Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021)

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021)

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack + Activation Code (Updated) LS Optimizer Crack + License Key Download 2021 · Netcdf Extractor Keygen Full Version · GEUP Crack +. in deriving these relations, with a number of asperities within a larger source Since x = for tLogicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) - amusing opinion

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Keygen 2021

Logicly एक आवेदन पत्र है, विशेष रूप से डिजाइन करने के लिए शिक्षकों की मदद कर सर्किट का अध्ययन और अधिक सुखद और कुशल है ।

यह एक उपकरण है कि प्रदर्शित करता है की तुलना में एक अधिक उपयोगकर्ता के अनुकूल इंटरफेस और बनाने के लिए अनुमति देता सर्किट से बस खींचने घटकों से उपलब्ध पुस्तकालय में काम के क्षेत्र में और फिर उन्हें जोड़ने के तारों के साथ है ।

यह आपको मौका प्रदान करता है का उपयोग करने के लिए घटक श्रेणियों से इस तरह के 'के रूप में इनपुट नियंत्रण', 'आउटपुट नियंत्रण', 'तर्क गेट्स' और 'फ्लिप-फ्लॉप'. आवेदन बनाया गया है का उपयोग करने के लिए वेक्टर तत्वों तो हर एकल आइटम आप जोड़ परियोजना के लिए महान लग रही है और केवल योगदान देता है करने के लिए एक और भी बेहतर परिणाम.

सब कुछ है कि जोड़ा गया है, इस परियोजना के लिए ले जाया जा सकता है, कहीं भी नकल या नष्ट कर दिया, तो, की जरूरत नहीं दक्षिणावर्त या वामावर्त घुमाया और बनाने के लिए इस्तेमाल किया एकीकृत सर्किट । के बीच कनेक्शन के घटकों से बना रहे हैं एक साधारण क्लिक के साथ पिन पर और नष्ट किया जा सकता है बस के रूप में आसानी से ।

आवेदन और सभी शामिल है कि इमारत के सर्किट बनाया गया है करने के लिए हो सकता है के रूप में सरल और व्यापक रूप में संभव है, की अनुमति के छात्र पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने और समझने की कि यह कैसे समाप्त होता है काम करने के बजाय कि यह कैसे लग रहा है.

एक बार अपने सर्किट बनाया गया है, Logicly सक्षम बनाता है आप के लिए इसे बाहर का परीक्षण चल रहा है एक अनुकरण है । आभासी संकेत प्रचारित किया जाता है के साथ जुड़े घटकों और अगर सर्किट में शामिल घड़ियां, वे शुरू करने के लिए कांपना. चीजें आसान बनाने के लिए समझने के लिए जब कुछ गलत हो जाता है, Logicly रंग का उपयोग करता है दिखाने के लिए जब पिन परिवर्तन राज्य या घटना में है कि एक कनेक्शन जोड़ा गया है या हटा दिया.

यह प्रदर्शन के लिए रंग का संकेत में उच्च या कम राज्य है, के रूप में अच्छी तरह के रूप में जब यह अज्ञात है । आप यह भी एक रंग है जो आपको बताता है कि संकेत है में उच्च प्रतिबाधा राज्य है । रंग है कि आवेदन का उपयोग करता डिफ़ॉल्ट रूप से बदला जा सकता है अपने स्वाद के अनुसार.

समापन में, यदि आप देख रहे हैं के लिए एक व्यावहारिक और मजेदार का उपयोग करने के लिए आवेदन सहायता कर सकते हैं कि आप में कैसे समझा सर्किट का निर्माण कर रहे हैं और काम कर सकते हैं, आप निश्चित रूप से प्रयास Logicly.

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Logicly Crack + Serial Key

Logicly Crack

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack is a Mac software. Which is specially designed for teachers. Teachers can make their lectures very easy. This software is not only for teachers. It also gives some benefits to students. Physic students can make their presentation in this software very easily it provide them a lot of stretchers. Which helps them to make their project more and effective and eye-catcher. Many university students use this software to make their presentation

Logicly 2021 Crack Incl Keygen [Win/Mac]

Logicaly Crack allows them to make their lecture like a presentation by using this feature to help them to explain their lecture very easily. It is very easy to use. A lot of professes to use this software to make their work easy. This software is very easy to use. Also, it gives a very excellent feature to his user which is really great thing in this software. It provides our millions of stretchers to his user. By using these features its user is able to make their project more effective and eye-catcher.

Logicaly Serial Key allows us to make our own stretcher very easily. This is really great thing about this software. All of the old teachers use this software daily to prepare their lectures because it gives them all of these things which they are needed. We can run this software without an internet connection very easily. Logicly works very smoothly. People are really enjoying using this software. It works as practical also. Teachers are making their project first in this software before doing experiments.

Logic is the best-ever software for teachers. It makes its user work most easy by using their unique tools and feature. This software is the best in the world because of its feature. By using its feature we can add stretchers to our lecture or presentation very easily. After doing this our presentation looks more effective.  It gives a friendly interface to his user also full instruction about his faction to his user which is really great thing in this software.

Logically is Mac software that is specially created for teachers. Teachers can make lectures very easily using this software. Also, this software is best for physic students. They can make their presentation very easily on it also it allows them to add many of stretcher on it. Which is help them to make their presentation or project more eye-catcher. We can run this software anywhere anytime very easily. This is very popular software all around the world. Also, Logicly is commutable for all versions of window.

Logicly Key Feature:

  • Logicly is Mac software which is best for teachers
  • It help them to prepare their lecture
  • Also we can make our presentation very easily using this software
  • It provided us a lot of stretcher which make our work more effective and interesting
  • It is very easy to use
  • We can run this software on low system very easily
  • Many of students also use this software to make their orientations
  • Also it allow us to make our own stretcher in very easy ways
  • It gives friendly interface to his user
  • Peoples feels really comfortable to use this software
  • This is very advanced software
  • We can become export very easily using this software
  • It give us really excellent tools
  • Logicly gives us 100+ languages therefore it is very easy to understand
  • It provide us all of these tools and feature which we are needed

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What New In Logicly 1.13.0?

These are some new things that are added to this software

  • Crashing problems is fix
  • Many of new stretcher are add
  • Bugs problems are also fix
  • Now it will be works more faster and smoothly

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  • Teachers can prepare their lecture very easily
  • It help us to make our presentation very easily
  • It works very fast and save our a lot of time therefore peoples chose this software to do his work
  • We can make our project stretcher before doing experiment using this software

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Logic is best from all other software. Because it works very fast easy to use and works very smoothly. This is the main reason that people chose this software to do their works. Also, it completes all of their requirement. It has a lot of unique and professional tools which they are needed.

logicly Crack

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  • Logicly allow us to make project or lecture very easily
  • We can create presentation also by using this software
  • This software is very easy to use and we can run it without internet connection

Cons:

  • Logicly is not totally free
  • Some it gives error to us when we are downloading it
  • Sometime it crash when we want to create our project but we Will solve this problems soon

How To Crack And Install?

  • Firstly download from the given link below
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  • Now install this software normally
  • Copy crack file and crack this software
  • All done
  • Enjoy

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Logicly Crack can make our presentation more effective and eyecatcher by using this software. Because it provides us a lot of stretchers which make our works more effective. It is very easy to understand because its interface is very friendly. Many teachers use this software to prepare their lectures.

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Logicly 1.13.0 Crack FREE Download

LogiclyLogicly 2021 Mac gates + digital circuits effectively with Logicly. Helps you learn or teach logic gates and circuits effectively. Logicly aims to keep students engaged and put them to work on their Physics or Informatics classes. Logicly lets you easily add new elements in your schemes, then helps you draw connections among them.

Design circuits quickly and easily with a modern and intuitive user interface with drag-and-drop, copy/paste, zoom & more. Take control of debugging by pausing the simulation and watching the signal propagate as you advance step-by-step. Logicly for mac Don’t worry about multiple platforms on student computers. Install on both Windows and macOS.

Logicly Mac Features:

  • Let students experiment in a “no worries” simulation where undo is a click away before building physical circuits.
  • Encapsulate and avoid duplication by creating custom integrated circuits that you can drag and drop just like gates.
  • Customize Logicly for your curriculum by building libraries of custom circuits that students can “import” into their work.
  • Build logic circuits with a variety of gates, including AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOR, XNOR, and NOT. Use either ANSI/IEEE or IEC symbols.

Logicly mac

  • Need to build something a little more complex? Logicly also offers pre-built SR, D, JK, and T flip-flops with preset and clear inputs.
  • Toggle switches, clocks, and buttons change the state of the circuit, while light bulbs and 4-bit digits provide human-readable output.
  • Build and simulate basic logic circuits with just a few mouse clicks.
  • Watch the simulator run in real time, or pause it to advance step by step at your own pace.
  • Control clock components and drive signal propagation with a click of your mouse.
  • When you are finished designing your circuit, you can save it to your hard drive. Great for handing in homework assignments and providing a starting point for lab activities.

Requirements:

  • Mac OS X Kodiak, 10.0 (Cheetah), 10.1 (Puma), 10.2 (Jaguar), 10.3 (Panther), 10.4 (Tiger), 10.5 (Leopard), 10.6 (Snow Leopard), 10.7 (Lion)
  • OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion), 10.9 (Mavericks), 10.10 (Yosemite), 10.11 (El Capitan)
  • macOS 10.12 (Sierra), 10.13 (High Sierra), 10.14 (Mojave), 10.15 (Catalina), 11.0 (Big Sur) and Later Version.
  • Supported Hardware: Intel or Apple Chip (M1) or PowerPC Mac.


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Compose started at Wed Mar 13 16:15:50 UTC 2013 Broken deps for x86_64 ---------------------------------------------------------- [aeolus-conductor] aeolus-conductor-0.10.6-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [aeolus-configserver] aeolus-configserver-0.5.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [alexandria] alexandria-0.6.9-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [amide] amide-1.0.0-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libvolpack.so.1()(64bit) [archmage] archmage-0.2.4-7.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [chm2pdf] chm2pdf-0.9.1-13.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [clementine] clementine-1.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [condor] condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.x86_64 requires glexec condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.x86_64 requires blahp >= 0:1.16.1 [connman] connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libxtables.so.7 connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 connman-1.5-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libxtables.so.7()(64bit) connman-1.5-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) connman-1.5-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [couchdb] couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libicuuc.so.49()(64bit) couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libicui18n.so.49()(64bit) couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libicudata.so.49()(64bit) [deltacloud-core] deltacloud-core-1.0.5-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [dmlite-plugins-memcache] dmlite-plugins-memcache-0.5.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [dmlite-plugins-s3] dmlite-plugins-s3-0.5.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [dragonegg] dragonegg-3.1-19.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-9.fc19 [emacs-mew] emacs-mew-6.5-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [enblend] enblend-4.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libIlmImf.so.6()(64bit) [epiphany-extensions] epiphany-extensions-3.6.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires epiphany(abi) = 0:3.6 [eruby] eruby-1.0.5-19.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.0 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.0 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [fantasdic] fantasdic-1.0-0.13.beta7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [fawkes] fawkes-guis-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 fawkes-guis-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libgraph.so.5()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-clips-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libclipsmm.so.2 fawkes-plugin-clips-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libclipsmm.so.2()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libgeos-3.3.6.so()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_signals-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) [fcitx-keyboard] fcitx-keyboard-0.1.3-1.fc18.x86_64 requires libicuuc.so.49()(64bit) [fcitx-libpinyin] fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libpinyin.so.2(LIBPINYIN)(64bit) fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libpinyin.so.2()(64bit) [flowcanvas] flowcanvas-0.7.1-8.fc18.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 flowcanvas-0.7.1-8.fc18.x86_64 requires libgraph.so.5()(64bit) [freeDiameter] freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [freeipa] freeipa-server-strict-3.1.2-3.fc19.x86_64 requires krb5-server = 0:1.11 [func] func-0.30-2.fc19.noarch requires certmaster >= 0:0.28 [gcc-python-plugin] gcc-python2-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python2-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 [gdcm] gdcm-2.0.18-6.fc18.i686 requires libpoppler.so.26 gdcm-2.0.18-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libpoppler.so.26()(64bit) [gedit-valencia] gedit-valencia-0.3.0-11.20120430gite8a0f500555be.fc18.x86_64 requires libvala-0.18.so.0()(64bit) [gnome-applets] 1:gnome-applets-3.5.92-3.fc18.x86_64 requires libgweather-3.so.1()(64bit) [gnome-panel] gnome-panel-3.6.2-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5()(64bit) gnome-panel-devel-3.6.2-6.fc19.i686 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5 gnome-panel-devel-3.6.2-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5()(64bit) [gnome-pie] gnome-pie-0.5.3-3.20120826git1b93e1.fc19.x86_64 requires libbamf3.so.0()(64bit) [gnomint] gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_2_8)(64bit) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [gooddata-cl] gooddata-cl-1.2.56-2.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [graphviz] graphviz-ruby-2.30.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [hiera] hiera-1.0.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [hivex] ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [hyperestraier] ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ice] ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [josm] josm-0-0.40.5697svn.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [kazehakase] kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libcaca] ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libdmtx] ruby-libdmtx-0.7.2-9.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libguestfs] 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libvmime] libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [marisa] marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [matreshka] matreshka-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-mofext-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-mofext-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-ocl-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-ocl-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-uml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-uml-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-utp-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-utp-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnarl-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnarl-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-sql-core-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-core-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-sql-postgresql-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-postgresql-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-sql-sqlite-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-sqlite-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-xml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-xml-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) [mcollective] mcollective-common-2.2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [medusa] medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.1)(64bit) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.0.19)(64bit) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS.2.2.0.17)(64bit) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3()(64bit) [migemo] migemo-0.40-18.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [mono-tools] mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.x86_64 requires mono(webkit-sharp) = 0:1.1.15.0 mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.x86_64 requires mono(webkit-sharp) [mumble] mumble-1.2.3-11.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) murmur-1.2.3-11.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [mygui] mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libCommon.so()(64bit) mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libCommon.so()(64bit) mygui-devel-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-devel-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libCommon.so()(64bit) [nodejs-millstone] nodejs-millstone-0.5.15-1.fc19.noarch requires npm(request) < 0:2.13 [npm] npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) < 0:0.2 npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) >= 0:0.1.0 [nufw] libnuclient-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libsasl2.so.2 libnuclient-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libsasl2.so.2()(64bit) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) nuauth-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libsasl2.so.2()(64bit) [obexftp] ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ooo2gd] ooo2gd-3.0.0-6.fc19.x86_64 requires gdata-java [openbabel] ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [openshift-origin-broker-util] openshift-origin-broker-util-1.5.12-2.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [openvas-client] openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_base.so.5()(64bit) [openvas-manager] openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_base.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [openwsman] openwsman-ruby-2.3.6-3.fc20.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ovirt-engine] ovirt-engine-notification-service-3.1.0-1.fc19.noarch requires classpathx-mail [pcs] pcs-0.9.33-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene] perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene-1.091-17.fc19.noarch requires perl(Bio::Index::AbstractSeq) [perl-Bio-SamTools] perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.x86_64 requires perl(Bio::SeqFeature::Lite) perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.x86_64 requires perl(Bio::PrimarySeq) [perl-Math-Clipper] perl-Math-Clipper-1.17-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libpolyclipping.so.5()(64bit) [php-horde-Horde-Crypt] php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Stream_Filter) >= 0:2.0.0 php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Mime) >= 0:2.0.0 [postgresql-plruby] postgresql-plruby-0.5.3-9.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 postgresql-plruby-0.5.3-9.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [puppet] puppet-3.1.0-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [python-tag] python-tag-0.94.8-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_python.so.1.50.0()(64bit) [python-windmill] python-windmill-1.7-0.4.git4304ee7.fc19.noarch requires python-wsgi-jsonrpc [qdbm] ruby-qdbm-1.8.78-8.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-qdbm-1.8.78-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [redland-bindings] ruby-redland-1.0.14.1-3.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-redland-1.0.14.1-3.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [remctl] remctl-ruby-3.3-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 remctl-ruby-3.3-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [riak] riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_sysmon(x86-64) = 0:1.1.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_pipe(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_pb(x86-64) = 0:1.2.0 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_core(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_control(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_api(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-merge_index(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-lager(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-js(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-eleveldb(x86-64) = 0:1.2.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-cluster_info(x86-64) = 0:1.2.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-bitcask(x86-64) = 0:1.5.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-basho_stats(x86-64) = 0:1.0.2 [root] root-ruby-5.34.05-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 root-ruby-5.34.05-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rrdtool] rrdtool-ruby-1.4.7-9.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rrdtool-ruby-1.4.7-9.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-RRDtool] ruby-RRDtool-0.6.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-RRDtool-0.6.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-augeas] ruby-augeas-0.4.1-4.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-augeas-0.4.1-4.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-aws] ruby-aws-0.8.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-bsearch] ruby-bsearch-1.5-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-fam] ruby-fam-0.2.0-14.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-fam-0.2.0-14.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-gnome2] ruby-bonobo2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-bonobo2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-bonoboui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-bonoboui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gconf2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gconf2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnome2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnome2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomecanvas2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomecanvas2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomeprint2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomeprint2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomeprintui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomeprintui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomevfs-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomevfs-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-goocanvas-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-goocanvas-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gstreamer-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gstreamer-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gtkglext-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gtkglext-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gtksourceview-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gtksourceview-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gtksourceview2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gtksourceview2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-libart2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-libart2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-libglade2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-libglade2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-icon-artist] ruby-icon-artist-0.1.92-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-imagesize] ruby-imagesize-0.1.1-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-libvirt] ruby-libvirt-0.4.0-6.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-libvirt-0.4.0-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-mysql] ruby-mysql-2.8.2-8.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-mysql-2.8.2-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-ncurses] ruby-ncurses-1.3.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-ncurses-1.3.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-openid] ruby-openid-2.1.7-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-racc] ruby-racc-1.4.5-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-rhubarb] ruby-rhubarb-0.4.3-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-romkan] ruby-romkan-0.4-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-shadow] ruby-shadow-1.4.1-18.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-shadow-1.4.1-18.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-spqr] ruby-spqr-0.3.6-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 spqr-gen-0.3.6-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-taglib] ruby-taglib-1.1-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aeolus-cli] rubygem-aeolus-cli-0.5.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aeolus-image] rubygem-aeolus-image-0.5.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-amazon-ec2] rubygem-amazon-ec2-0.9.15-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-apipie-rails] rubygem-apipie-rails-0.0.13-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-archive-tar-minitar] rubygem-archive-tar-minitar-0.5.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-arrayfields] rubygem-arrayfields-4.7.4-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-attributes] rubygem-attributes-5.0.1-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-authlogic] rubygem-authlogic-3.1.3-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-awesome_print] rubygem-awesome_print-1.0.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aws] rubygem-aws-2.7.0-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aws-sdk] rubygem-aws-sdk-1.8.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-boxgrinder-build] rubygem-boxgrinder-build-0.10.4-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-boxgrinder-core] rubygem-boxgrinder-core-0.3.14-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-bunny] rubygem-bunny-0.7.9-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-capybara] rubygem-capybara-1.1.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-chunky_png] rubygem-chunky_png-1.2.0-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-clouddb] rubygem-clouddb-0.0.1-4.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-cloudfiles] rubygem-cloudfiles-1.5.0.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-cloudservers] rubygem-cloudservers-0.4.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-coffee-rails] rubygem-coffee-rails-3.2.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-color] rubygem-color-1.4.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-colored] rubygem-colored-1.2-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-columnize] rubygem-columnize-0.3.1-7.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-compass] rubygem-compass-0.12.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-cri] rubygem-cri-1.0.1-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-daemon_controller] rubygem-daemon_controller-1.1.1-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-database_cleaner] rubygem-database_cleaner-0.6.6-5.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-deltacloud-client] rubygem-deltacloud-client-1.0.4-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ditz] rubygem-ditz-0.5-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-dnsruby] rubygem-dnsruby-1.53-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-dynamic_form] rubygem-dynamic_form-1.1.4-4.fc17.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-dynect_rest] rubygem-dynect_rest-0.4.3-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-echoe] rubygem-echoe-4.3.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-facade] rubygem-facade-1.0.4-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-factory_girl_rails] rubygem-factory_girl_rails-1.4.0-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ferret] rubygem-ferret-0.11.8.4-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-ferret-0.11.8.4-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-file-tail] rubygem-file-tail-1.0.5-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-fog] rubygem-fog-1.7.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-foreigner] rubygem-foreigner-1.4.0-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-formtastic] rubygem-formtastic-1.2.3-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-gem2rpm] rubygem-gem2rpm-0.8.1-2.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-gemcutter] rubygem-gemcutter-0.3.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-gettext_i18n_rails] rubygem-gettext_i18n_rails-0.9.2-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ghost] rubygem-ghost-0.3.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-git] rubygem-git-1.2.5-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-grit] rubygem-grit-2.4.1-5.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-haml-rails] rubygem-haml-rails-0.3.4-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-hashery] rubygem-hashery-2.0.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-hawler] rubygem-hawler-0.3-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-httparty] rubygem-httparty-0.8.1-2.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-hydra] rubygem-hydra-0.24.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-icalendar] rubygem-icalendar-1.1.6-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-inifile] rubygem-inifile-2.0.2-3.1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ipaddress] rubygem-ipaddress-0.8.0-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-jquery-rails] rubygem-jquery-rails-2.0.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-json] rubygem-json-1.7.5-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-json-1.7.5-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-kgio] rubygem-kgio-2.8.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-kgio-2.8.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-krb5-auth] rubygem-krb5-auth-0.7-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-kwalify] rubygem-kwalify-0.7.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ldap_fluff] rubygem-ldap_fluff-0.1.3-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-linecache19] rubygem-linecache19-0.5.13-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-linecache19-0.5.13-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-linode] rubygem-linode-0.7.7-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-little-plugger] rubygem-little-plugger-1.1.3-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-lockfile] rubygem-lockfile-1.4.3-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-logging] rubygem-logging-1.8.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-main] rubygem-main-4.7.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-map] rubygem-map-5.2.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-markaby] rubygem-markaby-0.5-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-maruku] rubygem-maruku-0.6.0-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-mechanize] rubygem-mechanize-1.0.1-0.4.beta.20110107104205.fc19.2.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-mg] rubygem-mg-0.0.8-6.2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-minitest] rubygem-minitest-4.2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-mongo] rubygem-mongo-1.6.4-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-net-ping] rubygem-net-ping-1.5.3-7.fc19.noarch requires rubygem(net-ldap) < 0:0.3 rubygem-net-ping-1.5.3-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-net-sftp] rubygem-net-sftp-2.0.5-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-net-ssh-multi] rubygem-net-ssh-multi-1.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-newgem] rubygem-newgem-1.5.3-7.fc17.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-oauth] rubygem-oauth-0.4.7-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-openstack] rubygem-openstack-1.0.8-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-openstack-quantum-client] rubygem-openstack-quantum-client-0.1.5-5.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pam] rubygem-pam-1.5.4-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9 rubygem-pam-1.5.4-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-parseconfig] rubygem-parseconfig-1.0.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.8.6 [rubygem-passenger] rubygem-passenger-3.0.19-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-passenger-native-libs-3.0.19-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-pathname2] rubygem-pathname2-1.6.2-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pdf-reader] rubygem-pdf-reader-1.1.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pervasives] rubygem-pervasives-1.1.0-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-picnic] rubygem-picnic-0.8.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-plist] rubygem-plist-3.1.0-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-progressbar] rubygem-progressbar-0.11.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pry] rubygem-pry-0.9.10-2.fc19.noarch requires rubygem(slop) < 0:3.4 rubygem-pry-0.9.10-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-puppet-lint] rubygem-puppet-lint-0.3.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-qpid] rubygem-qpid-0.16.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-qpid-0.16.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-rack-mount] rubygem-rack-mount-0.7.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-raindrops] rubygem-raindrops-0.10.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-raindrops-0.10.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-rbvmomi] rubygem-rbvmomi-1.2.3-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rdiscount] rubygem-rdiscount-2.0.7-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-rdiscount-2.0.7-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-rdoc] rubygem-rdoc-3.12.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.3.1-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-redcarpet] rubygem-redcarpet-2.1.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-redcarpet-2.1.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-regin] rubygem-regin-0.3.8-4.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-restr] rubygem-restr-0.5.0-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-reststop] rubygem-reststop-0.4.0-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rhc] rubygem-rhc-1.2.7-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-right_aws] rubygem-right_aws-2.0.0-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rmail] rubygem-rmail-1.0.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rubigen] rubygem-rubigen-1.5.6-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby-debug-base19] rubygem-ruby-debug-base19-0.11.26-4.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-ruby-debug-base19-0.11.26-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-ruby-debug19] rubygem-ruby-debug19-0.11.6-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby-hmac] rubygem-ruby-hmac-0.4.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby-ole] rubygem-ruby-ole-1.2.11.2-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby2ruby] rubygem-ruby2ruby-2.0.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rufus-scheduler] rubygem-rufus-scheduler-2.0.4-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-selenium-webdriver] rubygem-selenium-webdriver-2.3.2-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simple-rss] rubygem-simple-rss-1.2.3-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simple_form] rubygem-simple_form-2.0.3-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simplecov] rubygem-simplecov-0.7.1-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simplecov-html] rubygem-simplecov-html-0.7.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-sinatra-rabbit] rubygem-sinatra-rabbit-1.1.4-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-slim] rubygem-slim-1.2.2-9.fc19.noarch requires rubygem(temple) < 0:0.5 rubygem-slim-1.2.2-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-state_machine] rubygem-state_machine-1.1.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-stomp] rubygem-stomp-1.2.2-2.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-sup] rubygem-sup-0.10.2-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-syntax] rubygem-syntax-1.0.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-systemu] rubygem-systemu-2.5.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-test-spec] rubygem-test-spec-0.10.0-6.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-transaction-simple] rubygem-transaction-simple-1.4.0.2-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-trollop] rubygem-trollop-2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-vcr] rubygem-vcr-2.3.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-whiskey_disk] rubygem-whiskey_disk-0.6.24-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-wirble] rubygem-wirble-0.1.3-7.2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-xmlparser] rubygem-xmlparser-0.7.2.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-xmlparser-0.7.2.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-xmpp4r] rubygem-xmpp4r-0.5-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-xmpp4r-simple] rubygem-xmpp4r-simple-0.8.8-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-yard] rubygem-yard-0.8.2.1-1.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [scala] scala-2.9.2-2.fc19.noarch requires osgi(org.scala-ide.scala.library) [simspark] simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [skf] skf-ruby-1.99.1-1.fc19.1.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 skf-ruby-1.99.1-1.fc19.1.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [spacewalk-web] spacewalk-dobby-1.9.22-2.fc19.noarch requires perl(Spacewalk::Setup) [sparkleshare] sparkleshare-1.0.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires mono(webkit-sharp) = 0:1.1.15.0 [sshmenu] sshmenu-3.18-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [stfl] stfl-ruby-0.22-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [subversion] subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [tex-musixtex] tex-musixtex-0.114-11.fc18.noarch requires texlive-texmf [tpp] tpp-1.3.1-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.8 [uwsgi] uwsgi-plugin-rack-1.2.6-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) uwsgi-plugin-ruby-1.2.6-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [vdsm] vdsm-4.10.3-5.gitb005b54.fc19.x86_64 requires fence-agents [wallaby] ruby-wallaby-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 wallaby-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 wallaby-http-server-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 wallaby-utils-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [weechat] weechat-0.4.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [xchat-ruby] xchat-ruby-1.2-15.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 xchat-ruby-1.2-15.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [xmms2] xmms2-ruby-0.8-8.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 xmms2-ruby-0.8-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [zorba] zorba-ruby-2.7.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 zorba-ruby-2.7.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) Broken deps for i386 ---------------------------------------------------------- [aeolus-conductor] aeolus-conductor-0.10.6-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [aeolus-configserver] aeolus-configserver-0.5.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [alexandria] alexandria-0.6.9-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [amide] amide-1.0.0-4.fc19.i686 requires libvolpack.so.1 [archmage] archmage-0.2.4-7.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [chm2pdf] chm2pdf-0.9.1-13.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [clementine] clementine-1.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [condor] condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.i686 requires glexec condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.i686 requires blahp >= 0:1.16.1 [connman] connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libxtables.so.7 connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [couchdb] couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libicuuc.so.49 couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libicui18n.so.49 couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libicudata.so.49 [deltacloud-core] deltacloud-core-1.0.5-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [dmlite-plugins-memcache] dmlite-plugins-memcache-0.5.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [dmlite-plugins-s3] dmlite-plugins-s3-0.5.0-2.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [dragonegg] dragonegg-3.1-19.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-9.fc19 [emacs-mew] emacs-mew-6.5-3.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [enblend] enblend-4.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libIlmImf.so.6 [epiphany-extensions] epiphany-extensions-3.6.0-1.fc19.i686 requires epiphany(abi) = 0:3.6 [eruby] eruby-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.0 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [fantasdic] fantasdic-1.0-0.13.beta7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [fawkes] fawkes-guis-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 fawkes-plugin-clips-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libclipsmm.so.2 fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libgeos-3.3.6.so fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_signals-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 [fcitx-keyboard] fcitx-keyboard-0.1.3-1.fc18.i686 requires libicuuc.so.49 [fcitx-libpinyin] fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libpinyin.so.2(LIBPINYIN) fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libpinyin.so.2 [flowcanvas] flowcanvas-0.7.1-8.fc18.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 [freeDiameter] freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [freeipa] freeipa-server-strict-3.1.2-3.fc19.i686 requires krb5-server = 0:1.11 [func] func-0.30-2.fc19.noarch requires certmaster >= 0:0.28 [gcc-python-plugin] gcc-python2-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python2-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 [gdcm] gdcm-2.0.18-6.fc18.i686 requires libpoppler.so.26 [gedit-valencia] gedit-valencia-0.3.0-11.20120430gite8a0f500555be.fc18.i686 requires libvala-0.18.so.0 [gnome-applets] 1:gnome-applets-3.5.92-3.fc18.i686 requires libgweather-3.so.1 [gnome-panel] gnome-panel-3.6.2-6.fc19.i686 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5 gnome-panel-devel-3.6.2-6.fc19.i686 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5 [gnome-pie] gnome-pie-0.5.3-3.20120826git1b93e1.fc19.i686 requires libbamf3.so.0 [gnomint] gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_2_8) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [gooddata-cl] gooddata-cl-1.2.56-2.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [graphviz] graphviz-ruby-2.30.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [hiera] hiera-1.0.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [hivex] ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [hyperestraier] ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [ice] ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [josm] josm-0-0.40.5697svn.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [kazehakase] kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libcaca] ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libdmtx] ruby-libdmtx-0.7.2-9.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libguestfs] 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libvmime] libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [marisa] marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [matreshka] matreshka-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-mofext-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-ocl-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-uml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-utp-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnarl-4.7.so matreshka-sql-core-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-postgresql-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-sqlite-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-xml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so [mcollective] mcollective-common-2.2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [medusa] medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.1) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.0.19) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS.2.2.0.17) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3 [migemo] migemo-0.40-18.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [mono-tools] mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.i686 requires mono(webkit-sharp) = 0:1.1.15.0 mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.i686 requires mono(webkit-sharp) [mumble] mumble-1.2.3-11.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 murmur-1.2.3-11.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [mygui] mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so mygui-devel-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so [nodejs-millstone] nodejs-millstone-0.5.15-1.fc19.noarch requires npm(request) < 0:2.13 [npm] npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) < 0:0.2 npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) >= 0:0.1.0 [nufw] libnuclient-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libsasl2.so.2 libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 nuauth-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libsasl2.so.2 [obexftp] ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [ooo2gd] ooo2gd-3.0.0-6.fc19.i686 requires gdata-java [openbabel] ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [openshift-origin-broker-util] openshift-origin-broker-util-1.5.12-2.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [openvas-client] openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_base.so.5 [openvas-manager] openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_base.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [openwsman] openwsman-ruby-2.3.6-3.fc20.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ovirt-engine] ovirt-engine-notification-service-3.1.0-1.fc19.noarch requires classpathx-mail [pcs] pcs-0.9.33-1.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene] perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene-1.091-17.fc19.noarch requires perl(Bio::Index::AbstractSeq) [perl-Bio-SamTools] perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.i686 requires perl(Bio::SeqFeature::Lite) perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.i686 requires perl(Bio::PrimarySeq) [perl-Math-Clipper] perl-Math-Clipper-1.17-3.fc19.i686 requires libpolyclipping.so.5 [php-horde-Horde-Crypt] php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Stream_Filter) >= 0:2.0.0 php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Mime)

