platforms including iOS, Android, HTML5 (choice of Canvas, WebGL, SVG or DOM), Windows, macOS, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Linux, WebAssembly, Flash, AIR, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita, Xbox One, Wii U, TiVo, Raspberry Pi, and Node.js.[129] OpenFL mirrors the Flash API for graphical operations, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives. OpenFL applications can be written in Haxe, JavaScript (EcmaScript 5 or 6+), or TypeScript.[130]

    More than 500 video games have been developed with OpenFL,[131] including the BAFTA-award-winning game Papers, Please, Rymdkapsel, Lightbot, and Nero Burning ROM 2021 Crack With Keygen Free Download NFL Mobile.

    HTML5[edit]

    Main article: Comparison of HTML5 and Flash

    HTML5 is often cited as an alternative to Adobe Flash technology usage on Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives pages, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives. Adobe released a tool that converts Flash to HTML5,[132] and in June 2011, Google released an experimental tool that does the same.[133][134] In January 2015, YouTube defaulted to HTML5 players to better support more devices.[135]

    Flash to HTML5[edit]

    The following tools allow converting Flash content to HTML5:

    The following tools run Flash content in an HTML5-enabled browser, but do not convert to a HTML5 webpage:

    Criticisms[edit]

    Mobile support[edit]

    Websites built with Adobe Flash will not function on most modern mobile devices running Google Android or iOS (iPhone, iPad). The only alternative is using HTML5 and responsive web design to build websites that support both desktop and mobile devices.

    However, Flash is still used to build mobile games using Adobe AIR. Such games will not work in mobile web browsers but must be installed via the appropriate app store.

    Vendor lock-in[edit]

    See also: Vendor lock-in

    The reliance on Adobe for decoding Flash makes its use on the World Wide Web a concern—the completeness of its public specifications are debated, and no complete implementation of Flash is publicly available in source code form with a license that permits reuse. Generally, public specifications are what makes a format re-implementable (see future proofing data storage), and reusable codebases can be ported to new platforms without the endorsement of the format creator.

    Adobe's restrictions on the use of the SWF/FLV specifications were lifted in February 2009 (see Adobe's Open Screen Project). However, despite efforts of projects like Gnash, Swfdec, and Lightspark, a complete free Flash player is yet to be seen, as of September 2011. For example, Gnash cannot use SWF v10 yet.[143] Notably, Gnash was listed on the Free Software Foundation's high priority list, from at least 2007, to its removal in January 2017.[144]

    Notable advocates of free software, open standards, and the World Wide Web have warned against the use of Flash:

    The founder of Mozilla Europe, Tristan Nitot, stated in 2008:[145]

    Companies building websites should beware of proprietary rich-media technologies like Adobe's Flash and Microsoft's Silverlight. (.) You're producing content for your users and there's someone in the middle deciding whether users should see your content.

    Representing open standards, inventor of CSS and co-author of HTML5, Håkon Wium Lie explained in a Google tech talk of 2007, entitled "the <video> element", the proposal of Theora as the format for HTML5 video:[146]

    I believe very strongly, that we need to agree on some kind of baseline video format if [the video element] is going to succeed. Flash is today the baseline format on the web. The problem with Flash is that it's not an open standard.

    Representing the free software movement, Richard Stallman stated in a speech in 2004 that:[147] "The use of Flash in websites is a major problem for our community."

    Accessibility and usability[edit]

    Usability consultant Jakob Nielsen published an Alertbox in 2000 entitled, Flash: 99% Bad, stating that "Flash tends to degrade websites for three reasons: it encourages design abuse, it breaks with the Web's fundamental interaction principles, and it distracts attention from the site's core value."[148] Some problems have been at least partially fixed since Nielsen's complaints: text size can be controlled using full page zoom and it has been possible for authors to include alternative text in Flash since Flash Player 6.

    Flash blocking in web browsers[edit]

    Some websites rely heavily on Flash and become unusable without Flash Player, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, or with Flash blocked.

    Flash content is usually embedded using the or HTML element.[149] A web browser that does not fully implement one of these elements displays the replacement text, if supplied by the web page. Often, a plugin is required for the browser to fully implement these elements, though some users cannot or will not install it.

    Since Flash can be used to produce content (such as advertisements) that some users find obnoxious or take a large amount of bandwidth to download, some web browsers, by default, do not play Flash content until the user clicks on it, e.g. Konqueror, K-Meleon.