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Logicly is an application ҽspҽcially dҽsignҽd to hҽlp tҽachҽrs maқҽ circuit study morҽ plҽasant and ҽfficiҽnt.

It’s a tool that displays a morҽ than usҽr-friҽndly intҽrfacҽ and allows you to crҽatҽ circuits by simply dragging componҽnts from thҽ availablҽ library into thҽ worқ arҽa and thҽn connҽcting thҽm with wirҽs.

It offҽrs you thҽ chancҽ to usҽ componҽnts from catҽgoriҽs such as ‘Input Controls’, ‘Output Controls’, ‘Logic Gatҽs’ and ‘Flip-Flops’. Ҭhҽ application is dҽsignҽd to usҽ vҽctor ҽlҽmҽnts so ҽvҽry singlҽ itҽm you add to thҽ projҽct looқ grҽat and only contributҽs to an ҽvҽn bҽttҽr looқing rҽsult.

Evҽrything that is addҽd to thҽ projҽct can bҽ movҽd anywhҽrҽ, copiҽd or dҽlҽtҽd if not nҽҽdҽd, rotatҽd clocқwisҽ or countҽrclocқwisҽ and usҽd to crҽatҽ intҽgratҽd circuits. Connҽctions bҽtwҽҽn thҽ componҽnts arҽ madҽ with simplҽ clicқs on thҽ pins and can bҽ dҽlҽtҽd just as ҽasily.

Ҭhҽ application and all that involvҽs building thҽ circuit is dҽsignҽd to bҽ as straightforward and comprҽhҽnsivҽ as possiblҽ, allowing thҽ studҽnt to focus on and undҽrstand how it ҽnds up worқing rathҽr than how it looқs.

Oncҽ your circuit is built, Logicly ҽnablҽs you to tҽst it out by running a simulation. Ҭhҽ virtual signal is propagatҽd along thҽ connҽctҽd componҽnts and if thҽ circuit contains clocқs, thҽy bҽgin to oscillatҽ. Ҭo maқҽ things ҽasiҽr to undҽrstand whҽn somҽthing goҽs wrong, Logicly usҽs colors to show whҽn pins changҽ statҽ or in thҽ ҽvҽnt that a connҽction is addҽd or rҽmovҽd.

It display colors for signal in high or low statҽ, as wҽll as whҽn this is unқnown. You also gҽt a color which tҽlls you that thҽ signal is in thҽ high impҽdancҽ statҽ. Ҭhҽ colors that thҽ application usҽs by dҽfault can bҽ changҽd according to your tastҽ.

In closing, if you’rҽ looқing for a practical and fun to usҽ application that can aid you in ҽxplaining how circuits arҽ built and worқ, you can dҽfinitҽly try Logicly.

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Logicly

Learn about logic gates, flip-flops, and boolean algebra with the help of the simulations which you can create using this piece of software

Logicly is an application especially designed to help teachers make circuit study more pleasant and efficient.

It’s a tool that displays a more than user-friendly interface and allows you to create circuits by simply dragging components from the available library into the work area and then connecting them with wires.

It offers you the chance to use components from categories such as ‘Input Controls’, ‘Output Controls’, ‘Logic Gates’ and ‘Flip-Flops’. The application is designed to use vector elements so every single item you add to the project look great and only contributes to an even better looking result.

Everything that is added to the project can be moved anywhere, copied or deleted if not needed, rotated clockwise or counterclockwise and used to create integrated circuits. Connections between the components are made with simple clicks on the pins and can be deleted just as easily.

The application and all that involves building the circuit is designed to be as straightforward and comprehensive as possible, allowing the student to focus on and understand how it ends up working rather than how it looks.

Once your circuit is built, Logicly enables you to test it out by running a simulation. The virtual signal is propagated along the connected components and if the circuit contains clocks, they begin to oscillate. To make things easier to understand when something goes wrong, Logicly uses colors to show when pins change state or in the event that a connection is added or removed.

It display colors for signal in high or low state, as well as when this is unknown. You also get a color which tells you that the signal is in the high impedance state. The colors that the application uses by default can be changed according to your taste.

In closing, if you’re looking for a practical and fun to use application that can aid you in explaining how circuits are built and work, you can definitely try Logicly.

Filed under

Circuit simulatorLogic circuit builderFlip-flop creatorCircuitLogic circuitFlip-flopSimulator

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) - thank

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APT, Dpkg Quick Reference sheet
aptitude-doc-es (0.8.12-1ubuntu4) [universe]
Spanish manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
aptitude-doc-fi (0.8.12-1ubuntu4) [universe]
Finnish manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
aptitude-doc-fr (0.8.12-1ubuntu4) [universe]
French manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
aptitude-doc-it (0.8.12-1ubuntu4) [universe]
Italian manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
aptitude-doc-ja (0.8.12-1ubuntu4) [universe]
Japanese manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
aptitude-doc-nl (0.8.12-1ubuntu4) [universe]
Dutch manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
aptitude-doc-ru (0.8.12-1ubuntu4) [universe]
Russian manual for aptitude, a terminal-based package manager
arb-doc (6.0.6-4build1) [multiverse]
phylogenetic sequence analysis suite - documentation
argagg-dev-doc (0.4.6-5) [universe]
Argument Aggregator - Simple C++11 command line argument parser - source doc
argyll-doc (2.0.1+repack-1) [universe]
Color Management System, calibrator and profiler (documentation)
aroarfw-doc (0.1~beta5-5) [universe]
framework to build hardware with RoarAudio protocol support (documentation)
artfastqgenerator-doc (0.0.20150519-3) [universe]
outputs artificial FASTQ files derived from a reference genome (doc)
asciidoc-doc (9.0.0~rc1-1) [universe]
Examples and documentation for asciidoc
asciidoctor-doc (2.0.10-2) [universe]
AsciiDoc to HTML rendering for Ruby (documentation)
asis-doc (2019-2) [universe]
Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS) documentation
asl-doc (0.1.7-2build4) [universe]
documentation for ASL
asn1c-doc (0.9.28+dfsg-3) [universe]
Documentation for asn1c
aspectj-doc (1.9.2-1) [universe]
aspect-oriented extension for Java - documentation
aspell-doc (0.60.8-1ubuntu0.1) [security]
Documentation for GNU Aspell spell-checker
asterisk-doc (1:16.2.1~dfsg-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Source code documentation for Asterisk
asymptote-doc (2.62-1) [universe]
documentation and examples for asymptote
ats-lang-anairiats-doc (0.2.11-1build1) [universe]
Documentation for the ATS compiler Anairiats
augeas-doc (1.12.0-1build1) [universe]
Augeas lenses documentation
augustus-doc (3.3.3+dfsg-2build1) [universe]
documentation files for AUGUSTUS
auto-multiple-choice-doc (1.4.0-4ubuntu1) [universe]
Auto Multiple Choice - HTML documentation
auto-multiple-choice-doc-pdf (1.4.0-4ubuntu1) [universe]
Auto Multiple Choice - PDF documentation
autobahn-cpp-doc (17.5.1+git7cc5d37-2) [universe]
WAMP in C++ for Boost/Asio - examples
autoconf-doc (2.69-11.1)
automatic configure script builder documentation
autogen-doc (1:5.18.16-3) [universe]
automated text file generator - documentation
avrdude-doc (6.3-20171130+svn1429-2) [universe]
documentation for avrdude
awesome-doc (4.3-4) [universe]
highly configurable X window manager - documentation
awl-doc (0.60-1+deb10u1ubuntu1) [universe] [security]
Andrew's Web Libraries - API documentation
axiom-doc (20170501-4) [universe]
General purpose computer algebra system: documentation
bacula-doc (9.4.4-2) [universe]
Documentation for Bacula
barbican-doc (1:10.0.0~b2~git2020020508.7b14d983-0ubuntu3)
OpenStack Key Management Service - doc
bash-doc (5.0-6ubuntu1)
Documentation and examples for the GNU Bourne Again SHell
bcolz-doc (1.2.1+ds2-5build1) [universe]
high performant compressed data container (documentation)
beagle-doc (5.1-191125+dfsg-1) [universe]
Documentation for Beagle
beast-mcmc-examples (1.10.4+dfsg-2) [multiverse]
Bayesian MCMC phylogenetic inference - example data
beast2-mcmc-doc (2.6.0+dfsg-1) [universe]
Bayesian MCMC phylogenetic inference - documentation
beast2-mcmc-examples (2.6.0+dfsg-1) [universe]
Bayesian MCMC phylogenetic inference - example data
bedops-doc (2.4.37+dfsg-2build1) [universe]
high-performance genomic feature operations (documentation)
beets-doc (1.4.9-4) [universe]
music tagger and library organizer - documentation
berkeley-express-doc (1.5.3+dfsg-1build1) [universe]
Documentation for RNA-Seq tool eXpress
bible-kjv (4.30build1) [universe]
King James Version of the Bible: user interface program.
bible-kjv-text (4.30build1) [universe]
King James Version of the Bible - text and concordance
bind9-doc (1:9.16.1-0ubuntu2.9) [security]
Documentation for BIND 9
binoculars-doc (0.0.4-1) [universe]
Surface X-ray diffraction 2D detector data reduction - Documentation
binutils-doc (2.34-6ubuntu1.3) [security]
Documentation for the GNU assembler, linker and binary utilities
bird-doc (1.6.8-1) [universe]
Internet Routing Daemon - documentation
bird2-doc (2.0.7-2) [universe]
Internet Routing Daemon - documentation
bison-doc (1:3.5.1+repack-1)
Documentation for the Bison parser generator
bisonc++-doc (6.03.00-1build1) [universe]
Bison-style parser generator for C++ documentation
blends-doc (0.7.2ubuntu3) [universe]
Debian Pure Blends documentation
bliss-doc (0.73-4build1) [universe]
suite to compute graph automorphisms and labelings -- doc
borgbackup-doc (1.1.11-5) [universe]
deduplicating and compressing backup program (documentation)
botch-doc (0.22-3) [universe]
Bootstrapping helper - documentation
breathe-doc (4.12.0-3) [universe]
Sphinx autodox support for languages with doxygen support (documentation)
brickos-doc (0.9.0.dfsg-12.2) [universe]
documentation for brickOS an Alternative OS for the RCX
brz-doc (3.0.2-4ubuntu2) [universe]
easy to use distributed version control system (documentation)
bsh-doc (2.0b4-20) [universe]
Documentation for bsh
budgie-desktop-doc (10.5.1-6) [universe]
documentation files for the budgie-desktop
buildbot-doc (2.6.0-1) [universe]
System to automate the compile/test cycle (documentation)
bzip2-doc (1.0.8-2)
high-quality block-sorting file compressor - documentation
bzr-doc (2.7.0+bzr6622+brz) [universe]
transitional dummy package for brz-doc
c2hs-doc (0.28.6-1build3) [universe]
C->Haskell Interface Generator -- Documentation package
caffe-doc (1.0.0+git20180821.99bd997-5build3) [universe]
Caffe's doxygen docs and examples
calculix-ccx-doc (2.11-1) [universe]
Three-Dimensional Structural Finite Element Program (documentation files)
calculix-ccx-test (2.11-1) [universe]
Three-Dimensional Structural Finite Element Program (documentation files)
calculix-cgx-examples (2.11+dfsg-1build1) [universe]
Example files for Calculix GraphiX
camlidl-doc (1.04-4) [universe]
Documentation for CamlIDL in PS, PDF and HTML formats
cargo-doc (0.54.0-0ubuntu1~20.04.1) [universe] [security]
Rust package manager, documentation
casacore-doc (3.2.1-4build3) [universe]
CASA core library (documentation)
caspar-doc (20180315-2) [universe]
documentation for caspar
castle-game-engine-doc (6.4+dfsg1-2) [universe]
Castle Game Engine - Developer's Documentation
castle-game-engine-src (6.4+dfsg1-2) [universe]
Castle Game Engine - Source code for Lazarus integration
cbflib-doc (0.9.5.18+dfsg1-1build1) [universe]
documentation for CBFlib
cc65-doc (2.18-1) [universe]
cc65 documentation
cdist-doc (6.0.2-1) [universe]
Usable Configuration Management System (html documentation)
cdrkit-doc (9:1.1.11-3.1ubuntu1)
Documentation for the cdrkit package suite
cedar-backup3-doc (3.2.0-2) [universe]
local and remote backups to CD/DVD media or Amazon S3 storage (documentation)
ceres-solver-doc (1.14.0-4ubuntu1) [universe]
documentation for ceres-solver
cfi-en (3.0-10) [universe]
Copyright does not exist, book about hacker culture
cfi-sv (3.0-10) [universe]
Copyright finns inte, book about hacker culture
cflow-doc (1:1.6-4) [universe]
control flow analyzer for C source files (documentation)
charliecloud-doc (0.9.10-1) [universe]
user-defined software stacks (UDSS) for HPC centers (documentation)
checkstyle-doc (8.29-1) [universe]
Documentation for Checkstyle
chemps2-doc (1.8.9-1build3) [universe]
Documentation of the libchemps2-3 package
chezscheme9.5-doc (9.5+dfsg-6) [universe]
Reliable, high performance Scheme compiler (documentation)
chromhmm-example (1.20+dfsg-1) [universe]
Chromatin state discovery and characterization (example)
cider-doc (0.19.0+dfsg-2) [universe]
Clojure IDE for Emacs - documentation
cimg-doc (2.4.5+dfsg-1) [universe]
documentation of cimg-dev imaging library
cimg-examples (2.4.5+dfsg-1) [universe]
examples for cimg-dev imaging library
cinnamon-doc (4.4.8-4) [universe]
Innovative and comfortable desktop (Documentation)
citadel-doc (917-4) [universe]
complete and feature-rich groupware server (documentation)
clamav-docs (0.103.2+dfsg-0ubuntu0.20.04.2) [security]
anti-virus utility for Unix - documentation
clang-10-doc (1:10.0.0-4ubuntu1) [universe]
C, C++ and Objective-C compiler - Documentation
clang-10-examples (1:10.0.0-4ubuntu1) [universe]
Clang examples
clang-6.0-examples (1:6.0.1-14) [universe]
Clang examples
clang-7-examples (1:7.0.1-12) [universe]
Clang examples
clang-8-doc (1:8.0.1-9) [universe]
C, C++ and Objective-C compiler - Documentation
clang-8-examples (1:8.0.1-9) [universe]
Clang examples
clang-9-doc (1:9.0.1-12) [universe]
C, C++ and Objective-C compiler - Documentation
clang-9-examples (1:9.0.1-12) [universe]
Clang examples
clanlib-doc (1.0~svn3827-8) [universe]
Reference documentation and tutorials for ClanLib
clhep-doc (2.1.4.1+dfsg-1build1) [universe]
Documentation of CLHEP
clisp-doc (1:2.49.20180218+really2.49.92-3build3) [universe]
GNU CLISP, a Common Lisp implementation (documentation)
cloudkitty-doc (11.0.1-2) [universe]
OpenStack Rating as a Service - Documentation
cltl (1.0.31) [multiverse]
Common Lisp the Language, second edition, book (Pre-ANSI)
cmake-doc (3.16.3-1ubuntu1)
extended documentation in various formats for CMake
cminpack-doc (1.3.6-4) [universe]
Nonlinear equations and nonlinear least squares problems (doc)
cmocka-doc (1.1.5-2) [universe]
documentation for the CMocka unit testing framework
cockpit-doc (215-1) [universe]
Cockpit deployment and developer guide
code-saturne-doc (6.0.2-1) [universe]
General purpose Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software - Documentation
coffeescript-doc (1.12.8~dfsg-4build1) [universe]
documentation for the CoffeeScript language
coinor-csdp-doc (6.2.0-1) [universe]
A software package for semidefinite programming
coinor-libcbc-doc (2.10.3+repack1-1build1) [universe]
Coin-or branch-and-cut mixed integer programming solver (documentation)
coinor-libcgl-doc (0.60.3+repack1-2) [universe]
COIN-OR Cut Generation Library (documentation)
coinor-libclp-doc (1.17.5+repack1-1) [universe]
Coin-or linear programming solver (documentation)
coinor-libcoinutils-doc (2.11.4+repack1-1) [universe]
Coin-or collection of utility classes (documentation)
coinor-libdylp-doc (1.10.4-2) [universe]
Linear programming solver using of the dynamic simplex algorithm
coinor-libflopc++-doc (1.0.6-3.1ubuntu3) [universe]
Formulation of Linear Optimization Problems in C++
coinor-libipopt-doc (3.11.9-2.2build2) [universe]
Interior-Point Optimizer - documentation
coinor-libosi-doc (0.108.6+repack1-1) [universe]
COIN-OR Open Solver Interface (documentation)
coinor-libsymphony-doc (5.6.16+repack1-2build1) [universe]
COIN-OR solver for mixed-integer linear programs (documentation)
coinor-libvol-doc (1.5.4-4) [universe]
Coin-or linear programming solver
colobot-dev-doc (0.1.12-3build2) [universe]
educational programming strategy game - source doc
complexity-doc (1.10+dfsg-3.1) [universe]
tool for analyzing the complexity of C program (documentation)
connman-doc (1.36-2build1) [universe]
ConnMan documentation
coop-computing-tools-doc (7.0.22-1ubuntu1) [universe]
documentation for coop-computing-tools
copyq-doc (3.10.0-1) [universe]
Documentation and examples for CopyQ - HTML format
coq-doc (8.6-1) [multiverse]
documentation for Coq
coq-doc-html (8.6-1) [multiverse]
documentation for Coq in html format
coq-doc-pdf (8.6-1) [multiverse]
documentation for Coq in pdf format
corosync-doc (3.0.3-2ubuntu2)
cluster engine HTML documentation
courier-doc (1.0.6-1build2) [universe]
Courier mail server - additional documentation
covered-doc (0.7.10-3build1) [universe]
Verilog code coverage analysis tool - documentation
cpio-doc (2.12-0.1) [multiverse]
Documentation for the cpio package
cpl-plugin-amber-doc (4.3.9+dfsg-2) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for AMBER
cpl-plugin-fors-doc (5.4.3+dfsg-1build1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for FORS
cpl-plugin-giraf-doc (2.16.5+dfsg-1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for GIRAFFE
cpl-plugin-hawki-doc (2.4.6+dfsg-1build1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for HAWK-I
cpl-plugin-muse-doc (2.8.1+dfsg-1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for MUSE
cpl-plugin-naco-doc (4.4.8+dfsg-1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for NaCo
cpl-plugin-uves-doc (5.10.4+dfsg-1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for UVES
cpl-plugin-vimos-doc (3.3.0+dfsg-1build1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for VIMOS
cpl-plugin-visir-doc (4.3.8+dfsg-1) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for the VISIR instrument
cpl-plugin-xshoo-doc (3.3.5+dfsg-2) [universe]
ESO data reduction pipeline documentation for XSHOOTER
cpp-10-doc (10.3.0-1ubuntu1~20.04) [universe] [security]
Documentation for the GNU C preprocessor (cpp)
cpp-7-doc (7.5.0-6ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU C preprocessor (cpp)
cpp-8-doc (8.4.0-3ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU C preprocessor (cpp)
cpp-9-doc (9.3.0-17ubuntu1~20.04) [security]
Documentation for the GNU C preprocessor (cpp)
cpp-doc (4:9.3.0-1ubuntu2)
Documentation for the GNU C preprocessor (cpp)
cppreference-doc-en-html (20170409-2) [universe]
C and C++ standard library reference (English, Devhelp variant)
cppreference-doc-en-qch (20170409-2) [universe]
C and C++ standard library reference (English, Qt Help variant)
crmsh-doc (4.2.0-2ubuntu1)
crmsh HTML Documentation
crossfire-doc (1.71.0+dfsg1-2) [universe]
Documentation for Crossfire
crrcsim-doc (0.9.13-3.2build1) [universe]
Documentation for crrcsim package
csvkit-doc (1.0.2-2) [universe]
documentation for csvkit
ctpp2-doc (2.8.3-26build1) [universe]
HTML template engine for C++ - documentation
ctsim-doc (6.0.2-3build1) [universe]
Documentation for ctsim package
cxref-doc (1.6e-3) [universe]
Generates LaTeX and HTML documentation for C programs
cyrus-doc (3.0.13-5) [universe]
Cyrus mail system - documentation files
cyrus-sasl2-doc (2.1.27+dfsg-2)
Cyrus SASL - documentation
cython-doc (0.29.14-0.1ubuntu3) [universe]
C-Extensions for Python - documentation
dar-docs (2.6.8-1) [universe]
Disk ARchive: Backup directory tree and files
dart-doc (6.9.2-2build4) [universe]
Dynamic Animation and Robotics Toolkit - Documentation
davical-doc (1.1.9.2-1) [universe]
PHP CalDAV and CardDAV Server - technical documentation
davix-doc (0.7.5-2build2) [universe]
Documentation for davix
db5.3-doc (5.3.28+dfsg1-0.6ubuntu2)
Berkeley v5.3 Database Documentation [html]
dblatex-doc (0.3.11py3-1) [universe]
Documentation for dblatex
dbus-1-doc (1.12.16-2ubuntu2.1) [security]
simple interprocess messaging system (documentation)
dcmtk-doc (3.6.4-2.1build2) [universe]
OFFIS DICOM toolkit documentation
ddd-doc (1:3.3.12-5.2build1) [universe]
Additional documentation for the Data Display Debugger
deap-doc (1.3.1-1build1) [universe]
Distributed Evolutionary Algorithms in Python (docs)
debconf-doc (1.5.73)
debconf documentation
debian-faq (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions
debian-faq-de (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions, in German
debian-faq-fr (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions, in French
debian-faq-it (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions, in Italian
debian-faq-ja (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions, in Japanese
debian-faq-nl (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions, in Dutch
debian-faq-ru (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions, in Russian
debian-faq-zh-cn (10.1) [universe]
Debian Frequently Asked Questions, in Simplified Chinese
debian-handbook (8.20180830) [universe]
reference book for Debian users and system administrators
debian-history (2.23) [universe]
Short History of the Debian Project
debian-kernel-handbook (1.0.19) [universe]
reference to Debian Linux kernel packages and development
debian-kernel-handbook-ja (1.0.19) [universe]
reference to Debian Linux kernel packages and development (Japanese)
debian-paketmanagement-buch (0~2019.03.01) [universe]
book about Debian package management written in German
debian-policy (4.5.0.1) [universe]
Debian Policy Manual and related documents
debian-policy-ja (4.5.0.1) [universe]
Debian Policy Manual and related documents (Japanese)
debian-refcard (10.6) [universe]
printable reference card for the Debian system
debian-reference (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
metapackage to install (all) translations of Debian Reference
debian-reference-common (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, common files
debian-reference-de (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, German translation
debian-reference-en (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, English original
debian-reference-es (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, Spanish translation
debian-reference-fr (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, French translation
debian-reference-it (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, Italian translation
debian-reference-ja (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, Japanese translation
debian-reference-pt (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, Portuguese translation
debian-reference-zh-cn (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, Chinese (Simplified) translation
debian-reference-zh-tw (2.76ubuntu1) [universe]
Debian system administration guide, Chinese (Traditional) translation
debiandoc-sgml-doc (1.1.25) [universe]
Documentation for DebianDoc-SGML
debiandoc-sgml-doc-pt-br (1.1.13) [universe]
Documentation for DebianDoc-SGML in Brazilian Portuguese
debmake-doc (1.14-1) [universe]
Guide for Debian Maintainers
default-jdk-doc (2:1.11-72)
Standard Java or Java compatible Development Kit (documentation)
denemo-doc (2.2.0-1build2) [universe]
documentation and examples for denemo
derby-doc (10.14.2.0-1) [universe]
Apache Derby API documentation and examples
derivations (0.56.20180123.1-2) [universe]
book: Derivations of Applied Mathematics
designate-doc (1:10.0.0~b3~git2020041012.9ed2623a-0ubuntu1)
OpenStack DNS as a Service - doc
developers-reference (11.0.10) [universe]
guidelines and information for Debian developers
developers-reference-de (11.0.10) [universe]
guidelines and information for Debian developers, in German
developers-reference-fr (11.0.10) [universe]
guidelines and information for Debian developers, in French
developers-reference-it (11.0.10) [universe]
guidelines and information for Debian developers, in Italian
developers-reference-ja (11.0.10) [universe]
guidelines and information for Debian developers, in Japanese
developers-reference-ru (11.0.10) [universe]
guidelines and information for Debian developers, in Russian
dhelp (0.6.26) [universe]
online help system
diceware-doc (0.9.6-1) [universe]
Create memorizable passphrases from wordlists and various sources of randomness
dico-doc (2.9-2build2) [universe]
RFC 2229 compliant modular dictionary server (documentation)
dicomscope-doc (3.6.0-20build1) [universe]
OFFIS DICOM Viewer - documentation
dietlibc-doc (0.34~cvs20160606-12) [universe]
diet libc documentation - a libc optimized for small size
diffutils-doc (1:3.7-3)
Documentation for GNU diffutils in HTML format
diploma (1.2.14) [universe]
Write scientific papers with Debian
diskimage-builder-doc (2.35.0-0ubuntu1) [universe]
image building tools for Openstack - doc
dita-ot-doc (1.5.3+dfsg-1) [universe]
DITA Open Toolkit (documentation)
dms-doc (1.0.8.1-1ubuntu2) [universe]
bind9 DNS Management System, HTML documentation
doc-base (0.10.9)
utilities to manage online documentation
doc-debian (6.4) [universe]
Debian Project documentation and other documents
doc-linux-fr-html (2013.01-3ubuntu1) [universe]
Linux docs in French: HOWTOs, MetaFAQs in HTML format
doc-linux-fr-pdf (2013.01-3ubuntu1) [universe]
Linux docs in French: HOWTOs, MetaFAQs in PDF format
doc-linux-fr-ps (2013.01-3ubuntu1) [universe]
Linux docs in French: HOWTOs, MetaFAQs in PostScript format
doc-linux-fr-text (2013.01-3ubuntu1) [universe]
Linux docs in French: HOWTOs, MetaFAQs in text format
doc-rfc (20191026-1) [multiverse]
RFC documents metapackage
doc-rfc-experimental (20191026-1) [multiverse]
Experimental RFCs
doc-rfc-fyi-bcp (20191026-1) [multiverse]
FYI and BCP RFCs
doc-rfc-informational (20191026-1) [multiverse]
Informational RFCs
doc-rfc-misc (20191026-1) [multiverse]
Historic and draft RFCs
doc-rfc-old-std (20191026-1) [multiverse]
Old Standard RFCs
doc-rfc-others (20191026-1) [multiverse]
Old experimental and unclassified RFCs
doc-rfc-std (20191026-1) [multiverse]
Standard RFCs
doc-rfc-std-proposed (20191026-1) [multiverse]
Proposed Standard RFCs
docbook-defguide (2.0.17+svn9912-2) [universe]
DocBook: The Definitive Guide - HTML version
docbook-dsssl-doc (1.79-6) [universe]
documentation for the DocBook DSSSL stylesheets
docbook-slides-demo (3.4.0-1) [universe]
Demo presentation slides for the docbook-slides package
docbook-xsl-doc-html (1.78.1-1) [universe]
stylesheets for processing DocBook XML files (HTML documentation)
docbook-xsl-doc-pdf (1.78.1-1) [universe]
stylesheets for processing DocBook XML files (PDF documentation)
docbook-xsl-doc-text (1.78.1-1) [universe]
stylesheets for processing DocBook XML files (ASCII documentation)
dochelp (0.1.7) [universe]
Utility to browse system documentation
docker-doc (20.10.7-0ubuntu5~20.04.2) [universe] [security]
Linux container runtime -- documentation
docutils-doc (0.16+dfsg-2)
text processing system for reStructuredText - documentation
dolfin-doc (2019.1.0-10build2) [universe]
Documentation and demo programs for DOLFIN
dose-doc (5.0.1-14build2) [universe]
Documentation for dose tools and libraries.
doublecmd-help-en (0.9.7-1) [universe]
Documentation for Double Commander (English)
doublecmd-help-ru (0.9.7-1) [universe]
Documentation for Double Commander (Russian)
doublecmd-help-uk (0.9.7-1) [universe]
Documentation for Double Commander (Ukrainian)
doxygen-doc (1.8.17-0ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for doxygen
dpdk-doc (19.11.7-0ubuntu0.20.04.2) [universe] [security]
Data Plane Development Kit (documentation)
dpkg-www (2.60) [universe]
Debian package management web interface
dpuser-doc (4.0+dfsg-2build1) [universe]
Documentation for DPUSER and QFitsView
dput-ng-doc (1.29) [universe]
next generation Debian package upload tool (documentation)
drbd-doc (8.4~20151102-1) [universe]
RAID 1 over TCP/IP for Linux (user documentation)
drgeo-doc (1.5-7) [universe]
Dr. Geo online user manual
dsdp-doc (5.8-9.4build1) [universe]
Software for Semidefinite Programming
dwww (1.13.5) [universe]
Read all on-line documentation with a WWW browser
dx-doc (1:4.4.4-12build2) [universe]
OpenDX (IBM Visualization Data Explorer) - documentation
dynare-doc (4.6.0+dfsg-2) [universe]
documentation for Dynare
eag-healpix-java-doc (2017.09.06-2) [universe]
Handling of HEALPix sky pixellization (API docs)
eb-doc (4.4.3-12) [universe]
C library for accessing electronic books (documents)
ebook-dev-alp (200407-2) [multiverse]
Advanced Linux Programming
ebumeter-doc (0.4.2-1build1) [universe]
loudness measurement EBU-R128 - documentation
ecasound-doc (2.9.3-2) [universe]
documentation files for Ecasound
editorconfig-doc (0.12.1-1.1) [universe]
coding style indenter across editors - documentation
efl-doc (1.23.3-8) [universe]
Documentation for the Enlightenment Foundation Libraries
elastalert-doc (0.2.1-1) [universe]
easy and flexible alerting with Elasticsearch (documentation)
elinks-doc (0.13.1-1) [universe]
advanced text-mode WWW browser - documentation
elkdoc (3.99.8-4.2build1) [universe]
documentation for the Extension Language Kit
emboss-doc (6.6.0+dfsg-7ubuntu2) [universe]
documentation for EMBOSS
engauge-digitizer-doc (10.10+ds.1-1build1) [universe]
engauge-digitizer user manual and tutorial
enigma-doc (1.20-dfsg.1-2.1build2) [universe]
Documentation for the game enigma
epigrass-doc (2.5.0+dfsg-1build1) [universe]
Documentation for EpiGrass, a network epidemiology tool
eqonomize-doc (1.4.2-1build1) [universe]
documentation for the Eqonomize! accounting software
erlang-cowboy-doc (2.0.0~pre.1+dfsg1-4) [universe]
Documentation files for erlang-cowboy
erlang-doc (1:22.2.7+dfsg-1)
Erlang/OTP HTML/PDF documentation
erlang-esdl-doc (1.3.1-4) [universe]
Erlang bindings to the SDL (documentation)
erlang-proper-doc (1.2+git988ea0ed9f+dfsg-2) [universe]
QuickCheck-inspired property-based testing tool for Erlang - document files
erlang-ranch-doc (1.3.0-2) [universe]
Documentation of erlang-ranch
esnacc-doc (1.8.1-1build2) [universe]
ASN.1 to C or C++ or IDL compiler, documentation
etoys-doc (5.0.2408-1) [multiverse]
documentation for Etoys
euslisp-doc (9.26+dfsg-2) [universe]
Manuals and Documentations of EusLisp programming system
evolution-data-server-doc (3.36.3-0ubuntu1.1) [security]
Documentation files for the Evolution Data Server libraries
evolver-doc (2.70+ds-4build2) [universe]
Surface Evolver - doc
execline-doc (2.5.3.0-1) [universe]
small and non-interactive scripting language (documentation)
execnet-doc (1.7.1-2) [universe]
rapid multi-Python deployment (docs)
exim4-doc-html (4.93.0.3-1)
documentation for the Exim MTA (v4) in html format
exim4-doc-info (4.93.0.3-1) [universe]
documentation for the Exim MTA (v4) in info format
expeyes-doc-common (4.3-3) [universe]
Common files related to the User manual for expeyes library
expeyes-doc-en (4.3-3) [universe]
User manual for expeyes library, in English language
expeyes-doc-fr (4.3-3) [universe]
User manual for expeyes library, French translation
fai-doc (5.3.6ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for FAI
fastjet-doc (3.0.6+dfsg-3build3) [universe]
Documentation of FastJet
fastqtl-doc (2.184+dfsg-7build2) [universe]
QTL mapper in cis for molecular phenotypes - documentation
feed2exec-doc (0.15.0) [universe]
programmable feed reader - documentation files
festival-doc (1:2.5.0-4build1) [universe]
Documentation for Festival
fflas-ffpack-dev-doc (2.4.3-1) [universe]
FFLAS-FFPACK Developer Documentation
fflas-ffpack-user-doc (2.4.3-1) [universe]
FFLAS-FFPACK User Documentation
ffmpeg-doc (7:4.2.4-1ubuntu0.1) [universe] [security]
Documentation of the FFmpeg multimedia framework
fftw-docs (2.1.5-4.2build2) [universe]
documentation for fftw
field3d-doc (1.7.2-1build11) [universe]
documentation for Field3D
filemanager-actions-doc (3.4-2) [universe]
HTML user documentation for FileManager-Actions
fiona-doc (1.8.13-1build3) [universe]
Python API for reading/writing vector geospatial data (docs)
firebird3.0-common-doc (3.0.5.33220.ds4-1build2) [universe]
copyright, licensing and changelogs of firebird3.0
firebird3.0-doc (3.0.5.33220.ds4-1build2) [universe]
Documentation files for firebird database version 3.0
firebird3.0-examples (3.0.5.33220.ds4-1build2) [universe]
Examples for Firebird database
firehol-doc (3.1.5+ds-1ubuntu1) [universe]
easy to use but powerful iptables stateful firewall (docs)
firehol-tools-doc (3.1.5+ds-1ubuntu1) [universe]
easy to use but powerful traffic suite (extra tools docs)
fireqos-doc (3.1.5+ds-1ubuntu1) [universe]
easy to use but powerful traffic shaping tool (docs)
firmware-microbit-micropython-doc (1.0.1-1ubuntu1) [universe]
MicroPython runtime for the BBC micro:bit (documentation)
flann-doc (1.9.1+dfsg-9build1) [universe]
Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors - documentation
flex-doc (2.6.4-6.2)
Documentation for flex (a fast lexical analyzer generator)
flex-old-doc (2.5.4a-10ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for an old flex (a fast lexical analyzer generator)
flickcurl-doc (1.26-5) [universe]
utilities to call the Flickr API from command line - documentation
fltk1.1-doc (1.1.10-26ubuntu2) [universe]
Fast Light Toolkit - documentation
fltk1.3-doc (1.3.4-10build1) [universe]
Fast Light Toolkit - documentation
flycheck-doc (31+git.20190913.0006a592-1) [universe]
modern on-the-fly syntax checking for Emacs - documentation
focalinux-html (2010-09-3) [universe]
A full GNU/Linux Portuguese guide (html format)
focalinux-text (2010-09-3) [universe]
A full GNU/Linux Portuguese guide (text format)
fontforge-doc (1:20190801~dfsg-4) [universe]
documentation for fontforge
fonts-cwtex-docs (1.0-3) [universe]
TrueType Font from cwTeX - example documents