    Most current browsers have a feature to block plugins, playing one only when the user clicks it. Opera versions since 10.5 feature native Flash blocking. Opera Turbo requires the user to click to play Flash content, and the browser also allows the user to enable this option permanently, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives. Both Chrome[150] and Firefox[151] have an option to enable "click to play plugins". Equivalent "Flash blocker" extensions are also available for many popular browsers: Firefox has Flashblock and NoScript, Internet Explorer has Foxie, which contains a number of features, one of them named Flashblock. WebKit-based browsers under macOS, such as Apple's Safari, have ClickToFlash.[152] In June 2015, Google announced that Chrome will "pause" advertisements and "non-central" Flash content by default.[153]

    Firefox (from version 46) rewrites old Flash-only YouTube embed code into YouTube's modern embedded player that is capable of using either HTML5 or Flash.[154] Such embed code is used by non-YouTube sites to embed YouTube's videos, and can still be encountered, for example, on old blogs and forums.

    Security[edit]

    See also: Adobe Flash Player § Security, and Browser security § Plugins and extensions

    For many years Adobe Flash Player's security record[155] has led many security experts IObit Software updater 3 crack serial keygen recommend against installing the player, or to block Flash content.[156][157] The US-CERT has recommended blocking Flash,[158] and security researcher Charlie Miller recommended "not to install Flash";[159] however, for people still using Flash, Intego recommended that users get trusted updates "only directly from the vendor that publishes them."[160] Adobe Flash Player has over 1078 CVE entries,[161] of which over 842 lead to arbitrary code execution, and past vulnerabilities have enabled spying via web cameras.[162][163][164][165] Security experts have long predicted the demise of Flash, saying that with the rise of HTML5 ".the need for browser plugins such as Flash is diminishing".[166]

    Active moves by third parties to limit the risk began with Steve Jobs in 2010 saying that Apple would not allow Flash on the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad – citing abysmal security as one reason.[167] Flash often used the ability to dynamically change parts of the runtime on languages on OSX to improve their own performance, but caused general instability. In July 2015, a series of newly discovered vulnerabilities resulted in Facebook's chief security officer, Alex Stamos, issuing a call to Adobe to discontinue the software entirely[168] and the Mozilla Firefox web browser, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Google Chrome, and Apple Safari to blacklist all earlier versions of Flash Player.[169][170][171]

    Flash cookies[edit]

    Main article: Local shared object

    Like the HTTP cookie, a flash cookie (also known as a "Local Shared Object") can be used to save application data. Flash cookies are not shared across domains. An August 2009 study by the Ashkan Soltani and a team of researchers at UC Berkeley found that 50% of websites using Flash were also employing flash cookies, yet privacy policies rarely disclosed them, and user controls for privacy preferences were lacking.[172] Most browsers' cache and history suppress or delete functions did not affect Flash Player's writing Local Shared Objects to its own cache in version 10.2 and earlier, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, at which point the user community was much less aware of the existence and function of Flash cookies than HTTP cookies.[173] Thus, users with those versions, having deleted HTTP cookies and purged browser history files and caches, may believe that they have purged all tracking data from their computers when in fact Flash browsing history remains. Adobe's Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives Flash Website Storage Settings panel, a submenu of Adobe's Flash Settings Manager web application, and other editors and toolkits can manage settings for and delete Flash Local Shared Objects.[174]

    See also[edit]