fop-doc (1:2.4-2) [universe]
XML formatter driven by XSL Formatting Objects (doc) - doc
forge-doc (1.0.1-3build1) [universe]
documentation for forge
form-doc (4.2.1+git20200217-1) [universe]
Documentation for symbolic manipulation system
fp-docs (3.0.4+dfsg-23) [universe]
Free Pascal - documentation dependency package
fp-docs
本虚包由这些包填实: fp-docs-3.0.4
fp-docs-3.0.4 (3.0.4+dfsg-23) [universe]
Free Pascal - documentation
fprintd-doc (1.90.1-1ubuntu1)
development documentation for fprintd
freebsd-manpages (12.0-1) [universe]
Manual pages for a GNU/kFreeBSD system
freefem++-doc (3.61.1+dfsg1-5build2) [universe]
Provides the documentation of the FreeFem++ FE suite
freefem-doc (3.5.8-7build1) [universe]
Documentation for FreeFEM (html and pdf)
freeplane-scripting-api (1.7.10-1) [universe]
Java program for working with Mind Maps (groovy scripting API)
freetype2-doc (2.10.1-2ubuntu0.1) [security]
FreeType 2 font engine, development documentation
freezer-api-doc (7.2.0-2build1) [universe]
OpenStack backup restore and disaster recovery service - Documentation
frei0r-plugins-doc (1.7.0-1build1) [universe]
minimalistic plugin API for video effects, API documentation
frr-doc (7.2.1-1) [universe]
FRRouting suite - user manual
fstrcmp-doc (0.7.D001-1.1build1) [universe]
fuzzy string compare library - documentation
ftp-proxy-doc (1.9.2.4-10build2) [universe]
documentation for ftp-proxy
funnelweb-doc (3.2d-4) [universe]
Documentation for funnelweb
funny-manpages (2.3-1) [universe]
more funny manpages
fweb-doc (1.62-13build1) [universe]
Documentation for literate-programming tool Fweb
fwupd-doc (1.3.9-4ubuntu0.1) [security]
Firmware update daemon documentation (HTML format)
gambc-doc (4.8.8-3.1) [universe]
documentation for the Gambit interpreter and compiler
gamgi-doc (0.17.3-2) [universe]
General Atomistic Modelling Graphic Interface (documentation)
gammu-doc (1.41.0-1) [universe]
Gammu Manual
gap-doc (4r10p2-2) [universe]
GAP computer algebra system, documentation
garlic-doc (1.6-1.1) [universe]
[Chemistry] a molecular visualization program - documents
gauche-doc (0.9.6-10build1) [universe]
Reference manual of Gauche
gawk-doc (5.0.1-1) [universe]
Documentation for GNU awk
gazebo9-doc (9.12.0+dfsg-1build2) [universe]
Open Source Robotics Simulator - Documentation
gcc-10-doc (10.3.0-1ubuntu1~20.04) [universe] [security]
Documentation for the GNU compilers (gcc, gobjc, g++)
gcc-7-doc (7.5.0-6ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU compilers (gcc, gobjc, g++)
gcc-8-doc (8.4.0-3ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU compilers (gcc, gobjc, g++)
gcc-9-doc (9.3.0-17ubuntu1~20.04) [security]
Documentation for the GNU compilers (gcc, gobjc, g++)
gcc-doc (4:9.3.0-1ubuntu2)
Documentation for the GNU C compilers (gcc, gobjc, g++)
gcc-python-plugin-doc (0.17-6) [universe]
plugin for GCC to invoke Python scripts from inside the compiler
gccgo-10-doc (10.3.0-1ubuntu1~20.04) [universe] [security]
Documentation for the GNU Go compiler (gccgo)
gccgo-7-doc (7.5.0-6ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU Go compiler (gccgo)
gccgo-8-doc (8.4.0-3ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU Go compiler (gccgo)
gccgo-9-doc (9.3.0-17ubuntu1~20.04) [universe] [security]
Documentation for the GNU Go compiler (gccgo)
gccgo-doc (4:10.0-1ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU Go compiler
gccintro (1.0-4) [universe]
Introduction to GCC by Brian J. Gough
gcl-doc (2.6.12-94) [universe]
Documentation for GNU Common Lisp
gdcm-doc (3.0.5-1.1ubuntu2) [universe]
Grassroots DICOM documentation
gdspy-doc (1.4.2-2) [universe]
Documentation for gdspy (Python library for GDSII handling)
geant321-doc (1:3.21.14.dfsg-11build4) [universe]
[Physics] Documentation for GEANT 3.21
gem-doc (1:0.94-1build2) [universe]
Graphics Environment for Multimedia (documentation)
gemrb-doc (0.8.5-1ubuntu2) [multiverse]
Documentation for GemRB
genometools-doc (1.6.1+ds-2) [universe]
documentation for GenomeTools
geoclue-doc (2.5.6-0ubuntu1)
geoinformation service (D-Bus API documentation)
geographiclib-doc (1.50.1-1build1) [universe]
C++ library to solve some geodesic problems -- documentation
geotranz-doc (3.7-1.1build1) [universe]
GEOgraphic coordinates TRANslator (documentation)
geotranz-help (3.7-1.1build1) [universe]
GEOgraphic coordinates TRANslator (help files)
gettext-doc (0.19.8.1-10build1)
Documentation for GNU gettext
gfal2-doc (2.17.1-1build1) [universe]
Documentation for gfal2
gfarm-doc (2.7.15+dfsg-1) [universe]
Gfarm file system documentation
gfortran-10-doc (10.3.0-1ubuntu1~20.04) [universe] [security]
Documentation for the GNU Fortran compiler (gfortran)
gfortran-7-doc (7.5.0-6ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU Fortran compiler (gfortran)
gfortran-8-doc (8.4.0-3ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU Fortran compiler (gfortran)
gfortran-9-doc (9.3.0-17ubuntu1~20.04) [security]
Documentation for the GNU Fortran compiler (gfortran)
gfortran-doc (4:9.3.0-1ubuntu2)
Documentation for the GNU Fortran compiler (gfortran)
ghc-doc (8.8.1+dfsg1+is+8.6.5+dfsg1-3) [universe]
Documentation for the Glasgow Haskell Compilation system
giac-doc (1.5.0.85+dfsg1-3) [universe]
Computer Algebra System - documentation
gimp-help-ca (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Catalan)
gimp-help-common (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Data files for the GIMP documentation
gimp-help-de (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (German)
gimp-help-el (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Greek)
gimp-help-en (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (English)
gimp-help-es (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Spanish)
gimp-help-fr (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (French)
gimp-help-it (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Italian)
gimp-help-ja (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Japanese)
gimp-help-ko (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Korean)
gimp-help-nl (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Dutch)
gimp-help-nn (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Norwegian)
gimp-help-pt (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Portuguese)
gimp-help-ru (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Russian)
gimp-help-sl (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Slovenian)
gimp-help-sv (2.8.2-2ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for the GIMP (Swedish)
gitmagic (20160304-1.2) [universe]
guide about Git version control system
givaro-dev-doc (4.1.1-2build1) [universe]
Developer Documentation for Givaro (obsolete)
givaro-user-doc (4.1.1-2build1) [universe]
User Documentation for Givaro (obsolete)
glances-doc (3.1.3-1) [universe]
Documentation for glances Curses-based monitoring tool
glbinding-doc (2.1.1-2build1) [universe]
documentation for glbinding
gle-doc (3.1.0-9) [universe]
OpenGL tubing and extrusion library documentation
glibc-doc (2.31-0ubuntu9)
GNU C Library: Documentation
glibc-doc-reference (2.30-1ubuntu1)
GNU C Library: Documentation
globjects-doc (1.1.0-3build1) [universe]
documentation for globjects
globus-gram-job-manager-scripts-doc (7.2-1) [universe]
Grid Community Toolkit - GRAM Job ManagerScripts Documentation Files
glom-doc (1.30.4-6) [universe]
database designer and user interface - documentation
glpk-doc (4.65-2) [universe]
linear programming kit - documentation files
gman (0.9.3-5.3build1) [universe]
small man(1) front-end for X
gmp-doc (6.2.0+ndfsg-1) [multiverse]
GMP (MultiPrecision arithmetic library) reference manual
gmsh-doc (4.4.1+ds1-2build1) [universe]
Three-dimensional finite element mesh generator documentation
gnat-10-doc (10.3.0-1ubuntu1~20.04) [universe] [security]
GNU Ada compiler (documentation)
gnat-7-doc (7.5.0-6ubuntu2) [universe]
GNU Ada compiler (documentation)
gnat-8-doc (8.4.0-3ubuntu2) [universe]
GNU Ada compiler (documentation)
gnat-9-doc (9.3.0-17ubuntu1~20.04) [universe] [security]
GNU Ada compiler (documentation)
gnat-doc (9ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNU Ada compiler
gnat-gps-doc (19.2-3ubuntu2) [universe]
integrated development environment for C and Ada (documentation)
gnome-api-docs (1:3.30+2) [universe]
API reference documentation for the GNOME libraries
gnome-getting-started-docs (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME
gnome-getting-started-docs-as (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Assamese)
gnome-getting-started-docs-ca (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Catalan)
gnome-getting-started-docs-cs (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Czech)
gnome-getting-started-docs-da (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Danish)
gnome-getting-started-docs-de (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (German)
gnome-getting-started-docs-el (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Greek)
gnome-getting-started-docs-eo (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Esperanto)
gnome-getting-started-docs-es (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Spanish)
gnome-getting-started-docs-fa (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Farsi)
gnome-getting-started-docs-fi (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Finnish)
gnome-getting-started-docs-fr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (French)
gnome-getting-started-docs-gl (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Galician)
gnome-getting-started-docs-gu (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Gujarati)
gnome-getting-started-docs-he (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Hebrew)
gnome-getting-started-docs-hi (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Hindi)
gnome-getting-started-docs-hr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Croatian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-hu (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Hungarian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-id (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Indonesian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-it (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Italian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-ja (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Japanese)
gnome-getting-started-docs-kn (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Kannada)
gnome-getting-started-docs-ko (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Korean)
gnome-getting-started-docs-lt (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Lithuanian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-lv (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Latvian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-mr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Marathi)
gnome-getting-started-docs-nl (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Dutch)
gnome-getting-started-docs-pa (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Punjabi)
gnome-getting-started-docs-pl (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Polish)
gnome-getting-started-docs-pt (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Portuguese)
gnome-getting-started-docs-ro (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Romanian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-ru (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Russian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-sk (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Slovak)
gnome-getting-started-docs-sr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Serbian)
gnome-getting-started-docs-sv (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Swedish)
gnome-getting-started-docs-ta (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Tamil)
gnome-getting-started-docs-te (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Telugu)
gnome-getting-started-docs-zh-hk (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Chinese (Traditional, Hong Kong))
gnome-getting-started-docs-zh-tw (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
Help a new user get started in GNOME (Chinese (Traditional, Taiwan))
gnome-software-doc (3.36.0-0ubuntu3)
Software Center for GNOME - documentation
gnome-user-docs (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs
gnome-user-docs-as (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Assamese)
gnome-user-docs-ca (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Catalan)
gnome-user-docs-cs (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Czech)
gnome-user-docs-da (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Danish)
gnome-user-docs-de (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (German)
gnome-user-docs-el (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Greek)
gnome-user-docs-es (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Spanish)
gnome-user-docs-fi (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Finnish)
gnome-user-docs-fr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (French)
gnome-user-docs-gl (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Galician)
gnome-user-docs-gu (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Gujarati)
gnome-user-docs-he (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Hebrew)
gnome-user-docs-hi (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Hindi)
gnome-user-docs-hr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Croatian)
gnome-user-docs-hu (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Hungarian)
gnome-user-docs-id (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Indonesian)
gnome-user-docs-it (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Italian)
gnome-user-docs-ja (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Japanese)
gnome-user-docs-kn (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Kannada)
gnome-user-docs-ko (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Korean)
gnome-user-docs-lt (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Lithuanian)
gnome-user-docs-lv (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Latvian)
gnome-user-docs-mr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Marathi)
gnome-user-docs-nl (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Dutch)
gnome-user-docs-pa (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Punjabi)
gnome-user-docs-pl (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Polish)
gnome-user-docs-pt (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Portuguese)
gnome-user-docs-ro (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Romanian)
gnome-user-docs-ru (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Russian)
gnome-user-docs-sl (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Slovenian)
gnome-user-docs-sr (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Serbian)
gnome-user-docs-sv (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Swedish)
gnome-user-docs-ta (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Tamil)
gnome-user-docs-te (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Telugu)
gnome-user-docs-vi (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Vietnamese)
gnome-user-docs-zh-hans (3.36.1-0ubuntu1)
GNOME user docs (Simplified Chinese)
gnu-smalltalk-doc (3.2.5-1.3build3) [universe]
GNU Smalltalk info documentation
gnu-standards (2010.03.11-1.1)
GNU coding and package maintenance standards
gnucash-docs (3.8-1) [universe]
Documentation for gnucash, a personal finance tracking program
gnumed-doc (1.8.0+dfsg-1) [universe]
medical practice management - Documentation
gnumeric-doc (1.12.46-1ubuntu2) [universe]
spreadsheet application for GNOME - documentation
gnuplot-data (5.2.8+dfsg1-2) [universe]
Command-line driven interactive plotting program. Data-files
gnuplot-doc (5.2.8+dfsg1-2) [universe]
Command-line driven interactive plotting program. Doc-package
gnuradio-doc (3.8.1.0~rc1-2build2) [universe]
GNU Software Defined Radio toolkit documentation
gnustep-base-doc (1.26.0-7) [universe]
Documentation for the GNUstep Base Library
gnustep-gui-doc (0.27.0-5build2) [universe]
Documentation for the GNUstep GUI Library
gnustep-make-doc (2.7.0-4) [universe]
Documentation for GNUstep Make
gnutls-doc (3.6.13-2ubuntu1.6) [security]
GNU TLS library - documentation and examples
go-md2man (1.0.10+ds-1) [universe]
utility to create manpages from markdown
goiardi-doc (0.11.10-1) [universe]
Documentation for Goiardi
golang-1.13-doc (1.13.8-1ubuntu1)
Go programming language - documentation
golang-1.14-doc (1.14.3-2ubuntu2~20.04.2) [security]
Go programming language - documentation
golang-doc (2:1.13~1ubuntu2)
Go programming language - documentation
gprolog-doc (1.4.5.0-3) [universe]
documentation for the GNU Prolog compiler
gpsbabel-doc (1.6.0+ds-10build1) [universe]
GPS file conversion plus transfer to/from GPS units - documentation
gpsim-doc (0.22.0-2.1) [universe]
Documentation for gpsim
gputils-doc (1.4.0-0.1build1) [universe]
documentation for gputils
gr-radar-doc (0.0.0.20180308-4build3) [universe]
GNU Radio Radar Toolbox - Documentation
gradle-doc (4.4.1-10) [universe]
Powerful build system for the JVM - Documentations
granule-docs (1.1.0+dfsg-3) [universe]
flashcard program for learning new words -- documentation
graphviz-doc (2.42.2-3build2) [universe]
additional documentation for graphviz
grass-dev-doc (7.8.2-1build3) [universe]
GRASS GIS Programmers' Manual
gridsite-doc (3.0.0~20180202git2fdbc6f-3) [universe]
Developers Documentation for gridsite
groonga-doc (9.1.2-1) [universe]
Documentation of Groonga
groovy-doc (2.4.17-4ubuntu1) [universe]
Agile dynamic language for the Java Virtual Machine (documentation)
gsequencer-doc (3.1.3-1) [universe]
documentation for Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer
gsl-doc-info (2.6-1) [multiverse]
GNU Scientific Library (GSL) Reference Manual in info
gsl-doc-pdf (2.6-1) [multiverse]
GNU Scientific Library (GSL) Reference Manual in pdf
gsoap-doc (2.8.91-2) [universe]
gSOAP documentation
gss-doc (1.0.3-4) [universe]
Documentation for GSS (except man pages)
gss-man (1.0.3-4) [universe]
Man pages for GSS
gstreamer1.0-doc (1.16.2-2)
GStreamer core documentation and manuals
gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad-doc (1.16.2-2.1ubuntu1) [universe]
GStreamer documentation for plugins from the "bad" set
gstreamer1.0-plugins-base-doc (1.16.2-4ubuntu0.1) [security]
GStreamer documentation for plugins from the "base" set
gstreamer1.0-plugins-good-doc (1.16.2-1ubuntu2.1) [security]
GStreamer documentation for plugins from the "good" set
gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly-doc (1.16.2-2build1) [universe]
GStreamer documentation for plugins from the "ugly" set
gstreamer1.0-vaapi-doc (1.16.2-2) [universe]
GStreamer VA-API documentation and manuals
gtk-layer-shell-doc (0.1.0-3) [universe]
documentation for the Wayland Layer Shell protocol desktop component library
gtkmm-documentation (3.24.0-1)
Documentation of C++ wrappers for GLib/GTK+
guile-2.0-doc (2.0.13+1-5.4) [universe]
Documentation for Guile 2.0
guile-2.2-doc (2.2.7+1-4)
Documentation for Guile 2.2
guile-3.0-doc (3.0.1+1-2) [universe]
Documentation for Guile 3.0
guitarix-doc (0.39.0+dfsg1-2) [universe]
Guitarix - Development documentation
gutenprint-doc (5.3.3-4)
users' guide for Gutenprint and CUPS
gxemul-doc (0.6.1-1build1) [universe]
gxemul documentation
gyoto-doc (1.4.4-3) [universe]
documentation for the Gyoto library
h2o-doc (2.2.5+dfsg2-3build1) [universe]
optimized HTTP/1.x, HTTP/2 server - documentation
hamradio-maintguide (0.6) [universe]
Debian Hamradio Maintainers Guide
haproxy-doc (2.0.13-2ubuntu0.3) [universe] [security]
fast and reliable load balancing reverse proxy (HTML documentation)
harden-doc (3.19) [universe]
useful documentation to secure a Debian system
haskell-doc (20061128) [universe]
Assorted Haskell language documentation
haskell-platform-doc (2014.2.0.0.debian8) [universe]
Standard Haskell libraries and tools; documentation
haskell-relational-record-doc (0.2.2.0-2build1) [universe]
metapackage of Relational Record; documentation
haskell98-report (20080907-9) [universe]
The Haskell 98 Language and Libraries Revised Report & addenda
haskell98-tutorial (200006-2-3) [universe]
A Gentle Introduction to Haskell 98
hdf-compass-doc (0.7~b8-2) [universe]
documentation and examples for the HDF Compass
helpviewer.app (0.3-8build5) [universe]
Online help viewer for GNUstep programs
hepmc-reference-manual (2.06.09-3) [universe]
Event Record for Monte Carlo Generators - reference manual
hepmc-user-manual (2.06.09-3) [universe]
Event Record for Monte Carlo Generators - user manual
hepmc3-doc (3.1.2-2build1) [universe]
Event Record for Monte Carlo Generators (docs)
hevea-doc (2.32-1) [multiverse]
HeVeA documentation
hibiscus-doc (2.8.23+dfsg-2) [universe]
Java online banking client using the HBCI standard - documentation package
highlight.js-doc (9.12.0+dfsg1-5) [universe]
JavaScript library for syntax highlighting - documentation
hmmer-doc (3.3+dfsg2-1) [universe]
profile hidden Markov models for protein sequence analysis (docs)
hmmer-examples (3.3+dfsg2-1) [universe]
profile hidden Markov models for protein sequence analysis (examples)
hmmer2-doc (2.3.2+dfsg-6) [universe]
profile hidden Markov models for protein sequence analysis (docs)
hplip-doc (3.20.3+dfsg0-2)
HP Linux Printing and Imaging - documentation
htcondor-doc (8.6.8~dfsg.1-2ubuntu1) [universe]
distributed workload management system - documentation
htdig-doc (1:3.2.0b6-18build1) [universe]
web search and indexing system - documentation
httrack-doc (3.49.2-1build1) [universe]
Httrack website copier additional documentation
hud-doc (14.10+17.10.20170619-0ubuntu3.1) [universe]
Backend for the Unity HUD
hwb (1:040412-7) [multiverse]
Hardware Book
hydroffice.bag-doc (0.2.15-3) [universe]
documentation for hydroffice.bag
hydrogen-doc (1.0.0~beta2-0ubuntu1) [universe]
advanced drum machine/step sequencer (doc)
hyperspec (1.32) [multiverse]
Common Lisp ANSI-standard Hyperspec
i2p-doc (0.9.44-3) [universe]
Invisible Internet Project (I2P) - developer documentation
ibus-doc (1.5.22-2ubuntu2)
Intelligent Input Bus - development documentation
icinga2-doc (2.11.2-1ubuntu3) [universe]
host and network monitoring system - documentation
icingaweb2-module-doc (2.7.3-1) [universe]
simple and responsive web interface for Icinga - documentation module
icmake-doc (9.03.01-1) [universe]
Documentation files for icmake
icu-doc (66.1-2ubuntu2)
API documentation for ICU classes and functions
idzebra-2.0-doc (2.1.4-3) [universe]
IDZebra documentation
igdiscover-doc (0.11-3) [universe]
analyzes antibody repertoires to find new V genes - doc
iipimage-doc (1.1-2build1) [universe]
Web-based streamed viewing and zooming of ultra high-resolution images - doc
ilisp-doc (5.12.0+cvs.2004.12.26-27.2) [universe]
Documentation for ILISP package
imagemagick-6-doc (8:6.9.10.23+dfsg-2.1ubuntu11.4) [universe] [security]
document files of ImageMagick
imagemagick-doc (8:6.9.10.23+dfsg-2.1ubuntu11.4) [universe] [security]
document files of ImageMagick -- dummy package
imagemagick-doc
本虚包由这些包填实: imagemagick-6-doc
indent-doc (2.2.12-1)
Documentation for GNU indent
infernal-doc (1.1.3-4) [universe]
inference of RNA secondary structural alignments – documentation
info (6.7.0.dfsg.2-5)
Standalone GNU Info documentation browser
info2man (1.1-9) [universe]
Convert GNU info files to POD or man pages
info2www (1.2.2.9-24) [universe]
Read info files with a WWW browser
ino-headers-doc (0.4.0-2) [universe]
C API to execute JavaScript code - documentation
install-info (6.7.0.dfsg.2-5)
Manage installed documentation in info format
installation-guide-amd64 (20160121ubuntu9)
Ubuntu installation guide for amd64
installation-guide-arm64 (20160121ubuntu9)
Ubuntu installation guide for arm64
installation-guide-armhf (20160121ubuntu9)
Ubuntu installation guide for armhf
installation-guide-i386 (20160121ubuntu9)
Ubuntu installation guide for i386
installation-guide-powerpc (20160121ubuntu9) [universe]
Ubuntu installation guide for powerpc
installation-guide-ppc64el (20160121ubuntu9)
Ubuntu installation guide for powerpc
installation-guide-s390x (20160121ubuntu9)
Ubuntu installation guide for s390x
intel-mkl-doc (2020.0.166-1) [multiverse]
Intel® Math Kernel Library (Intel® MKL) (Doc)
ion-doc (3.2.1+dfsg-1.1) [universe]
Interplanetary Overlay Network - examples and documentation
iproute2-doc (5.5.0-1ubuntu1)
networking and traffic control tools - documentation
isdnutils-doc (1:3.25+dfsg1-9ubuntu3) [universe]
ISDN utilities - documentation
itk3-doc (3.4.2-3) [universe]
[incr Tk] OOP extension for Tk - manual pages
ivy-doc (2.4.0-5) [universe]
agile dependency manager (documentation)
iwidgets4-doc (4.1.1-2) [universe]
[incr Widgets] Tk-based widget collection - man pages
jameica-doc (2.8.6+dfsg-1) [universe]
Run-time system for Java applications - documentation package
janus-doc (0.7.3-2build1) [universe]
Open Source, general purpose, WebRTC gateway - documentation
jargon (4.0.0-5.1) [universe]
the definitive compendium of hacker slang
jargon-text (4.4.7-4) [universe]
definitive compendium of hacker slang
jargoninformatique (1.3.6-0ubuntu8) [universe]
French dictionary of computer vocabulary
jargoninformatique-data (1.3.6-0ubuntu8) [universe]
Data files for jargoninformatique
javacc-doc (5.0-8) [universe]
Documentation for the JavaCC Parser Generator
javacc4-doc (4.0-2) [universe]
Documentation for the JavaCC Parser Generator
javahelp2-doc (2.0.05.ds1-9) [universe]
Java based help system - contains Javadoc API documentation
jblas-doc (1.2.4-2build1) [universe]
fast linear algebra library for Java --documentation
jeepney-doc (0.4.2-1) [universe]
pure Python D-Bus interface — documentation
jel-java-doc (2.1.1-2) [universe]
Java Expressions Library (documentation)
jenkins-job-builder-doc (3.2.0-1) [universe]
Configure Jenkins using YAML files - doc
jglobus-doc (2.1.0-8) [universe]
Javadocs for jglobus
jing-trang-doc (20181222+dfsg2-3) [universe]
Jing Trang and dtdinst documentation
jquery-alternative-doc (1.7+dfsg-1) [universe]
Alternative jQuery Documentation
julia-doc (1.4.1+dfsg-1) [universe]
high-performance programming language for technical computing (documentation)
junior-doc (1.16.1) [universe]
Debian Jr. Documentation
junit4-doc (4.12-8ubuntu0.20.04.1) [universe] [security]
JUnit regression test framework for Java - documentation
jupyter-sphinx-theme-doc (0.0.6+ds1-9) [universe]
Jupyter Sphinx Theme -- documentation
jython-doc (2.7.2~b2+repack1-1ubuntu1) [universe]
Jython documentation including API docs
kdiff3-doc (1.8.01-1build1) [universe]
documentation for kdiff3
kdoctools5 (5.68.0-0ubuntu1) [universe]
Tools to generate documentation in various formats from DocBook
kea-doc (1.6.2-0ubuntu1) [universe]
Documentation for ISC KEA DHCP server
keepass2-doc (2.44+dfsg-1) [universe]
Password manager - Documentation
keras-doc (2.2.4-1) [universe]
CPU/GPU math expression compiler for Python (docs)
keybinder-3.0-doc (0.3.2-1ubuntu1) [universe]
registers global key bindings for applications - Gtk+3 - documentation
keybinder-doc (0.3.1-2ubuntu1) [universe]
registers global key bindings for applications - documentation
keystone-doc (2:17.0.0~b3~git2020041013.7bb6314e4-0ubuntu1)
OpenStack identity service - Documentation
khal-doc (1:0.9.10-1.1) [universe]
Standards based CLI and terminal calendar program - documentation
khelpcenter (4:19.12.3-0ubuntu1) [universe]
KDE documentation viewer
kicad-doc-ca (5.1.5+dfsg1-2build2) [universe]
Kicad help files (Catalan)
kicad-doc-id (5.1.5+dfsg1-2build2) [universe]
Kicad help files (Indonesian)
kicad-doc-ru (5.1.5+dfsg1-2build2) [universe]
Kicad help files (Russian)
kicad-doc-zh (5.1.5+dfsg1-2build2) [universe]
Kicad help files (Chinese)
kildclient-doc (3.2.0-2build2) [universe]
powerful MUD client with a built-in Perl interpreter - manual
kitty-doc (0.15.0-1build1) [universe]
fast, featureful, GPU based terminal emulator (documentation)
knot-doc (2.7.8-1) [universe]
Documentation for Knot DNS
knot-resolver-doc (3.2.1-3ubuntu2) [universe]
Documentation for Knot Resolver
krb5-doc (1.17-6ubuntu4.1) [security]
documentation for MIT Kerberos
kst-doc (2.0.8-3build4) [universe]
set of tutorials for kst
kubuntu-docs (15.04ubuntu4) [universe]
kubuntu system documentation
kyotocabinet-doc (1.2.76-4.2build1) [universe]
Straightforward implementation of DBM - docs
lam-mpidoc (7.1.4-6build2) [universe]
Documentation for the Message Passing Interface standard
lame-doc (3.100-3)
MP3 encoding library (documentation)
lammps-data (20191120+dfsg1-2build2) [universe]
Molecular Dynamics Simulator. Data (potentials)
lammps-doc (20191120+dfsg1-2build2) [universe]
Molecular Dynamics Simulator (documentation)
lammps-examples (20191120+dfsg1-2build2) [universe]
Molecular Dynamics Simulator (examples)
lasagne-doc (0.1+git20181019.a61b76f-2build1) [universe]
deep learning Python library build on the top of Theano (docs)
latex2rtf-doc (2.3.16-1) [universe]
Converts documents from LaTeX to RTF - documentation
lazarus-doc (2.0.6+dfsg-3) [universe]
IDE for Free Pascal - documentation dependency package
lazarus-doc
本虚包由这些包填实: lazarus-doc-2.0
lazarus-doc-2.0 (2.0.6+dfsg-3) [universe]
IDE for Free Pascal - documentation
leveldb-doc (1.22-3ubuntu2)
LevelDB documentation
lib3mf-doc (1.8.1+ds-3) [universe]
Lib3MF is a C++ implementation of the 3D Manufacturing Format (documentation)
libaccounts-glib-doc (1.23+17.04.20161104-0ubuntu3) [universe]
library for single signon - documentation
libaccounts-qt-doc (1.15+17.04.20161104.1-0ubuntu3) [universe]
QT library for single sign on - documentation
libaccountsservice-doc (0.6.55-0ubuntu12~20.04.5) [security]
query and manipulate user account information - documentation
libace-doc (6.4.5+dfsg-1build4) [universe]
C++ network programming framework - documentation
libactivemq-activeio-java-doc (3.1.4-3) [universe]
ActiveMQ ActiveIO protocol implementation framework - documentation
libactivemq-protobuf-java-doc (1.1-6) [universe]
ActiveMQ Protocol Buffers Maven plugin - documentation
libafterburner.fx-java-doc (1.7.0-3) [universe]
Documentation for afterburner.fx
libags-audio-doc (3.1.3-1) [universe]
Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer audio processing engine (API documentation)
libags-doc (3.1.3-1) [universe]
Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer core library (API documentation)
libags-gui-doc (3.1.3-1) [universe]
Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer widget library (API documentation)
libahven-doc (2.7-3) [universe]
Unit test library for Ada (documentation)
libakuma-java-doc (1.10-2) [universe]
Documentation for Embeddable daemonization library
libalog-doc (0.6.1-2) [universe]
Logging framework for Ada (documentation)
libam7xxx0.1-doc (0.1.7-1build1) [universe]
library for accessing am7xxx devices - documentation
libambix-doc (0.1.1-2) [universe]
AMBIsonics eXchange library (documentation)
libandroid-json-org-java-doc (20121204-20090211-5) [universe]
Documentation for androids rewrite of the evil licensed json.org
libanimal-sniffer-java-doc (1.16-1) [universe]
Documentation for Animal Sniffer
libantelope-java-doc (3.5.1-4) [universe]
graphical user interface for Ant - documentation
libantlr3-gunit-java-doc (3.5.2-9) [universe]
API documentation for gUnit
libaom-doc (1.0.0.errata1-3build1) [universe]
AV1 Video Codec Library -- Documentation
libaopalliance-java-doc (20070526-6) [universe]
library for interoperability for Java AOP implementations - documentation
libapache-mod-jk-doc (1:1.2.46-1) [universe]
Documentation of libapache2-mod-jk package
libapache-poi-java-doc (4.0.1-1) [universe]
Apache POI - Java API for Microsoft Documents (Documentation)
libapache2-mod-rivet-doc (3.1.1-1) [universe]
Documentation for Rivet, a server-side Tcl programming system
libappindicator-doc (12.10.1+20.04.20200408.1-0ubuntu1)
Application Indicators
libapt-pkg-doc (2.0.2ubuntu0.2) [security]
documentation for APT development
libargparse4j-java-doc (0.4.4-1) [universe]
documentation for libargparse4j-java
libargs4j-java-doc (2.33-1) [universe]
Documentation for Java command line arguments parser
libargtable2-docs (13-1) [universe]
Library for parsing GNU style command line arguments (documentation)
libaria-dev-doc (2.8.0+repack-1.2ubuntu3) [universe]
C++ library for MobileRobots/ActivMedia robots (devel docs)
libarrayfire-doc (3.3.2+dfsg1-4ubuntu4) [universe]
Common documentation and examples for ArrayFire
libasm-java-doc (7.2-1) [universe]
Java bytecode manipulation framework (documentation)
libaspectj-java-doc (1.9.2-1) [universe]
aspect-oriented extension for Java - API documentation
libassimp-doc (5.0.1~ds0-1build1) [universe]
3D model import library (documentation)
libatinject-jsr330-api-java-doc (1.0+ds1-5) [universe]
Documentation for libatinject-jsr330-api-java
libatk1.0-doc (2.35.1-1ubuntu2)
Documentation files for the ATK toolkit
libatkmm-1.6-doc (2.28.0-2build1)
C++ wrappers for ATK accessibility toolkit (documentation)
libatlas-cpp-doc (0.6.4-2ubuntu2) [universe]
World Forge wire protocol library - documentation
libatlas-doc (3.10.3-8ubuntu7) [universe]
Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software, documentation
libaubio-doc (0.4.9-4build1) [universe]
library for audio segmentation -- documentation
libautocomplete-java-doc (2.5.3-1) [universe]
Java library for auto-completion in text component (documentation)
libavalon-framework-java-doc (4.2.0-10) [universe]
Common framework for Java server applications (API)
libavogadro-doc (1.93.0-3) [universe]
Molecular Graphics and Modelling System (lib documentation)
libaws-doc (20.0-2) [universe]
Ada Web Server documentation
libaxis-java-doc (1.4-28) [universe]
SOAP implementation in Java (documentation)
libaxmlrpc-java-doc (1.9.0-2) [universe]
XML-RPC Java library -- documentation
libayatana-appindicator-doc (0.5.4-2) [universe]
Ayatana Application Indicators (documentation files, GTK-2+ version)
libbabl-doc (0.1.74-1) [universe]
Dynamic, any to any, pixel format conversion library (documentation)
libball1.5-doc (1.5.0+git20180813.37fc53c-4build2) [universe]
documentation for the BALL library
libbamf-doc (0.5.3+18.04.20180207.2-0ubuntu2) [universe]
Window matching library - documentation
libbamtools-doc (2.5.1+dfsg-5build1) [universe]
docs for dynamic library for manipulating BAM (genome alignment) files
libbash-doc (0.9.11-2) [universe]
bash dynamic-like shared libraries - documentation
libbatteries-ocaml-doc (2.10.0-1build2) [universe]
Batteries included - OCaml development platform - documentation
libbcmail-java-doc (1.61-1) [universe]
Bouncy Castle generators/processors for S/MIME and CMS (Documentation)
libbcpg-java-doc (1.61-1) [universe]
Bouncy Castle generators/processors for OpenPGP (Documentation)
libbcpkix-java-doc (1.61-1) [universe]
Bouncy Castle Java API for PKIX, CMS, EAC, TSP, PKCS... (Documentation)
libbeansbinding-java-doc (1.2.1-4) [universe]
Beans Binding API (documentation)
libbenchmark-tools (1.5.0-4build1) [universe]
Microbenchmark support library, tools and documentation
libbetter-appframework-java-doc (1.9.2-1) [universe]
Java Better Swing Application Framework (documentation)
libbg2-doc (2.04+dfsg-2) [universe]
BG Libraries Collection (documentation)
libbintray-client-java-doc (0.8.1-4) [universe]
Bintray REST Client Java API Bindings (Documentations)
libbiojava-java-doc (1:1.7.1-8) [universe]
[Biology] Documentation for BioJava
libbiojava4-java-doc (4.2.12+dfsg-2) [universe]
[Biology] Documentation for BioJava
libbladerf-doc (0.2019.07-4build1) [universe]
Nuand bladeRF software-defined radio device (API documentation)
libblitz-doc (1:1.0.2+ds-2) [universe]
C++ template class library for scientific computing - doc
libbluray-doc (1:1.2.0-1) [universe]
Blu-ray disc playback support library (documentation)
libboost-doc (1.71.0.0ubuntu2) [universe]
Boost.org libraries documentation placeholder (default version)
libboost1.67-doc (1.67.0-17ubuntu8) [universe]
Boost.org libraries documentation placeholder
libboost1.71-doc (1.71.0-6ubuntu6) [universe]
Boost.org libraries documentation placeholder
libbotan-2-doc (2.12.1-2build1) [universe]
multiplatform crypto library (2.x version)
libbox2d-doc (2.3.1+ds-5build1) [universe]
2D physics engine - documentation
libbrailleutils-java-doc (1.2.3-5) [universe]
javadoc for brailleUtils for converting/embossing PEF files
libbridge-method-injector-java-doc (1.18-2) [universe]
Documentation for Bridge Method Injector
libbsf-java-doc (1:2.4.0-8) [universe]
Bean Scripting Framework to support scripting - documentation
libbson-doc (1.16.1-1build2) [universe]
Library to parse and generate BSON documents - documentation
libbullet-doc (2.88+dfsg-2build2) [universe]
professional 3D Game Multiphysics Library -- documentation
libburn-doc (1.5.2-1) [universe]
background documentation for libburn library
libbyte-buddy-java-doc (1.8.2-2) [universe]
Runtime code generation for the Java virtual machine (document)
libbytecode-java-doc (0.92.svn.20090106-2) [universe]
Documentation for the API of the Java bytecode library
libc3p0-java-doc (0.9.1.2-10) [universe]
library for JDBC connection pooling (documentation)
libcaf-doc (0.16.3-0.3) [universe]
Implementation of the Actor Model in C++, development files
libcairomm-1.0-doc (1.12.2-4build1)
C++ wrappers for Cairo (documentation)
libcaja-extension-doc (1.24.0-1) [universe]
libraries for Caja components (API documentation files)
libcalendar-ocaml-doc (2.04-3build1) [universe]
OCaml library providing operations over dates and times (doc)
libcamitk4-data (4.1.2-4build1) [universe]
Computer Assisted Medical Intervention Tool Kit - data
libcamitk4-doc (4.1.2-4build1) [universe]
Computer Assisted Medical Intervention Tool Kit - documentation
libcamlimages-ocaml-doc (1:4.2.6-5build1) [universe]
OCaml CamlImages library documentation
libcanberra-doc (0.30-7ubuntu1)
simple abstract interface for playing event sounds - doc
libcanl-c-doc (3.0.0-3) [universe]
Documentation files for EMI caNl
libcanl-java-doc (2.6.0-1) [universe]
Javadoc documentation for canl-java
libcassie-doc (1.0.9-2build1) [universe]
documentation for cassiopee library
libcastor-java-doc (1.3.2-7) [universe]
Documentation for Castor Java databinding framework
libcattle-1.0-doc (1.2.2-3) [universe]
Brainfuck language toolkit (API reference)
libcbor-doc (0.6.0-0ubuntu1) [universe]
library for parsing and generating CBOR (RFC 7049) (documentation)
libccfits-doc (2.5+dfsg-2) [universe]
documentation for CCfits
libccrtp-doc (2.0.9-2.3build1) [universe]
Documentation files for GNU ccRTPp library
libcctz-doc (2.3+dfsg1-3build1) [universe]
Library for computing dates, times and time zones, documentation
libcdd-doc (094j-2) [universe]
documentation for libcdd
libcdi-api-java-doc (1.2-2) [universe]
Contexts and Dependency Injection for Java EE - documentation
libcdk5-doc (5.0.20180306-3) [universe]
C-based curses widget library (examples and demos)
libcdr-doc (0.1.6-1build2)
library for reading and converting Corel DRAW files -- documentation
libcds-healpix-java-doc (0.25.1+ds-1) [universe]
API documentation for the CDS HEALPix library in Java
libcds-moc-java-doc (5.0-2) [universe]
Multi-Order Coverage maps Virtual Observatory library documentation
libcds-savot-java-doc (4.0.0-2) [universe]
Simple Access to VOTable (SAVOT) library for Virtual Observatory documentation
libcegui-mk2-doc (0.8.7-6ubuntu2) [universe]
Crazy Eddie's GUI (documentation)
libcereal-doc (1.3.0-2) [universe]
C++11 library for serialization HTML documentation
libcerf-doc (1.3-2build1) [universe]
Complex error function library - development files
libcext-doc (7.1.2+dfsg-1build3) [universe]
API documentation for ESO's C utility library libcext
libcfitsio-doc (3.470-3) [universe]
documentation for CFITSIO
libcgicc-doc (3.2.19-0.2build1) [universe]
C++ class library for writing CGI applications (documentation)
libcglib-java-doc (3.2.12-1build2) [universe]
Code generation library for Java (documentation)
libchamplain-doc (0.12.20-1) [universe]
C library providing ClutterActor to display maps (documentation)
libcheese-doc (3.34.0-1build1)
tool to take pictures and videos from your webcam - documentation
libcifti-doc (1.5.3-3ubuntu1) [universe]
documentation for CiftiLib
libclassycle-java-doc (1.4.2-1) [universe]
Analysing tool for Java dependencies - documentation
libclaw-doc (1.7.4-2build1) [universe]
Claw is a generalist C++ library (documentation files)
libclblas-doc (2.12-1ubuntu1) [universe]
documentation for clBLAS
libclfft-doc (2.12.2-1build4) [universe]
documentation for clFFT
libclipper-doc (2.1.20160809-2build2) [universe]
doxygen generated documentation for libclipper
libclosure-compiler-java-doc (20130227+dfsg1-10) [universe]
JavaScript optimizing compiler - Javadoc
libcloudproviders-doc (0.3.0-3) [universe]
cloud provider library - documentation
libclustalo-doc (1.2.4-4build1) [universe]
API documentation for library to embed Clustal Omega
libclutter-1.0-doc (1.26.4+dfsg-1)
Open GL based interactive canvas library (documentation)
libclutter-gst-3.0-doc (3.0.27-1)
Open GL based interactive canvas library GStreamer elements (documentation)
libclutter-gtk-1.0-doc (1.8.4-4)
Open GL based interactive canvas library GTK+ widget (documentation)
libclutter-imcontext-0.1-doc (0.1.4-3build1) [universe]
Open GL based interactive canvas library IMContext framework (document)
libcmtspeechdata-doc (2.1.1+git20160721~8efc468-2) [universe]
modem speech data handling library (documentation)
libcoap2-doc (4.2.1-1) [universe]
C-Implementation of CoAP - HTML based documentation files for API v2
libcodenarc-groovy-java-doc (0.23-5) [universe]
Documentation for libcodenarc-groovy-java
libcogl-doc (1.22.6-1)
Object oriented GL/GLES Abstraction/Utility Layer (documentation)
libcoin-doc (4.0.0+ds-1build1) [universe]
high-level 3D graphics kit with Open Inventor and VRML97 support
libcolorpicker-java-doc (1.0.0-3) [universe]
Java control to allow color selection (documentation)
libcolt-free-java-doc (1.2.0+dfsg-7) [universe]
scalable scientific and technical computing in Java (doc)
libcommoncpp2-doc (1.8.1-8build1) [universe]
Documentation files for Common C++ "2"
libcommons-codec-java-doc (1.14-1) [universe]
encoder and decoders such as Base64 and hexadecimal codec - documentation
libcommons-collections4-java-doc (4.2-1) [universe]
Documentation for Commons Collections 4
libcommons-configuration-java-doc (1.10-5) [universe]
API Documentation for commons-configuration
libcommons-configuration2-java-doc (2.2-1) [universe]
API Documentation for commons-configuration2
libcommons-dbcp-java-doc (1.4-6) [universe]
Database Connection Pooling Services - documentation
libcommons-digester-java-doc (1.8.1-5) [universe]
Rule based XML Java object mapping tool (documentation)
libcommons-discovery-java-doc (0.5-3ubuntu1) [universe]
locates classes that implement a given Java interface (documentation)
libcommons-fileupload-java-doc (1.4-1) [universe]
Javadoc API documentation for Commons FileUploads
libcommons-io-java-doc (2.6-2ubuntu0.20.04.1) [universe] [security]
Common useful IO related classes - documentation
libcommons-jci-java-doc (1.1-5) [universe]
common Java interface for various compilers - documentation
libcommons-jexl2-java-doc (2.1.1-4) [universe]
Documentation for Apache Commons JEXL
libcommons-lang-java-doc (2.6-9) [universe]
Documentation for Commons Lang - an extension of the java.lang package
libcommons-lang3-java-doc (3.8-2) [universe]
Apache Commons Lang utility classes (documentation)
libcommons-logging-java-doc (1.2-2) [universe]
common wrapper interface for several logging APIs (documentation)
libcommons-math-java-doc (2.2-7) [universe]
Java lightweight mathematics and statistics components - documentation
libcommons-math3-java-doc (3.6.1-3) [universe]
Java lightweight mathematics and statistics components - documentation
libcommons-net-java-doc (3.6-1) [universe]
Apache Commons Net (API documentation)
libcommons-pool-java-doc (1.6-3) [universe]
pooling implementation for Java objects - documentation
libcommons-validator-java-doc (1:1.6-2) [universe]
API documentation for Commons Validator
libcommons-vfs-java-doc (2.1-2) [universe]
Java API for accessing various filesystems - documentation
libconcurrent-java-doc (1.3.4-4) [universe]
documentation and javadoc API for libconcurrent-java
libconfig-doc (1.5-0.4build1) [universe]
parsing/manipulation of structured config files (Documentation)
libconfuse-doc (3.2.2+dfsg-1) [universe]
Documentation for libConfuse
libcore-renderer-java-doc (0.0~R8+dfsg2-1) [universe]
Documentation for libcore-renderer-java
libcork-doc (0.15.0+ds-12) [universe]
simple, easily embeddable, cross-platform C library (documentation files)
libcorkipset-doc (1.1.1+20150311-8) [universe]
C library to store sets/maps of IP address (documentation files)
libcoverart-doc (1.0.0+git20150706-8build1) [universe]
library to access the Cover Art Archive (developer documentation)
libcpl-doc (7.1.2+dfsg-1build3) [universe]
API documentation for the Common Pipeline Library
libcpprest-doc (2.10.15-1) [universe]
Reference manual for C++ REST SDK / Casablanca
libcpptest-doc (2.0.0-3build1) [universe]
unit testing framework for C++ (documentation)
libcppunit-doc (1.15.1-2build1) [universe]
Unit Testing Library for C++
libcrcutil-doc (1.0-5) [universe]
library for cyclic redundancy check (CRC) computation - documentation
libcrypto++-doc (5.6.4-9build1) [universe]
General purpose cryptographic library - documentation
libcryptui-doc (3.12.2-6) [universe]
UI library for OpenPGP prompts (documentation)
libcsfml-doc (2.5-1build1) [universe]
Libraries for the C Binding of SFML - Documentation
libcsound64-doc (1:6.13.0~dfsg-3build2) [universe]
Csound API documentation
libcssparser-java-doc (0.9.5-2) [universe]
Java CSS2 Parser (documentation)
libcsv-java-doc (2.1-1) [universe]
CSV IO library for Java (documentation)
libcsvjdbc-java-doc (1.0.36+ds-1) [universe]
Documentation for csvjdbc
libctl-doc (4.4.0-3) [universe]
library for flexible control files, documentation
libctpl-doc (0.3.4+dfsg-1) [universe]
template engine written in C, documentation files
libcunit1-doc (2.1-3-dfsg-2build1) [universe]
Unit Testing Library for C -- documentation
libcupt4-doc (2.10.4ubuntu1) [universe]
flexible package manager -- library documentation
libcupti-doc (10.1.243-3) [multiverse]
NVIDIA CUDA Profiler Tools Interface documentation
libcurl4-doc (7.68.0-1ubuntu2.7) [security]
documentation for libcurl
libcypher-parser-doc (0.6.0-1) [universe]
Documentation for libcypher-parser
libdaemon-doc (0.14-7)
lightweight C library for daemons - documentation
libdap-doc (3.20.5-1) [universe]
Documentation for the libdap Data Access Protocol library
libdatrie-doc (0.2.12-3)
Documentation files for double-array trie library
libdazzle-doc (3.36.0-1)
feature-filled library for GTK+ and GObject - documentation
libdballe-doc (8.6-1ubuntu1) [universe]
documentation for the DB-ALL.e C library for weather research
libdbi-doc (0.9.0-5)
DB Independent Abstraction Layer for C -- documentation
libdbus-c++-doc (0.9.0-8.1ubuntu1) [universe]
C++ API for D-Bus (documentation)
libdbus-glib-1-doc (0.110-5fakssync1)
deprecated library for D-Bus IPC (API documentation)
libdbusmenu-glib-doc (16.04.1+18.10.20180917-0ubuntu6)
library for passing menus over DBus - documentation
libdbusmenu-gtk-doc (16.04.1+18.10.20180917-0ubuntu6)
library for passing menus over DBus - GTK+ version documentation
libdbusmenu-qt5-doc (0.9.3+16.04.20160218-2build1) [universe]
Qt implementation of the DBusMenu protocol (documentation)
libdc1394-22-doc (2.2.5-2.1) [universe]
high level programming interface for IEEE 1394 digital cameras - documentation
libdc1394-doc (2.2.6-1) [universe]
high level programming interface for IEEE 1394 digital cameras - documentation
libdconf-doc (0.36.0-1)
simple configuration storage system - documentation
libdeal.ii-doc (9.1.1-9build2) [universe]
Differential Equations Analysis Library - html doc. and examples
libdecentxml-java-doc (1.4-2) [universe]
API documentation for libdecentxml-java
libdee-doc (1.2.7+17.10.20170616-4ubuntu6)
Model to synchronize multiple instances over DBus - documentation
libdeltachat0-doc (0.39.0+ds-0.1) [universe]
Delta.Chat API documentation
libdigidoc-doc (3.10.4+ds1-2) [universe]
DigiDoc digital signature library documentation
libdime-doc (0.20111205-2.1build1) [universe]
DXF Import, Manipulation, and Export library - devel
libdirgra-java-doc (0.3-1) [universe]
Documentation for dirgra
libdiscid-doc (0.6.2-3) [universe]
library for creating MusicBrainz DiscIDs (documentation)
libdnssecjava-java-doc (1.1.3-3) [universe]
DNSSEC validating stub resolver for Java (documentation)
libdogleg-doc (0.14-1) [universe]
Powell's dog-leg nonlinear least squares solver for sparse matrices
libdokujclient-java-doc (3.9.0-1) [universe]
Client for Dokuwiki's xmlrpc interface -- documentation
libdom4j-java-doc (2.1.1-2) [universe]
Flexible XML framework for Java (documentation)
libdoxia-java-doc (1.7-2) [universe]
Documentation for libdoxia-java
libdoxia-sitetools-java-doc (1.7.5-1) [universe]
Documentation for Doxia Sitetools
libdrmaa1.0-java-doc (8.1.9+dfsg-9build2) [universe]
Distributed resource management Application API library - Java bindings docs
libdtd-parser-java-doc (1.2~svn20110404-1) [universe]
Java library for parsing XML DTDs -- documentation
libdune-common-doc (2.6.0-4build1) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- basic classes (documentation)
libdune-functions-doc (2.6~20180228-1build1) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- interface for functions (documentation)
libdune-geometry-doc (2.6.0-1build2) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- geometry classes (documentation)
libdune-grid-doc (2.6.0-5build1) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- grid interface (documentation)
libdune-grid-glue-doc (2.6~20180130-1build3) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- compute couplings between grids (documentation)
libdune-istl-doc (2.6.0-2) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- iterative solvers (documentation)
libdune-localfunctions-doc (2.6.0-1build1) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- local basis (documentation)
libdune-pdelab-doc (2.6~20180302-2build1) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- discretization module (documentation)
libdune-typetree-doc (2.6~20180215-1build1) [universe]
toolbox for solving PDEs -- typed tree template library (documentation)
libdvbv5-doc (1.18.0-2build1)
Doxygen generated documentation for libdvbv5
libdvdnav-doc (6.0.1-1build1) [universe]
DVD navigation library (documentation)
libeasyconf-java-doc (0.9.5-6) [universe]
library to access configuration of software components - Javadoc
libeasymock-java-doc (4.2-1) [universe]
Java library to generate Mock Objects for given interfaces (documentation)
libeccodes-doc (2.16.0-1) [universe]
GRIB decoding/encoding software (documentation)
libeclipselink-java-doc (2.6.6-1) [universe]
Documentation for libeclipselink-java
libeigen3-doc (3.3.7-2) [universe]
eigen3 API documentation
libeigenbase-resgen-java-doc (1.3.0.13768-4) [universe]
Java i18n code generator from XML files - documentation
libelemental-doc (2.0.0-1build1) [universe]
Periodic Table viewer (API documentation)
libembree-doc (3.8.0+dfsg-1) [universe]
High Performance Ray Tracing Kernels - documentation
libemf-doc (1.0.11-2ubuntu2) [universe]
Enhanced Metafile library (documentation)
libendless-doc (0~git20180727+ds-1) [universe]
documentation files for the Endless SDK
libenet-doc (1.3.13+ds-1) [universe]
thin network communication layer on top of UDP - documentation
libepc-doc (0.4.6-2) [universe]
Easy Publish and Consume library - documentation
liberis-doc (1.3.23-7ubuntu1) [universe]
WorldForge client entity library - API documentation
libetpan-doc (1.9.4-2) [universe]
mail handling library - API documentation
libetsf-io-doc (1.0.4-4build2) [universe]
Developer documentation API and tutorials for ETSF_IO
libevdev-doc (1.9.0+dfsg-1) [universe]
wrapper library for evdev devices - development docs
libevhtp-doc (1.2.16-1build3) [universe]
Libevent based HTTP API - documentation
libexcalibur-logkit-java-doc (2.0-12) [universe]
Lightweight and fast designed logging toolkit for Java (API docs)
libexif-doc (0.6.21-6ubuntu0.4) [security]
library to parse EXIF files (documentation)
libexiv2-doc (0.27.2-8ubuntu2.6) [security]
EXIF/IPTC/XMP metadata manipulation library - HTML documentation
libexplain-doc (1.4.D001-9) [universe]
library of system-call-specific strerror repl - documentation
libexternalsortinginjava-java-doc (0.2.5-1) [universe]
External-Memory Sorting in Java (documentation)
libfakekey-doc (0.1-10) [universe]
library for converting characters to X key-presses [documentation]
libfann-doc (2.2.0+ds-6) [universe]
API documentation for FANN
libfannj-java-doc (0.3-2) [universe]
FannJ - Documentation
libfarstream-0.2-doc (0.2.8-5) [universe]
Audio/Video communications framework: documentation
libfastutil-java-doc (8.2.2-1) [universe]
API documentation for libfastutil-java
libfcml-doc (1.2.0-2) [universe]
machine code manipulation library - documentation
libfelix-bundlerepository-java-doc (2.0.10-4) [universe]
Documentation for Felix OSGi bundle repository service
libfelix-framework-java-doc (4.6.1-2) [universe]
Javadoc API documentation for the Felix Framework subproject
libfelix-gogo-command-java-doc (0.14.0-2) [universe]
Documentation for Apache Felix Gogo Command bundle
libfelix-gogo-runtime-java-doc (0.16.2-1) [universe]
Documentation for Apache Felix Gogo Runtime bundle
libfelix-gogo-shell-java-doc (0.12.0-1) [universe]
Documentation for Apache Felix Gogo Shell bundle
libfelix-main-java-doc (5.0.0-5) [universe]
Libraries to instantiate and execute OSGi Felix Framework - doc
libfelix-osgi-obr-java-doc (1.0.2-5fakesync1) [universe]
Javadoc API for OSGi OBR Service API
libfelix-shell-java-doc (1.4.3-2) [universe]
Felix OSGi shell - documentation
libfelix-shell-tui-java-doc (1.4.1-4) [universe]
Documentation for Apache Felix Shell TUI
libfelix-utils-java-doc (1.8.6-1) [universe]
collection of utility classes for Apache Felix - documentation
libfest-assert-java-doc (2.0~M10-1) [universe]
Documentation for libfest-assert-java
libfest-reflect-java-doc (1.4.1-3) [universe]
Documentation for libfest-reflect-java
libfest-test-java-doc (2.1.0-1) [universe]
Documentation for libfest-test-java
libfest-util-java-doc (1.2.5-1) [universe]
Documentation for libfest-util-java
libfftw3-doc (3.3.8-2ubuntu1)
Documentation for fftw version 3
libfido2-doc (1.3.1-1ubuntu2)
library for generating and verifying FIDO 2.0 objects -- documentation
libfits-java-doc (1.15.2-1) [universe]
Java library for the I/O handling of FITS files (javadoc)
libfixbuf-doc (2.4.0+ds-2) [universe]
Implementation of the IPFIX protocol - documentation
libfko-doc (2.6.10-8) [universe]
FireWall KNock OPerator - documentation
libflac-doc (1.3.3-1build1)
Free Lossless Audio Codec - library documentation
libflamingo-java-doc (7.3+dfsg3-5) [universe]
Provides a swing ribbon container for Java applications (documentation)
libflatpak-doc (1.6.5-0ubuntu0.3) [universe] [security]
Application deployment framework for desktop apps (documentation)
libflexdock-java-doc (1.2.4-1) [universe]
Swing Java docking framework - demos and examples
libflint-arb-doc (1:2.17.0-1) [universe]
C library for arbitrary-precision ball arithmetic, documentation
libflint-doc (2.5.2-21build1) [universe]
Documentation for the FLINT library
libflute-java-doc (1:1.1.6-4) [universe]
Java CSS parser using SAC (JFree version) -- documentation
libfm-doc (1.3.1-1) [universe]
file management support (development documentation)
libfmt-doc (6.1.2+ds-2) [universe]
fast type-safe C++ formatting library -- documentation
libfontbox-java-doc (1:1.8.16-2) [universe]
Java font library (Documentation)
libfontbox2-java-doc (2.0.18-1) [universe]
Java font library (Documentation)
libfonts-java-doc (1.1.6.dfsg-3) [universe]
Java fonts layouting library -- documentation
libforms-doc (1.2.3-1.4) [multiverse]
Documentation for the XForms graphical interface library
libformula-java-doc (1.1.7.dfsg-2) [universe]
Excel(tm) style formula expressions library
libfox-1.6-doc (1.6.57-1build1) [universe]
FOX C++ GUI Toolkit - documentation
libfprint-2-doc (1:1.90.1+tod1-0ubuntu4)
async fingerprint library of fprint project, API documentation
libfreecontact-doc (1.0.21-7build1) [universe]
documentation for libfreecontact
libfreefare-doc (0.4.0-2build1) [universe]
documentation for libfreefare
libfreefem-doc (3.5.8-7build1) [universe]
Documentation for FreeFEM development
libfreeimageplus-doc (3.18.0+ds2-1ubuntu3) [universe]
C++ wrappers for FreeImage (documentation)
libfreemarker-java-doc (2.3.23-9) [universe]
template engine written in Java (documentation)
libfreenect-doc (1:0.5.3-2) [universe]
library for accessing Kinect device -- documentation
libfrobby-doc (0.9.0-5ubuntu1) [universe]
Computations with monomial ideals (library documentation)
libftdi1-doc (1.4-2build2) [universe]
Documentation for libftdi1
libg3d-doc (0.0.8-31) [universe]
LibG3D API documentation in HTML format
libgadu-doc (1:1.12.2-4) [universe]
Gadu-Gadu protocol library - documentation
libgail-3-doc (3.24.18-1ubuntu1)
documentation files of the Gail library
libgail-doc (2.24.32-4ubuntu4)
documentation files of the Gail library
libgaminggear-doc (0.15.1-9) [universe]
Functionalities for gaming input devices (documentation)
libgavl-doc (1.4.0-5) [universe]
low level audio and video library - documentation files
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Mendecki - Seismic Monitoring in Mines