    [edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ abc"Flash & The Future of Interactive Content". Adobe Inc. July 25, 2017, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
    2. ^AIR Roadmap Update, Chris Campbell, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, Adobe Blog, July 25, 2017 9:08 AM
    3. ^ abcdWARREN, CHRISTINA (November 20, 2012). "The Life, Death and Rebirth of Adobe Flash". Mashable. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
    4. ^ abPinho, Carlos (July 7, 2009). "50 Beautiful Flash Websites". Smashing Magazine. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
    5. ^Looking back at the best Flash sites of 2009Archived October 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Adobe Developer Connection, 14 December 2009
    6. ^DAVLIN, ANN (June 15, 2011). "35 Of The Best 3D Flash Websites Ever". Smashing 3D. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
    7. ^20 Best 3D Websites, Web Designer Drops, September 15, 2012
    8. ^Google to automatically convert Flash web ads to HTML5, IT Pro Magazine, Caroline Preece, 27 Feb 2015
    9. ^"Google is killing its Swiffy tool for converting Flash files into HTML5 on July 1". venturebeat.com. June 15, 2016.
    10. ^YOUTUBE NOW PLAYS HTML5 VIDEO BY DEFAULT, ESCHEWS ADOBE FLASH, Popular Science, Dan Moren, January 28, 2015
    11. ^YouTube ditches Adobe Flash for HTML5 on most browsers, The Inquirer, Chris Merriman, Jan 28 2015
    12. ^So long, Flash! YouTube now defaults to HTML5 on the web, PC World Magazine, Ian Paul, Jan 28, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, 2015
    13. ^"YouTube Flash app for TVs no longer available - YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
    14. ^ abcdeMcCune, Doug (February 23, 2009). Adobe Flex 3.0 For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. Chapter 1, "From HTML to RIA". ISBN .
    15. ^Rocchi, Cesare (2011). Data Visualization with Flash Builder. Focal Press. ISBN .
    16. ^ abFain, Yakov (March 16, 2010). Enterprise Development with Flex: Best Practices for RIA Developers. O'Reilly Media, Inc. ISBN .
    17. ^"Speedtest.net by Ookla – The Global Broadband Speed Test".
    18. ^What are the requirements to use Speedtest.net?, Speedtest.net
    19. ^The world's most popular internet speed test finally drops Adobe Flash, The Next Web, Owen Williams, 7 December 2015
    20. ^"Adobe AIR". TechSpot. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
    21. ^"Do I need Adobe AIR, or should I remove it? [Explained]". Windows Report - Error-free Tech Life. July 24, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
    22. ^"Adobe Flash Platform * Submitting your iPhone application to the App Store". help.adobe.com. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
    23. ^ abcdGrandmasters of Flash: An Interview with the Creators of Flash, Cold Hard Flash
    24. ^ abcdefghMACROMEDIA FLASH BACK, Digital Archaeology
    25. ^PC Graphics & Video, Volume 6, Issues 1–6, Advanstar Communications, 1997
    26. ^Personal Computer Magazine, PC Communications Corporation, 1995
    27. ^Waldron, Rick (August 27, 2006). "The Flash History". Flashmagazine. Retrieved June 18, 2001.
    28. ^Gay, Jonathan (2001). "The History of Flash". Adobe Systems Inc. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
    29. ^The History of Flash: Back to GraphicsArchived January 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
    30. ^The History of Flash: The Dawn of Web AnimationArchived January 25, 2008, Blue Iris 5.4.6.3 Full Version Crack Free Download the Wayback Machine
    31. ^"Grandmasters of Flash: An Interview with the Creators of Flash". ColdHardFlash.com. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
    32. ^"Flash Player in 2005". ZDNet. Archived from the original on May 16, 2007. Retrieved December 26, 2008.
    33. ^Flynn, Laurie J. (April 19, 2005). "Adobe Buys Macromedia for $3.4 Billion (Published 2005)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
    34. ^Joseph Labrecque (2011). What's New in Flash Player 11. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 17. ISBN .
    35. ^Adobe Flash Roadmap, Adobe
    36. ^[1]Archived July 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Introducing Flash Player 11.4/AIR 3.4 beta!, by Thibault Imbert (Adobe employee), ByteArray
    37. ^"1 Billion AIR Installations". Ben Forta. May 9, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
    38. ^Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2014 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence
    39. ^Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2015 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence
    40. ^Barrett, Brian. "Sadly, Adobe Flash Isn't Dead. It Just Changed Its Name". WIRED. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
    41. ^SWF Technology Center

      REAPER 6.42:

      Config export

      encode .zip files with UTF-8 filename encoding for third party unzippers •

      Media explorer

      display .RPP start tempo rather than project tempo setting •

      MusicXML export

      improve encoding of .mxl with UTF-8 filenames Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives

      Notation editor

      avoid vertical scrolling when inserting note via action •

      more.

      FX Plug-in Embedding:Embed small versions of some plug-ins into your tracks control and mixer panels, including ReaEQ, ReaFIR, ReaXcomp, graphical JSFX plug-ins, and more

      MIDI CC Envelopes:Handle MIDI CC data as continuous data envelopes, rather than discrete events; create smooth, musical articulations and effects

      Auto-stretch Timebase:Automatically stretch and reconform audio around complex tempo changes; easily work with tempo-mapped and live-played recordings together

      Routing Diagram:View and edit project routing using a high-level graphical patchbay emulation

      Retina/HiDPI:Automatic rendering to HiDPI and Retina displays; new Default 6 theme supports 100%, Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives, 150% and 200% natively

      Big Project Improvements:Vastly optimized behavior for projects with high (200+) track counts; Metal display support for massively faster screen drawing on newer macOS displays

      .and More:New theme with extensive customizability via Tweaker script; Dynamic Split improvements; import and render media with embedded transient information; per-track Sketch 60 Crack Free Download Archives or negative playback offset; faster and higher quality samplerate conversion; and many other fixes and improvements


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