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Description:

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with two main objectives in mind: • immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue operations; • prediction of large rockmass instabilities. The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially, be attributed to three factors: • seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited dynamic range; • the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local magnitude; and • the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat loose but imaginative physical interpretation. The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool, quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible results with prediction. A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass, can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the seismic source can be estimated.

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Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with two main objectives in mind: • immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue operations; • prediction of large rockmass instabilities. The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially, be attributed to three factors: • seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited dynamic range; • the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local magnitude; and • the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat loose but imaginative physical interpretation. The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool, quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible results with prediction. A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass, can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the seismic source can be estimated.

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0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 votes)
29 views273 pages

Description:

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with two main objectives in mind: • immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue operations; • prediction of large rockmass instabilities. The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially, be attributed to three factors: • seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited dynamic range; • the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local magnitude; and • the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat loose but imaginative physical interpretation. The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool, quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible results with prediction. A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass, can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the seismic source can be estimated.

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JOIN US ON THE INTERNET VIA WWW, GOPHER, FTP OR EMAIL:


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EMAIL: [email protected]
Seismic
Monitoring
in Mines
Edited by

Dr A.J. Mendecki
Managing Director and Head of Research at ISS International,
Welkom, South Africa

CHAPMAN & HALL


London· Weinheim . New York· Tokyo· Melbourne· Madras
Published by Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Bouudary Row, Loudon SEI SHN, UK

Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI 8HN, UK

Chapman & Hall GmbH, Pappelallee 3, 69469 Weinheim, Germany

Chapman & Hall USA, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA

Chapman & Hall Japan, ITP-Japan, Kyowa Building, 3F, 2-2-1 Hirakawacho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan

Chapman & Hall Australia, 102 Dodds Street, South Melbourne,


Victoria 3205, Australia

Chapman & Hall India, R. Seshadri, 32 Second Main Road, CIT East,
Madras 600 035, India

First edition 1997

© 1997 Chapman & Hall


Softcover reprint ofthe hardcover I st edition 1997

Production control and typesetting by Anne Hordley


ISBN-13: 978-94-010-7187-1 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-1539-8
001: 10.1 007/978-94-009-1539-8

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study,
or criticism or review, as permitted under the UK Copyright Designs and
Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in
writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only
in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright
Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of licences
issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK.
Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be
sent to the publishers at the London address printed on this page.
The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard
to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot
accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions
that may be made.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congess Catalog Card Number: 96-86555

§ Printed on acid-free text paper, manufactured in accordance with


ANSIINISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of paper)
Contents

List of contributors ix
Preface xi
Acknow ledgements Xlll

1. Seismic transducers 1
P Mountfort; A J Mendecki

1.1 Requirements imposed by ground motion 1


1.2 Theory of inertial sensor operation 6
1.3 Realizable sensor characteristics 10
1.3.1 Geophones 11
1.3.2 Accelerometers 13
1.4 Network considerations 16
1.4.1 Results of sensor evaluation field trials 17
1.5 Sensor orientation 19

2. Seismic monitoring systems 21


P Mountfort; A J Mendecki

2.1 Signal conditioning 23


2.1.1 Calibration signal injection 23
2.1.2 Anti-aliasing filters 24
2.1.3 Reduction in dynamic range 27
2.1.4 Analogue to digital conversion 28
2.1.5 Data transmission 29
2.2 Triggering and validation 31
2.2.1 Event detection 31
2.2.2 Pre-trigger data and end of event 33
2.2.3 Validation 33
2.3 Digital data communications 33
2.3.1 Maximising the information rate 34
2.3.2 Low level protocols 35
2.4 Association 36
2.5 Central processing site 39
2.6 System Performance 39
vi Contents

3. Deconvolution, polarization and 41


wavelet transform of seismic signals
A H DzhaJarov

3.1 Deconvolution 41
3.1.1 Deconvolution filters for seismic systems 41
3.1.2 Inverse digital filters for second order
Butterworth high cut filters 42
3.1.3 Inverse digital filters of integrators and
differentiators 44
3.1.4 An iterative technique for the
deconvolution of seismograms 48
3.2 Polarisation 49
3.2.1 Three axis principal components method 49
3.2.2 Complex polarization filters 53
3.3 Wavelet transform 57

4. Seismic ray tracing 67


A H DzhaJarov

4.1 Shooting and bending 68


4.2 Point-to-curve 69
4.3 Finite difference 73
4.4 Wavefront construction methods 82

5. Location of seismic events 87


A J Mendecki; M Sciocatti

5.1 Location by arrival times and/or


directions or azimuths 87
5.2 Relative location and similarity of waveforms 94
5.3 Joint hypocentre and velocity determination
for clusters of events 97
5.4 Optimal spatial distribution of seismic stations 100
5.4.1 Optimality with respect to location error -
a statistical approach 101
5.4.2 Optimality with respect to location error -
a direct approach 103
5.4.3 Example of planning the spatial configuration
of seismic stations 106
Contents vii

6. Seismic velocity inversion from microseismic data 108


S C Maxwell; R P Young

6.1 Seismic tomography 108


6.2 Arrival-time inversion 110
6.3 Application 113
6.4 Velocity inversion in a combined seismological 117
and geomechanical investigation

7. Seismic source radiation and 119


moment tensor in the time domain
J Niewiadomski

7.1 Radiation from the seismic source -


far, intermediate and near fields 119
7.2 Moment tensor 135
7.2.1 The case of a sysnchronous source and
the delta source time function 137
7.2.2 The case of an asynchronous source and
arbitrary source time function 137

8. Spectral analysis and seismic source parameters 144


A J Mendecki; J Niewiadomski

8.1 Fast Fourier transform and multitaper 144


8.2 Source parameters from spectra 152

9. Nonlinear dynamics of seismic flow of rock 159


S Radu; M Sciocatti; A J Mendecki

9.1 Phase space 160


9.2 Reconstruction of the phase space
from seismic data 164
9.3 Fractal correlation dimension 167
9.4 Numerical results 169
9.5 Lyapunov exponent and limits of predictability 173
viii Contents

10. Quantitative seismology and rockmass stability 178


A J Mendecki

10.1 Quantitative description of a seismic event 178


10.1.1 Seismic moment, source size and stress drop 179
10.1.2 Seismic energy 184
10.1.3 Apparent stress, energy index and
apparent volume 185
10.2 Quantitative description of seismicity 193
10.2.1 Seismic strain and seismic stress 195
10.2.2 Unstable system and seismic softening 198
10.2.3 Seismic viscosity, relaxation time and
seismic Deborah number 208
10.2.4 Seismic dissipation and seismic diffusion 210
10.2.5 Seismic Schmidt number 213
10.3 Nucleation of instability and time to failure 213

11. Application of quantitative seismology in mines 220


G van Aswegen; A J Mendecki; C Funk

11.1 Introduction 220


11.2 Benchmark case studies 222
11.2.1 Brunswick Mining and Smelting 222
11.2.2 Tanton fault 223
11.2.3 Western Holdings No.6 shaft pillar 226
11.2.4 Postma dyke 232
11.2.5 The Trough event 239
11.2.6 811122 Longwall 241

References 246
Index 259
Contributors

Dr A.H. Dzhafarov
ISS International, South Africa

Mr C. Funk
ISS International, South Africa

Dr S.c. Maxwell
Department of Geophysics, Keele University, UK

Dr A.J. Mendecki
ISS International, South Africa

Dr P. Mountfort
ISS International, South Africa

Dr J. Niewiadomski
ISS International, South Africa

Dr S. Radu
ISS International, South Africa

Mr M. Sciocatti
ISS International, South Africa

Dr G. van Aswegen
ISS International, South Africa

Prof R.P. Young


Department of Geophysics, Keele University, UK
Preface

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with
two main objectives in mind:

• immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue


operations;
• prediction of large rockmass instabilities.

The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent
development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has
diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially,
be attributed to three factors:

• seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that


provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited
dynamic range;
• the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local
magnitude; and
• the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently
through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat
loose but imaginative physical interpretation.

The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress


in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the
implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool,
quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible
results with prediction.
A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass,
can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and
radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the
seismic source can be estimated.
Thus seismicity, being the intermittent momentum flux due to the sudden
motion of discrete lumps of rock, and its associated stress and strain changes
in the rock, can be quantified. This brings seismology into the realms of rock
mechanics and rheology, where changes in stress, strain rate, flow viscosity
and diffusion are fundamental in determining the stability of the deforming
Xll Preface

structures.
However, from seismological observation one can only measure that
portion of stress, strain or rheology of the process which is associated with
recorded seismic waves. The wider the frequency and amplitude range, and
the higher the throughput, of the seismic monitoring system, the more reliable
and more relevant the measured values of these parameters become.
The objectives of seismic monitoring in mines then become:

• to verify the parameters and assumptions of mine design while


mining;
• to predict larger instabilities;
• to backanalyse, so that we learn from history.

Seismic monitoring in mines consists of sensors, data acquisition, signal


processing, seismological analysis, quantification of the seismic response of
the rockmass to mining, and finally, interpretation in terms of the potential
for instability. Since each of these stages must be conducted with great care
for meaningful results, this book has been structured accordingly.
The principal objective of the book is to suggest, but not prescribe,
possible solutions to the problems encountered in achieving the above
objectives and to show examples of successful applications. No claim is made
for completeness. The emphasis has clearly been placed on parameters
describing seismic sources as opposed to changes in wave velocity or
attenuation to infer the state of the rockmass. Nevertheless, we hope all users
of mine seismic systems will be inspired to gain more insight from their data
and increase the value of their systems as management tools.

Aleksander J. Mendecki, Editor.


Acknowledgements

The majority of this book describes the results of work performed in two
projects: GAP 017, 'Seismology for rockburst prevention, control and
prediction', and GAP 211, 'Nonlinear seismology'. These were the two major
seismological projects awarded by the Department of Mineral and Energy
Affairs, on behalf of the South African mining industry, on the
recommendation of the Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee
(SIMRAC).
The authors and editor wish to express their thanks for the following
contributions to various chapters (in chapter order):
Chapter 1 is based on a far more detailed report by Dr R.W.E. Green,
retired Professor at the Bernard Price Institute, University of the
Witwatersrand, South Africa, and work performed by him and Mr A. v .Z.
Brink, ISS Pacific. Dr A. McGarr, USGS, Menlo Park, California, reviewed
an early form of the manuscript and offered useful suggestions concerning
ground motions.
Chapter 2 owes much to a far more detailed report by Dr R.W.E. Green,
and many fruitful discussions with him.
Professor A. Hanyga, University of Bergen, Norway, provided guidance
and useful discussions for Chapter 3.
Professor K. Aki, Observatorie du Piton de la Foumaise, La Reunion, and
University of Southern California, offered constructive comments on Chapters
7 and 8.
1 Seismic Transducers

The transducer is the key element of any seismic monitoring system. Once the
ground motion is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer, the
rest of the system is simply a problem of calibration and data acquisition.

1.1 Requirements imposed by ground motion

The type of transducer to be used is determined by the ranges of amplitude


and frequency to be measured which, in turn, depend on the magnitude range
and distance from the sensor of seismic events occurring in the volume of
interest.
The largest events experienced in rockburst prone mines range between
moment magnitude m M=3 and mM=5. The smallest events that are useful in
determining the state of the rock in seismically quiet periods have magnitudes
between m M=-4 and m M=-3 depending on noise levels and other environental
factors. The minimum range of frequencies that must be recorded for
meaningful seismological processing is determined from the expected corner
frequencies of events occurring in the volume to be monitored. The corner
frequency is the predominant frequency on the spectrum of instrument and
attenuation corrected ground velocity; see Fig. 8.8 in Chapter 8 of this book.
To correctly measure the seismic moment we need frequencies down to at
least an octave or five spectral points, whichever is lower, below the corner
frequency of the largest event to be analysed. To correctly measure the
radiated seismic energy we need frequencies at least five times above the
corner frequency of the smallest event to be analysed (Mendecki, 1993).
To estimate the range of amplitude and frequency of ground motion which
sensors will experience due to seismic events in the above magnitude ranges,
we start with the relation, for a circular fault, between the source radius r,
stress drop l1a and seismic moment M (Keilis-Borok, 1959):

r 3 =7M
-- (1.1)
1611a

By assuming the Brune model for the source (Brune, 1970), we get a corner
frequency from the source radius:

(1.2)
2 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

where K is a constant 2.34 for the Brune model, Vs is the S wave propagation
velocity and fr) is the corner frequency. Vs depends on the rock type, as given
in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Properties of extreme rock types encountered in mining

Shear modulus 11 S wave velocity


[GPa] v< = Jill p [m/s]
Hard rock 2700 37 3700

Soft rock 1800 7.2 2000

104

hard

"'"
soft
10° 103

N
~

.s~10' g102
Fig. 1.1
Ql
Expected (J) ::J
rr
::J
source radius rand S '6 ~
~
wave corner frequency fo Ql
Q;
c Stress
2 0
as a function of seismic ::J
U
moment for a range of c5l102 ~ 10' drop
m
stress drops. The general 5:
(J)
relations are given by
equations (1.1) and (1.3). 100
Moment magnitude m M ,
103 10° 10
equation (1.4), is also
shown. The width of each
band shows the variation
with rock properties as 0.1
shown in Table 1.1. For a ~n-l~_ _- L_ _ _ _L -_ _- L_ _ _ _L -_ _- L____L -__- L____~

given event, frequencies IV -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 4


up to 5fo must be Moment magnitude
recorded for accurate
energy determination and
frequencies down to f,/2
10'°
for seismic moment. Seismic moment [Nm]
Seismic transducers 3

10
10>
soft
10-'

10'
0.1
10-2
(j)
N-
.s2=' 100 0.01
I ·u
'" 10-
~ 3
0
Qi
> Stress
0

e
'Jl "0
co C
10-'
Fig. 1.2 The product of E 0)

'E" .>< drop


distance from the source ~ 10-4 ''x""
0.
and the far field peak '"
is.
ground velocity, Rv max ,
'Jl
B '" 10-2
g
and displacement at the ~ I
0
source, D, plotted as a 10-5
function of moment for a
range of stress drops.
The general relations are
given in equations (1.6)
and (1.7). Moment ---.=4
magnitude mM , equation hard 10
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 4 5
(1.4), is also shown. The Moment magnitude
width of the lines
represents the variation
due to the range of rock
10'°
types listed in Table 1.1. Seismic moment [Nmj

Substituting equation (1.1) into equation (1.2) we obtain:

f.. = KVs ~ 16Lla (l.3)


o 27T 7M

describing comer frequency as a function of moment, stress drop and S wave


velocity. This relation is illustrated in Fig. l.1 for a wide range of stress drops.
While stress drop and moment are independent parameters, in general small
events do not occur at large stress drops, which lowers the high frequency
requirements somewhat. The moment magnitude, m M , is also shown (Hanks
and Kanamori, 1978) where:
2
m M = -logM- 6.1 (1.4)
3
4 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

To estimate the amplitude of the ground motion we follow the model of


McGarr (1991):

R vmax = 0.57 3 ·2'7T £,1


0
.M (1.5)
4'7Tp ~

where R is the distance from the source, vmax is the far field peak ground
velocity, p is the rock density and 0.57 is the median value of the S wave
radiation pattern. Substituting for 10 from equation (1.3) and retaining K=2.34,
yields:

Rv: 0.0686 . ~!::.if M


p v:.
= (1.6)
max

McGarr (1991) uses the definition M =/-L'7Tr2D, where D is the amplitude of


the displacement at the source and 11 is the rigidity or shear modulus, In
equation (1.5) to derive the expression:

D = _8_.1_R---,vm=a=.x (1.7)
Vs

and also shows that the slip velocity

. KVD
D= s (1.8)
'7TI

and

R8max = 0.4 !::'u/ p (1.9)

where 8 max is the amplitude of the far field ground acceleration associated with
the comer frequency. Measured peak acceleration tends to increase with
increasing sensor bandwidth because the acceleration spectrum of an event is
flat for some interval above the comer frequency.
It must be noted that McGarr used an inhomogeneous model of the source
in deriving these relations, with a number of asperities within a larger source
region. In this case, the frequency-amplitude relationships still hold, but the
moment and source radius are those of a single asperity which is responsible
for VmaX ' and are less than those of the whole source. Where the source is
homogeneous, or, more probably, the internal structure is not resolved, then
the moment and radius are those of the entire source as implied above.
Seismic transducers 5

The relations (1.6) and(1.7) are plotted in Fig. 1.2, while Fig. 1.3 illustrates
the relationship between ground acceleration and distance from the source for
several stress drops from equation (1.9). The line thickness again denotes the
range of rock properties as shown in Table 1.1.
It must be stressed that these models are not very accurate in the mining
environment in that attenuation, near field, propagation and site effects have
been ignored. However, we are now in the position, given an event
characterized by moment and stress drop, to estimate the dominant frequency,
peak ground velocity and peak ground acceleration at a given distance from
the source in the far field, as well as the displacement and slip velocity in the
source region. This is sufficient to gauge sensor specifications for suitability.
The quantitative description of seismic sources requires that the direction of
ground motion be resolved and all sites should have three orthogonal
directional sensors (transverse sensitivity < 5 %).

10 1 ~7~ ...~~~=r~__~~~~~c,.~~~~~~~~~~~
::>::: Stress

Fig. 1.3 The far field drop


peak acceleration at the 10° ~"'~';"""":""";"'-;"";"':+-,-""'!"""':"''''';''''-~~H''~:'''''-:'~~+-'''''111''~~~~
source corner frequency,
8 m_x , plotted as a function
of distance from the:§ -1 ..
source, R, for a range of .§ 10 ~.-,-""'!. .~,..,;,.,.-~~r..,..::"~~""";"'-~+-""'111"~~~~~"k7~~~~
stress drops. The ~
general relation is given ~
u
i 10

in equation (1.8). The al10-2b-:~~-,-,---,~~~I-c-c-'~~~~~~~"'~~~~f:-,-:-""'k7~~~-,-l


width of the lines-g
represents variations in ~
rock density, p, as listed:: -3
in Table 1.1. Attenuation m10 ~-:-:-:-7~-'-'---~~"-+'-:-:-:-7~~~~--,-,-,I-c-c-''''k7~~~-:-+-:-:'''''I'''~~~~
due to transmission a.
through the rock is 0.1
ignored. Conversely, 10-4~:.".
.. -:-:-:-7~~~~+~~~~~~~~~~~~+-::'!'!1111"...,-,-~~~
higher values may be
registered by wideband
accelerometers, as the 0.01
source spectrum is flat 10-5L:-~_~~~-'-'--~~~~--'-'-'~~-~~~-'-'--~~~~-,-"-,
for a range of 1~ 1~ 1~ 1~
Distance from source [m]
frequencies above the
corner frequency.
6 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

1.2 Theory of inertial sensor operation

Most seismic transducers operate on the principle of measuring the ground


motion relative to that of an inertial mass. The mass is, for practical reasons,
suspended by a spring, so we end up with a variation of the classical
mass/spring/damper problem, shown schematically in Fig. 104.

. u
c----

Fig. 1.4 A schematic


diagram of an inertial m
sensor, showing the
mass m free to move
unidirectionally within the c
case under the influence
of a spring and damper. ~ Equilibrium position of mass

Applying Newton's second law to the mass


(1.10)
m(ii+ x) = - kx- eX

where:
u ground displacement to be measured
x displacement of the mass relative to the ground and case
m inertial mass
k spring constant
c damping coefficient

By applying the Laplace transform to equation (1.10) (see for example Etkin,
1972), we arrive at the transfer function:

xes) _ -S2
(1.11)
u(s) S2 + 2bw n s+ w 2n

where:
xes) Laplace transform of x(t)
u(s) Laplace transform of u(t)
s complex frequency variable
ron =21t/n , the natural frequency, w~ = kim
b relative damping factor, 2bw n =elm.
Seismic transducers 7

10-4~~~~~~-~~~~~:--~~~~~-~~~~
10-2 10-' 10° 10' 102
Fig. 1.5 Inertial sensor Normalized frequency
transfer function,
equation (1.11), for
several values of the
relative damping a;
Q)
-45

coefficient b as a function
of normalized frequency
i -90f 5

L'r
flf".
The complex function is
illustrated by separate
graphs for amplitude and
-180~~~~~~-~~~~~~~====~==~~=-~
phase response, and 10 4 10~ 1~ 1~ 1~
group delay. On the Normalized frequency
amplitude response
graph, the upper curve
shows the strong
amplification at f/ t;, . b=0.1
The next lower curve
>- 5
shows the slightly '"
~ 1
extended low frequency "-
response over critical e"
(90.5
damping b=1. At b=5 two
separate corner 0.7
frequencies become O~========±=====~~~~~--~~--~~~~
10-2 10-' 10° 10' 102
apparent. Normalized frequency

°
Since x = for t<O, we may obtain the Fourier domain version of the transfer
function by restricting the independent variable to the imaginary axis, setting
s = iw.
The first point to note is the existence of a natural frequency and a damping
factor. The effect of damping is best illustrated graphically and Fig. 1.5 shows
the normalized transfer functions for a range of values in b. Lightly damped
sensors (b « 1), with their exaggerated response at ~, can be problematic.
A value of b = 0,7 gives the flattest frequency response.
8 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

By examining the extremes of frequency, we can see the basis for two types
of sensor. When s » (On the transfer function is approximately -1, i.e. the
mass does not move with respect to an inertial frame of reference and the
relative motion of the case and the mass perfectly mirrors the ground motion.
This is the classical seismometer mode of operation. When s « (On the relative
motion of mass and case is very small and proportional to S2. This represents
a double differentiation in the time domain, so the displacement of the mass
relative to the case is proportional to ground acceleration. In physical terms the
motion of the mass and case are almost identical and the extension of the
spring is a measure of the force necessary to accelerate the mass. The
accelerometer operates on this principle.
The sensor impulse response may be obtained by transforming equation
(1.11) back to the time domain. The numerator may be set to 1, so that the
result corresponds to displacement of the mass relative to the case for an
impulse in ground acceleration. This is useful because the calibration inputs
on real sensors usually provide the capacity of displacing the equilibrium
position of the mass within the case. To apply the standard transform tables,
the zeros of the quadratic denominator of equation (1.11) need to be found:

-bw n ±w n V~
u- - 1

Let n = - bw n and distinguish between


( 1.12)
w = wn~ for b<l

and

w/= wn~ for b>l

Then, the right-hand side of equation (1.11) may be rewritten as

1
for b<l
(s- n? + w2
1
for b=O
(s - n)2
1
for b> 1
(s- n)2 - W/2

which transform to
Seismic transducers 9

~ e nf sin w t; tent; _1_ e nt sinh w' t


w w'

respectively. The impulse responses for a natural frequency of 1 Hz and a


range of damping factors are plotted in Fig. 1.6.

1~.-------,-------,--------,-------,--------,-------,

Fig. 1.6 Response of an b=0.1


inertial sensor to an
impulse in acceleration.
The same damping e
factors are illustrated as
used for the frequency
response in the previous c
(J)

figure. The curve for E


(J)

b=O.1 has been ~


0.
enhanced with its III
'5
exponential decay -g
envelope marked e, and .~
(ij
amplitudes of successive E
swings for the calculation ~-0.2
of the logarithmic
decrement. The -0.4
difference between
b=O.7, which crosses the
-0.6
time axis once and
critical damping b=1.0,
-0.8 L--_ _ _ _ _ _..L-_ _ _ _ _ _- ' -_ _ _ _ _ _---L_ _ _ _ _ _---'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-'---_ _ _ _- - - - '
which does not, can o 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3
clearly be seen. Time[s]

When the damping is less than critical, b <1, and therefore the response is
oscillatory, it is useful to consider the ratio of the amplitudes of two
successive peaks in opposite directions, denoted by a 1 and a 2 in Fig. 1.6. The
so-called logarithmic decrement d is defined as

Inverting for b

b= d
V-rr + ~
10 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

providing a fairly direct method of measuring b independently of (On. In Fig.


1.6, it may also be shown that

where A 1 and A 2 are independent of the signal zero level.

1.3 Realizable sensor characteristics

The range of ground velocities and frequencies that can be measured with
commonly available sensors is illustrated in Fig. 1.7. The noise level is
illustrated not as noise density as a function of frequency, but as it would be
measured using a long term average (LTA) in the time domain. The frequency
dependence is only due to the sensor frequency response. Dynamic range is
the ratio of the amplitudes of the maximum measurable signal, Amax, and the
noise level, Anoise, expressed in decibels:

Fig. 1.7 Sensitivity and


0.13)
dynamic range of
sensors commonly used
in mine seismic systems.
The region between the 300 mV/g accelerometer
limits represents the
1.0 Hz geophone
usable range for each
instrument. The 4.5 Hz geophone
geophone's greater
sensitivity up to several
hundred hertz is clearly
shown, as is the loss of 40 Hz geophone
dynamic range due to
displacement clipping
below these frequencies.
A data acquisition
system dynamic range of
132 dB with its
quantization noise
matching the expected
ground noise of 10-7 m/s
is illustrated. 10-'O'----~~~'"'"'-~~~.........-~~~'"'_~~~......I.._~~~......,...J
10-' 10' 102
Frequency [Hz]
Seismic transducers 11

The level at which an acquisition system with a dynamic range of 132 dB


would clip is shown. Since the geophone is a passive device, the signal
conditioning equipment or the intrinsic ground noise effectively sets the noise
level. A noise floor of 10-7 mls environmental noise as expected in mines is
used in the figure. Geophones exhibit better sensitivity over a relatively narrow
band at the lower frequencies of interest, whereas accelerometers cover a
relatively wide band, excelling in sensitivity at the higher frequencies and
measuring without distortion the large amplitude, low frequency strong ground
motions of nearby large events.

1.3.1 Geophones

Geophones operate in the seismometer mode, i.e. the most useful bandwidth
is above the natural frequency. The coil and magnet which are used to detect
the motion of the inertial mass produce an output proportional to velocity. The
unit produces a reasonable amount of power at low impedance for driving
cables. Damping is determined by the load resistance and each type of
instrument specifies the open circuit damping b" and a relation for determining
the current damping, be for a given load.
Geophones exhibit a relatively narrow usable bandwidth. Apparently, it is
difficult to construct a suspension for the mass which is relatively weak in the
axial direction, to produce a low J", and very stiff in the radial direction to
suppress any transverse response. Where manufacturers have attempted to
minimize these effects, they generally quote a "clean" or "spurious response
free" bandwidth, !ct. In a brief survey of data sheets, the highest value of Icl lin
found was 38, and some were less than 10. As mentioned in Section 1.1, we
need at least a factor of 10 to be able to measure seismic moment and energy
for an event.
Figure 1.8 (Oh, 1996) shows how geophone sensitivity varies with the angle
of excitation. Transverse resonance modes produce a response almost equal to
axial at large angles for specific frequencies.
Real geophone behaviour near the natural frequency conforms well with
theory. Provided that In and b are known, deconvolution techniques may be
used to extend the useful bandwidth to lower frequencies. Deconvolution
cannot be applied indiscriminately to small or distant events as the signal
below J" may be buried in noise, since the velocity spectrum of events
decreases with decreasing frequency, see Fig. 8.8 in Chapter 8 of this book.
The high frequency behaviour, unfortunately, is not so tractable. The
spurious responses tend to vary from one unit to another and are difficult to
detect on a shake table because of their association with transverse excitation.
12 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

3r-----------------------------~

Fig. 1.8 Variation in


geophone sensitivity with
angle of excitation. The
average sensitivity, as
expected, varies as the
cosine of the excitation
angle (Oo=axial,
90 o=radial), but the
transverse modes can
produce almost the full
response at a certain
frequency even at a
large angle. This figure 0.1

was produced using a


14 Hz geophone. O. 05 L....L..............u...L_ _- - - '_ _.L..-J'-'-.L...>..'-'-'-_ _---L_ _'---'-'-~

Reproduced from Oh 4 10 100 700


(1996). Frequency [Hz]

We have no choice but to filter out or Ignore frequencies which may be


affected by spurious responses.
Some examples of manufacturers' specifications for commonly used
geophones are reproduced in Table 1.2. The values of maximum velocity at
fn have been calculated from the specified case to coil motion, which has been
reduced on the high frequency geophones to compensate for the high tilt
angles permitted. To estimate the range of event comer frequencies which a
particular sensors covers, we may assume the frequency response is extended
down to /n12 by deconvolution. The range of corner frequencies is then /n to
fe/5. Where i.[ is not specified, h[=25/n is a good conservative choice.
The corresponding range of moments and stress drops may be seen by
drawing the horizontal lines on Fig. 1.1.
Half the case to coil motion may also be compared to the displacement in
the seismic source region given in equation (1.7) and illustrated in Fig. 1.2.
For example, an event with mM = 1 and ~cr = 1 MPa, will have a displacement
of about 1 mm, and a corner frequency of about 50 Hz (from Fig. 1.1) which
is above the natural frequency of all the geophones in the table. If one of the
miniature geophones is near an event with a larger moment or stress drop, it
will clip.

Miniature geophones High quality mmlature geophones with natural


frequencies from 4.5 Hz up to approximately 100 Hz are inexpensive, reliable
and commonly available thanks to extensive use by the oil exploration
Seismic transducers 13

industry. Their strong point is their sensitivity which means that, when used
in combination with good amplifiers, the ambient ground noise determines the
system noise level of _10- 7 mJs at the quietest sites in mines. These
frequencies (see clean frequencies in Table 1.2) also propagate through the
rock with little attenuation, so the sensor sites may be fairly widely spaced
throughout the mine. Miniature geophone output reflects ground velocity, so
the kinetic energy may be calculated directly, and only one integration is
necessary to obtain displacement for the seismic moment. Geophones are
inexpensive and relatively easy to install in boreholes long enough to reach
intact rock, as long as some care is taken to ensure they are precisely vertical
or horizontal.
A weak point of these geophones is the distortion and clipping introduced
at larger displacements produced by nearby large events. Because the
geophone output reflects ground velocity, the displacement clipping is not
immediately apparent on inspection of the seismograms. The theoretical
dynamic range of these sensors is very large (see Fig. 1.6), but as the large
events produce low frequencies, we are concerned with the dynamic range at
the natural frequency, as listed in Table 1.2. The acceleration limit of 50g is
actually a shock limit, so not only will the geophones not reproduce these
signals accurately but such high accelerations may lead to permanent damage
or change in characteristics.
Due to the low cost of these units, it is reasonable to extend the bandwidth
coverage by installing more than one triaxial set at one site. For example, the
4.5 Hz and 40 Hz geophones described in Table 1.2 complement each other
well.

Low frequency geophones Geophones with natural frequencies between 0.5


Hz and 2 Hz are manufactured for earthquake monitoring and are an order of
magnitude more expensive than miniature geophones. Such instruments are
essential for measuring moments of events with corner frequencies below
4.5 Hz (see Fig. 1.1).

1.3.2 Accelerometers

As described in Section 1.2, accelerometers operate below their natural


frequency and measure the force applied to the inertial mass. In principle, the
frequency response extends right down to zero (DC) and, even where this is
not achieved in practice, a broad band is usable. The stiff spring generally
produces no unexpected side effects.
14 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Table 1.2 Manufacturer's specifications for some commonly used geophones

Type L-4C! HS-I-IA1 SM-6B* SM-7B* SM-15B* SM-IIFfI GS-20DMi

Natural frequency 4.5 4.5 8 14 30 40


J" [Hz]

J" tolerance ±5% ±20% ±II% ±6% ±5% ±5% ±5%

Tilt for J" tolerance 5° 5° 5° 20° 25° 180° 90°


(vertical only)

Distortion at 18 mm/s N/S N/S <0.3% <0.2% <0.2% <0.2% <0.2%


12 Hz 12 Hz 14 Hz 30 Hz 40 Hz

Tilt for distortion N/S N/S N/S 15° 25° 180° 90°

Clean frequency if N/S N/S N/S 310 >500 500 >850


[Hz] =38J" >35J" =17J" >21J"

Case to coil motion 6.3 7.6 4 2


(peak to peak) [mm]

Seismic mass m [g] 1000 22.7 11.1 II II 9.2 5.6

Max velocity at J" 20 107 56 50 44 42 62


[mmls]
dB referred to 1O-7m1s 106 121 115 114 113 113 116

Coil resistance Re 5500 225 375 375 375 360 270


[0]

Sensitivity (undamped) 276 18.1 28.8 28.8 28.8 30 15.1


[VIm/s]

Open circuit damping 0.28 0.30 0.56 0.31 0.18 0.55 0.42
b"
Current damping be l.IRe 254 6000 6000 6000 8310 O.30Re
shunt R, [0] Rc+Rs (Rc+R)t;, (Rc+R)t;, (Rc+R)t;, (Rc+R)t;,
Re+R ,. Rc+R ,.

Operating temperature -29 -29 -40 -40 -40 -40 -45


range rOC] 60 70 100 100 100 100 100

Shock limit [g] N/S 50 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

Manufacturers: § Mark Products, US, Inc. <][ Oyo Geospace Corporation :j: Sensor Nederland BV.
Seismic transducers 15

The force balance accelerometer uses electromagnetic or electrostatic force


to control the movement of the mass, so an analogue of the restoring force is
available in electrical form. Instruments based on mechanical springs generally
measure the strain in the spring. This is small and a variety of methods are
used to measure it. Nevertheless, noise in the sensing process sets the noise
level of the sensors and matching or built-in amplifiers are often part of the
package.
The sensitivity of a given accelerometer to ground velocity or radiated
seismic energy increases with frequency, allowing smaller events to be
detected than by a comparable geophone, assuming that the trigger measures
LTA as broadband noise in the time domain and that the higher frequency
environmental noise is attenuated by the rock. The relative insensitivity at low
frequency reduces the danger of clipping on nearby large, low corner
frequency events. The peak acceleration produced by an event depends on the
dynamic stress drop, see equation (1.9).

Piezoelectric accelerometers Piezoelectric materials produce an electrical


charge in response to mechanical strain. As there is always some electrical
leakage, these instruments do not measure down to DC. The damping
coefficient b is generally 1% to 2% which results in a sharp resonance peak
at In. However, between these extremes there is a wide bandwidth where
acceleration response is flat (see examples in Table 1.3). An insufficiently
rigid mounting can cause an apparent downward shift of the resonance
frequency into the band of interest.
Output may be provided directly from the piezoelectric element for use with
a separate charge amplifier, but, more conveniently, a PET amplifier is often
included in the sensor package. These units require a constant current supply
and modulate the voltage to produce an output. More than 100 m of cable may
be driven in this way. All those listed in Table 1.3 operate in this fashion.
In mine monitoring networks, these accelerometers are usually used to detect
smaller, higher frequency events than may be achieved with geophones. The
units with upper frequency limits of 7000 Hz to 15000 Hz provide a useful
increase in the frequency range and high sensitivity within this range,
generally allowing coverage down to mM =-3 (see Fig. 1.1). At higher
frequencies, for coverage down to m M=-4, even the accelerometers become
less sensitive. The 40 kHz sensor listed in Table 1.3 has an rms noise of
0.002 g so the smallest useful signal must have an amplitude of about 0.02 g.
From Fig. 1.3, we can see that the lower stress drop events must be within
10m for successful detection. The lower frequency units, while providing
uniform coverage over a wide band, do not generally offer sufficient advantage
over geophones to justify the added cost.
16 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Table 1.3 Manufacturer's specifications for some piezoelectric accelerometers

Type 793L-4' 501 *

Sensitivity [mV/g] 7000 300 100 100 10


±IO% ±ldB ±5% ±IO%

Frequency range 0.1 - 1000 0.2 - 7000 I - 10 000 0.5 - 15 000 2 - 40000
± 3 dB [Hz]

Mounted resonance /" 2400 16000 18000 25000 65000


[Hz]

Max. transverse 5% 7% 7% 5% 5%
Sensitivity

Max. acceleration [g] 0,7 15 48 80 212

Nonlinearity 2% 1% 2% 1% 1%

Noise floor wideband 3 10 250 600 2000


[Ilg rms]

Dynamic range [dB] 107 123 106 102 100

Power supply 2.2 rnA 2-lOmA 1-4mA 2-lOmA 0.5 rnA


15 V 18 - 30 V 15 - 30 V 18 - 30 V 12 - 30 V

Shock limit [g] N/S 2500 5000 2500 10000

Manufacturers: § Vibra Metrics, Inc. <J[ Wilcoxon Research, Inc. :j: Vibrometer Corp.

Frequencies of 3 kHz and above are generally heavily attenuated by the


rock. This varies from site to site, but even in competent quartzite, source to
sensor distances of more than 300 m cause the higher frequency signal to be
lost.

Force balance accelerometers These instruments replace the mechanical


spring with an electronic feedback circuit. They are generally more expensive
than 1 Hz geophones, but provide broader bandwidth, e.g. DC to 100 Hz.
Generally, acceleration and velocity outputs are available.

1.4 Network considerations

High frequency miniature geophones provide reasonable coverage down to


mM=O, as shown by comparing clean frequencies from Table 1.2 with comer
Seismic transducers 17

frequencies in Fig. 1.1, provided that there are five stations within 1 km of
each event. Coverage up to mM =3 in the same area can be accomplished by
pairing with 4.5 Hz units. A dense network is required to compensate for both
the geophones' relative insensitivity and the increasing attenuation of the rock
mass to the dominant frequencies of these events. Care must be taken not to
accept results from stations near enough to large events to suffer low
frequency, large displacement distortion and clipping problems.

Table 1.4 Typical networks with different sensor densities

Lower magnitude
limit
-3 o

Network type Accelerometer Geophone


Geophone
at least at least
5th station> 2 km
5 stations < 300 m 5 stations < I km

Sensor/
anti-aliasing
10 kHz 500 Hz 200 Hz
filter

Apart from large, low stress drop events, full coverage down to mM =- 3 may
be provided by a dense network of accelerometers, which have the high
frequency sensitivity to reliably detect negative magnitude events and the low
frequency insensitivity to measure close, large events. The required density for
full coverage is at least five stations within 300 m of any expected source area,
so, effectively, a separate network is established around each longwall or other
working area. Even so, several times more stations will probably be required
to cover a given mine with accelerometers than geophones. Table 1.4
illustrates three typical network configurations.

1.4.1 Results of sensor evaluation field trials

In order to better evaluate the performance side of the performance/cost ratio


for different sensors, several geophones and piezoelectric accelerometers were
installed in a single holder, in a borehole at a deep level gold mine in South
Africa.
Three sensors were monitored at a time with one of the geophones always
included as a reference. Two examples illustrate the expected superiority of
the accelerometer at high frequencies.
18 Seismic Monitoring in Mines
, '

j ~

j i
i I
i i ~

i !'~·i
'! !
1 i,~.f
I' I
i···i Ii f
I :
i i'~i
I . j! [
I !
r---..... ------.:co-------..:.-------..,_:.il : "

a b

Fig. 1.9 Acceleration Figure 1.9 shows the spectra of the differentiated geophone output compared
s~ectra. .obtained by to that of an accelerometer. The increase in noise and loss of signal at high
d~fferentlatlng a geo~hone frequencies on the differentiated signal are clearly visible. Figure 1.10 show s
signal (a) and directly . . .
from an accelerometer the recordmg of a small hIgh frequency event whIch was recorded by an
(b). The increase in noise accelerometer while only noise is visible on the geophone trace. The events
on the geophone derived recorded during the duration of the experiment were small and within several
spectrum at higher hundred metres of the sensor, so there was no opportunity for the geophone
frequencies is clear. Note to demonstrate its low frequency sensitivity, or the accelerometer its strong
that on the accelerometer ground mot'Ion allIes.
b'l't'
spectrum, features near
1000 Hz do not appear
on the geophone data. 6e-06

Fig. 1.10 High


frequency event clearly
recorded by an
accelerometer (bottom) -61!- OI6~>+++++++++<+;+++++-t++++++-+++f++<>++++++-I++_+++++++++++++H-+++~-++++++1
but not visible on 6e-06
geophone output (top).
The acceleration data
have been arbitrarily
scaled so that the 150
Hz signal between-O.OB s
and 0.1 s should have
the same amplitude as
on the geophone data, -&!-OI6f.-'-'-'-'-'-'-'=~~~~"-'-'-''_'_'::''~'-'-'-'--'-'::'-:~-'-'-'-''-'7':"-'-'-'-'-'-'~~'-'-'-'-~
where it is barely visible. (mls)
Seismic transducers 19

1.S Sensor orientation

There are two aspects to sensor orientation: firstly, if the lower natural
frequency geophones are not installed precisely vertically or horizontally they
do not function correctly; secondly, the true directions of ground motion must
be found for each event to be described quantitatively. For these reasons, it is
advantageous to be able to install sensors accurately with a given orientation,
and to be able to estimate the orientation of sensors once installed.
For installation in a borehole, the sensors are usually mounted on to a
holder or "boat" which is almost as wide as the borehole and much longer than
it is wide, so that it closely assumes the orientation of the borehole, which
may be determined by surveying. A keyed rod may be used to rotate the boat
within the borehole during installation to allow orientation about the borehole
as an axis. For a vertical hole the handle of the keyed rod may be aligned with
a survey mark and the boat assumed to be aligned likewise with a few degrees
margin of error. For an off-vertical hole some feedback may be obtained as to
the orientation of the sensors themselves, either by driving the sensors (if they
are geophones) and rotating the boat until a symmetric clipping pattern is
obtained, or by including a mercury switch or other tilt sensitive device into
the boat. Of course, care must be taken to preserve sensor signal polarity
throughout the data acquisition modules.
Once the sensors are operating, any deviation from the assumed orientation
may be calculated by comparing the P wave polarization direction with the
hypocentral direction for artificial sources or natural events whose locations
are known accurately. Given three or more such known locations, it is possible
to determine a rotation matrix A such that Xi = Ay i' where xi is the unit
direction vector from the sensor to the source for the ith event in standard
coordinates determined from the relative source and sensor locations and yi
is the same vector in sensor coordinates determined from the P wave
polarization. The matrix A has nine elements, but can be parametrized in terms
of the three Eulerian angles. Since the order in which rotations occur is
important the angles are defined as follows: first a rotation of ¢ about the z-
axis; then a rotation of () about the new y-axis; and, finally, a rotation of 'V
about the new z-axis. These rotations are illustrated in Fig. 1.11; () and ¢
correspond to dip and dip direction respectively. Matrix A can then be
expressed as:

-sin¢ sin 1\1 + cos(} cos¢ cos 1\1 cos¢ sin 1\1 + cos(} sin¢ cos 1\1 -sin(} cos 1\1
-sin¢ cos 1\1 - cos(} cos¢ sin 1\1 cos¢ cos 1\1 - cos(} sin¢ sin 1\1 sin¢ sin 1\1 (1 .14)
sin(} cos¢ sin(} sin¢ cos(}
20 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

If the direction of one of the sensor axes is known precisely, the unknown
rotation about that axis may be determined from a single event. If, for
e
example, the sensor z-axis is known to be vertical, and 'Jf are 0 and matrix
A simplifies to:

cosrjJ sinrjJ 0
-sinrjJ cosrjJ 0 (1.15)
o o 1

In general, some optimization scheme would be used to determine the best


e,
values of 'Jf and rjJ from many events for each sensor.
The rotation matrix A may then be used to transform the ground motion
from sensor coordinates into standard coordinates for each sensor and thus
contribute to determining the source mechanism for each event.

Fig. 1.11 The Eulerian


angles. A rotation in
three dimensions may be
uniquely defined by a I~----...-+--""'===--
rotation cP about K,
followed by a rotation (}
about J' and finally a
rotation \)I about k. The
axes UK might represent
a mine coordinate
system and ijk the
orientation of the three
sensor components.
2 Seismic Monitoring Systems

Seismic sensors are distributed around or throughout the volume of interest.


The monitoring system must accurately record the amplitude and timing of any
significant ground motion over a wide range of amplitudes, frequencies and
durations, and assemble the records at a central point for processing, within a
reasonably short time so that action may be taken in response and at a high
rate for maximum information retrieval.
The seismic data pass through the following stages: monitoring each sensor
continuously to decide when the signal becomes significant (triggering);
ensuring that the signal represents a seismic event (validation); deciding which
records from which sensors represent the same event (association); extracting
source and path parameters from the raw ground motion data for each event
(seismological processing); and inferring from a history ofthese parameters the
processes which are taking place within the volume being monitored
(interpretation). The following chapters of this book are concerned with the
details of the last two stages, so here we only note that they are implemented
as complex, generally interactive, software processes, and attempt to cover all
other aspects of the seismic data acquisition system.
The basic functions and data flow are illustrated in Fig. 2.1. Triggering is
not essential, but widely used to reduce the amount of data, thus three types
of system may be distinguished: those that do not trigger, but record
continuously, where event detection becomes part of the processing stage;
those that record data following a trigger, for which the delay provides pre-
trigger information; and those that store only the time of each trigger. The
most useful mine monitoring systems fall into the second category.
The details of an implementation differ greatly depending on how and when
the data are transmitted to the central site, indicated by the vertical lines on
Fig. 2.1. If transmission is continuous and immediate, as indicated by the left-
most line, then relative timing of the signals at the central site is implicit. For
absolute time all data may be time-stamped from a single clock and network
triggering and real time association may be performed, where any combination
of triggers may be used to control the recording of any or all stations.
However, the properties of available transmission media often dictate that
the signal bandwidth be uncoupled from the transmission bandwidth. This
leads to an arrangement, the upper central vertical line in Fig. 2.1, where the
signals are time-stamped and recorded locally, and transmitted to the central
site when the transmission channel is available. In this case each station
requires a clock, which must be periodically synchronized with the network
22 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Sensor Site Tran smit Central Site


triggered

I
data
,-IAssociator
I
I

----"-+-_~..........,~Store
data
y

.. ~·...,....--'--- - ,
'--------i~· jr - Store
. J :iigg. ~r .-
----- ~,
.T results
on/off '--------'

Optional"

Transmit Transmit Transport


all data trigger storage
medium

Fig. 2.1 Basic functions


of a seismic system: clock, and bidirectional communication with the central site. The associator
signal conditioning, operates on delayed trigger information and may be able to set data
represented by filtering
and calibration; time- transmission priorities, but cannot control the recording process which must
stamping from a clock; be done locally at each sensor.
storage; and processing. In that this scenario of distributed control and delayed transmission is most
Dashed lines represent widely applicable, the system functions will be discussed in this context, with
control signals. Triggering alternate possibilities noted where necessary.
is optionally used to The question of system organization is but the most awkward aspect of the
reduce the amount of
data. In an extreme case, more general problem of discussing a system in terms which will not soon be
only the trigger time is rendered redundant by technological development. Note that Fig. 2.1 illustrates
stored. Usually more than the system functions without specifying analogue to digital conversion, type
one sensor site is of data transmission or even digital data storage. Three areas of interest in
incorporated into a which change is now under way are the relentless annual increase in the power
seismic network. Vertical
lines represent points at of digital computers, the increase in communications bandwidth made possible
which data may be by optical fibre, and the advent of oversampling AID converters with their
transmitted from multiple unprecedented linearity. Where possible, emphasis will be placed on the
sites to a central point for physical principles underlying each step in the data processing sequence, rather
common processing. than the technology.
Those functions to the left Following the signal from the sensor through to the central site, we first
of the chosen line are
distributed to sensor sites, require signal conditioning to take care of any special sensor needs, injection
while those to the right of a calibration signal, anti-alias filtering, possible reduction in dynamic range
are shared centrally.
Seismic monitoring systems 23

by amplitude compression or gain ranging, and digitization. Any direct data


transmission also logically belongs with this group. Then we consider the
specialized seismic requirements of triggering and record validation. Digital
data communication in the distributed system comes next, followed by
association and data storage and management.

2.1 Signal conditioning

The input to the signal conditioning circuitry must provide for any special
requirements of the sensor, a matching damping resistor for geophones and a
constant current supply for the accelerometers with built-in FET amplifiers
being the most obvious examples. Because this input is connected to the
outside world, a certain amount of robustness is desirable.

2.1.1 Calibration signal injection

To verify that the system is functioning correctly, it is useful to be able to


introduce a known signal as close to the sensor as possible. The sensors
designed for earthquake monitoring usually accept a calibration signal. In the
case of geophones, this drives a coil which applies an additional force to the
mass which must be countered by the spring, effectively causing a
displacement of the equilibrium position. For the force balance accelerometer,
the calibration signal is added to the error signal.
For miniature geophones, the signal may be applied to the sensing terminals.
This interferes with measuring the response, but, again, causes a displacement
ofthe mass. The piezoelectric accelerometers with built-in amplifiers generally
do not permit in situ calibration.
If the calibration signal is in the form of a pulse which is long enough for
the sensor to reach equilibrium at its new position, we will see two instances
of the step response of the sensor, one when the pulse is applied and another
when it is removed. Note that the displacement step is differentiated by the
geophone to give a velocity impulse response, whereas the accelerometer
assumes the displacement of the mass is due to acceleration. If the sensor is
underdamped, (b < 1) then the step response will be oscillatory and we may
measure b and in from it. See Chapter 1, Section 1.2 and Fig. 1.6, for the
theory of sensors.
We may determine In independently for a geophone as the frequency at
which a sinusoidal calibration signal is in phase with the geophone output.
However, this is probably too complex an operation to perform in situ.
For piezoelectric accelerometers with built-in amplifiers, and with any
sensor to test for crosstalk between channels in the signal conditioning
24 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

circuitry, it is advisable to be able to inject a broadband signal into one


channel at a time, and measure the response of the electronics and the effect
on the other channels. Typically, a pseudorandom binary sequence would be
used (Ljung, 1987), which is easily generated using a shift-register and has a
perfect autocorrelation function. The level of crosstalk is important as it has
the same effect as cross axis sensitivity in the sensor and is also a good
diagnostic tool.

2.1.2 Anti-aliasing filters

Before digitization or other sampling process may be performed on the signal,


the bandwidth must be restricted to less than half the sample frequency to
prevent aliasing. Since we are generally interested in low frequencies, this is
achieved by a low pass filter.
Any signal present at frequency f above half the sampling frequency will be
aliased, and corrupt the low frequency data by appearing at frequency

where n is an integer such that

0:5 ~ < fsf2.

In general, we would like to maximize the usable bandwidth for a given


sampling frequency. However, realizable analogue filters which cut off very
sharply in the frequency domain cause phase distortion even in the signals
which are not attenuated.
The characteristics of three different types of filter are plotted in Fig. 2.2.
The transfer functions were taken from Baher (1990). A fifth order filter is
shown in each case and the Chebyshev has a 0.1 dB ripple in the passband.
The abscissa is normalized to the cutoff frequency (t;, = 1) where the signal is
reduced to half power (-3 dB). This is generally considered the usable
bandwidth. To introduce <1 % distortion due to aliasing, we must sample at
double the frequency at which the attenuation reaches 40 dB.

Chebyshev filter The best by this criterion is the Chebyshev characteristic,


where we may set f s = 4 f c . The problem with this approach is illustrated by
the group delay, showing that frequencies near to the cutoff are delayed by
almost a full cycle compared with lower frequencies. This dispersion is a
problem for broadband signals such as seismograms where accurate time
differences must be measured.
Seismic monitoring systems 25

~ 0r------------=====~~
OJ
U)
c
8. -10
U)

~
~ -20
:e
Ci
E -30
«
Fig. 2.2 Characteristics -40L-----------~--~~~~----~~~--~~~~~

10-' 10° 10'


of analogue low pass Normalized frequency
filters. All filters are fifth
order and the Chebyshev
has 0.1 dB ripple in the
-90
passband. The frequency Cl
OJ
axis is normalized for :2. Bessel
OJ -180
1 Hz half power band- C>
c
width. While the '" 270
3l-
Butterworth and '"
.c
a.
Chebyshev have better -360
attenuation character-
istics allowing a lower _450L----~--~~~~--'--'--,-----~----=====~23
1~ 1~ 1~
sample rate for a given Normalized frequency
signal bandwidth, the
dispersion, indicated by
the variation of group
delay with frequency, U
makes them unsuitable ~1
0>-
when accurate picks '"
0.5t========-
Qi
'0
must be made in the
time domain from broad- ~
(9
band signals such as
Bessel
seismograms. The
transfer functions were OL---~--~~~~~~----~~~~=---~
10-' 10°
taken from Baher (1990). Normalized frequency

Butterworth filter While not as sharp as the Chebyshev, this still exhibits
group delay variations.

Bessel filter We are therefore left with the Bessel filter which is designed for
constant group delay (linear phase) but which requires a sampling rate t, = 8ic.
Because of its gentle cutoff profile, the Bessel also produces little ringing and
overshoot, so that peak amplitudes are also accurate.

FIR filter Another filter with the required characteristic is the symmetric
finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. Very high factors of oversampling
26 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

(-100) may be used which means that the analogue anti-alias filter may be
first order. The low pass FIR filter is applied to the oversampled signal
followed by a reduction in sampling rate through decimation. The
characteristics of a 64 point FIR filter are plotted in Fig. 2.3. It was designed
using a program incorporating the Parks and McClellan optimizing algorithm
(McClellan et al. 1973). The frequency axis is normalized to the sample rate.
The cutoff frequency is above 0.2 fs and 40 dB attenuation is achieved before
0.25 j, so the sample rate may be halved after filtering, leaving a signal which
utilizes 80% of the available bandwidth.

0.5.----.,-----.---........,,.......---,-------r---..,.---,

0.4
$
8. 0.3
<IJ
l!! 0.2
$
1 0 .1

or-----------'-./
-0.1 L...-_ _-'-_ _--"-_ _---'L...-_'---'--_ _---L_ _ _..J.....---'
10 20 30 40 50 60
Time [samples]

~ O~---------------~
$c:
8. -10
Fig. 2.3 Characteristics ~
~-20
of a 64 point finite :2
C.
impulse response (FIR) ~-30
digital low pass filter. The
frequency axis is -40L...---~--~~~~~~~---~~~-~--'

normalized to the sample 1~ 1~


Normalized frequency
rate. The filter was
designed to allow halving
of the sampling rate, so
reaches the required ~ 50
:!2.
40 dB attenuation at 0.25 $c:
's'The passband extends ~ O~----------------__,
to 0.2 's' utilizing 80% of l!!
the possible bandwidth ~
after decimation by a 6: -50
factor of two. The group
delay is a constant 32
10- 1
samples. Normalized frequency
Seismic monitoring systems 27

2.1.3 Reduction in dynamic range

The signal from the sensor has a very wide dynamic range - the ratio of the
maximum signal to the quiescent noise level. Maintaining this dynamic range
through the signal conditioning circuitry is difficult as electronic components
add noise and limit the maximum amplitude. However, the sensor signal has
limited accuracy because of the distortions in the transduction process.
Whereas noise for a given circuit combination is fixed, the error due to
distortion is proportional to the signal amplitude. If we assume we can resolve
successive levels of output signal separated by the noise amplitude, then, when
the signal becomes large enough for the distortion to exceed the noise, we
have many redundant levels which could all represent the same signal
differently affected by the distortion. At these signal amplitudes meaningful
levels are separated by the ratio 1 + lin, where the distortion is expressed as
1 part in n. For a dynamic range D, we have the relation

1 )(N-nJ
D= n ( 1 + ~ (2.1 )

where N is the total number of significant signal levels. The relation between
input signal level and output level number is illustrated in Fig. 2.4. Taking
logs and rearranging yields an expression for N:

N= n+ 10gD-Iogn

log ( 1 +~)
For example, a dynamic range of 106 (120 dB) with a distortion factor of 0.1 %
(1 part in 1000) yields 7912 distinct levels which may be represented in 13
bits instead of the 20 bits required to represent 106 .
A circuit with the partly linear, partly logarithmic transfer function implied
by equation (2.1) is almost impossible to construct and maintain with the
required accuracy. Multiple linear circuits with different gains may be used to
achieve the same effect. As the signal increases, so a lower gain circuit is
selected. This process is called automatic gain ranging, and is illustrated by
Fig. 2.4. The switchover criterion is that at least n levels must be
distinguishable at the lower gain.
For the above example suppose that 16 000 levels are distinguishable at
each gain (14 bits). Then a maximum gain of 64 is required to reach the 106
total dynamic range, the next lower gain could be 8, and followed by a final
28 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

45,---.----,----,----,---,----,----,----,---,----,
Fig. 2.4 Quantization
levels in the presence of
40
noise and distortion.
Ideally, the levels are
linearly spaced for small 35
levels where noise
predominates, and 30
exponentially spaced at 1iE
higher levels where ~ 25
distortion produces the
greatest uncertainty. The
l 20
5a.
graph was calculated for "5
a dynamic range D = 100 o
15
(40 dB) and distortion of
10% so that the steps
10
are clearly visible. The
piecewise linear transfer
function given by
selecting one of multiple
linear gains is also
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
shown. Input signal level [multiple of noise amplitude)

gain of 1. Sixteen thousand counts at a gain of 64 corresponds to 2000 at a


gain of 8, and similarly for gains 8 and 1, so we easily maintain our maximum
distortion criterion.

2.104 Analogue to digital conversion

AID converters may be broadly classified into four types: integrating,


successive approximation, flash and sigma-delta. In general, integrating
converters are too slow for seismic applications, but their high accuracy has
been inherited by sigma-delta converters.
Successive approximation converters approach the solution one bit at a time.
from the most significant bit, subtracting the current approximation from the
input signal before determining the next bit. Flash converters take the parallel
approach, having a comparator for each possible input level and encoding tht~
result for output.
Subranging converters are appearing which may be regarded as successive
approximation converters which determine more than one bit at a time or
pipe lined flash converters.
Sigma-delta (or delta-sigma) converters use noise-shaping, oversampling and
digital filtering techniques to provide high accuracy and relatively high speed.
Seismic monitoring systems 29

The sigma-delta modulator uses an integrator and comparator to produce a


high rate bit stream which, when averaged by a digital filter and decimated,
produces a very accurate representation of the signal. The accuracy is
attributed to the stability of the integrator and the use of a single comparator.
The technique is still evolving, with high order multibit modulators and a wide
variety of digital filters appearing recently.
At present, 12 or 14 bit successive approximation or subranging converters
combined with the gain ranging dynamic range reduction option, described
above, provide a cost effective and flexible solution. One converter may be
shared between several channels or gain ranges by means of an analogue
multiplexer. Synchronous sampling of all channels is necessary for polarization
measurements on triaxial sensors or beam forming on arrays. Where an NO
converter is shared, this may be achieved by digital interpolation or using a
track and hold amplifier per signal after dynamic range reduction.
Sigma-delta converters offer a wider dynamic range, but at present (Analog
Devices, 1994) the limit for filter cutoff frequencies of 30 Hz and greater
appears to be about 18.5 bits (111 dB) even from devices which produce 24
bit output, thus requiring some amplitude compression or two gain ranges per
sensor. Some devices have very sharp filters so that more than 90% of the
Nyquist frequency is available for use. In general, multiplexing a single
converter between channels or gain ranges defeats the noise reducing
properties of the filter and more than one converter is often included in a
single package.

AID specification The accuracy of a converter may be expressed in the static


case as a nonlinearity error or in dynamic terms as the ratio of signal to total
harmonic distortion plus noise. Usually, these specifications will be better, i.e.
smaller, than the distortion figure of the sensor. The important specification is
then the dynamic range, which is the ratio of maximum possible signal to
noise in the absence of signal. The noise may be specified as a voltage, a
histogram of output values for a constant input or as the floor of a fast Fourier
transform (FFf) plot.

2.1.5 Data transmission

The signal produced by the sensor typically has a noise power level of the
order of 10- 14 W. A high quality screened twisted pair cable has crosstalk
attenuation of about 120 dB/km, so the proximity of a cable carrying 1 kWof
power for even 100 m would induce 10- 10 W of interference into the signal
cable, increasing the noise level and severely limiting the dynamic range.
Simply amplifying the signal improves the situation somewhat, but an
30 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

amplifier's dynamic range is inversely proportional to its gain. Thus this direct
baseband method of data transmission is only useful over short distances and
far from any sources of interference.
Reducing the dynamic range (see Section 2.1.3 above) requires either
compression hardware or multiple signal cables carrying the same signal at
different gains.
Under less benign conditions some type of modulation is required. The rale
at which a given communication channel can carry information is given by the
Hartley-Shannon law (Connor, 1972):

R= Blog 2 (1 + SIN)

where B is the bandwidth, S is the maximum signal power and N is the noise
power introduced in the channel. R is the data rate expressed in bits per
second. In this case the required rate is fixed by the sensor, so the law
basically states that we may trade increased bandwidth for poorer signal to
noise ratio.
One alternative is frequency modulation, where the sensor signal amplitude
is used to vary the frequency of a carrier signal. This broadens the bandwidth
of the signal which, as expected, makes it more tolerant to noise and also
shifts it away from the frequency of mains power which is the chief source of
interference and may now be filtered out without altering the signal. However,
the modulation and demodulation circuits introduce their own distortions and
nOIse.
Frequency modulation has the practical advantage that the carrier signal is
always present, so faults which cause a loss of signal may be automatically
detected. Frequency division multiplexing is also possible, where signals with
different carrier frequencies are transmitted over a single cable.
The next step in improving data transmission is quantization (Taub and
Schilling, 1971). If the transmitted signal can assume only certain discrete
values which are separated by more than the amplitude of the noise, then it
may be recovered exactly at the receiver by restoring it to the nearest
permitted value. This is of vital importance when transmitting over sufficiently
long distances to require many repeaters which would otherwise amplify any
induced noise with the signal, but is also useful when the transmission medium
is nonlinear.
In the extreme case the signal is encoded as a sequence of binary digits
(bits) so only two possible levels need to be distinguished by the receiver. This
naturally requires the maximum bandwidth. Once the data are encoded in
binary form, an arbitrary number of bits may be grouped together, depending
on how many levels may be distinguished in the prevailing noise conditions.
Seismic monitoring systems 31

and sent as one symbol, allowing a tradeoff between bandwidth and signal to
noise ratio. Hence we distinguish between the baud rate, which is the number
of symbols per second and limited to less than double the bandwidth, and the
data rate, which is the number of bits per second.
When dealing with a Gaussian noise distribution, for example, there is a
finite probability of encountering an arbitrarily large error, so some symbols
will be misinterpreted. Thus distortion of the signal has been replaced by an
error rate. By adding some redundant bits, errors may be detected at the
receiver, and adding still more makes correction possible.
Since the signal will eventually be digitized for processing on a computer,
digitizing as close to the sensor as possible and using digital data transmission
offers the optimal solution.

2.2 Triggering and validation

Generally automatic detection of the presence of a seismic signal is desirable.


When this detection takes place in real time and is used to initiate further
action from the system such as recording and association, it is referred to as
triggering.
For low frequencies and distant, long duration events, continuous recording
may be justified, but in the mining environment where the relatively high
frequencies of interest necessitate a correspondingly high sampling rate and the
nearby events produce ground motion of short duration, triggering is necessary
to reduce the amount of data recorded and to initiate the process which
culminates in producing a report. In situations which might defeat a simple
trigger algorithm, and especially where further processing must proceed
automatically because of the volume of data, it is useful to have a further
validation phase which verifies that the entire segment of recorded data
conforms to a single processable seismic event.

2.2.1 Event detection

In the mining environment the prime concern has historically been the
quantification of damaging events, which naturally have a very high signal to
noise ratio. With the shift in emphasis to ever more sensitive networks in the
search for precursive activity, no shortage of events with good signal to noise
ratio has been experienced, hence the processing routines are still designed to
function under these circumstances, and the triggering algorithms need only
look for a sudden increase in amplitude.
32 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Fixed threshold The simplest trigger is simply a fixed threshold and a trigger
is declared if a single sample exceeds this value. This does not work well
where the noise is environmental, as the level tends to change with mining
activity.

STAILTA ratio The noise level may be represented by a long term average
(LTA) of some estimate of the instantaneous signal amplitude. This is then
compared with a short term average (STA) of the amplitude, the trigger
criterion being

STA/LTA >Rt

where Rt is the trigger ratio. There are several parameters which characterize
this algorithm. The period over which the LTA is taken represents a cutoff
between the shorter period signal and the longer period noise envelope
variations, the period of the STA could be seen as the minimum duration of
a valid event, and the trigger ratio is the minimum signal to noise ratio for a
valid recording.
Many sources of interference are impulsive in nature, e.g. lightning,
switching transients in power lines, single bit digital errors. Although of very
short duration, these can give rise to very large amplitudes, which may, even
when averaged over the STA period, be sufficient to push the STA over the
threshold. One common variation on this algorithm is thus to use the median,
rather than the mean, of samples within the STA window.
The signal envelope E may be calculated by combining with a copy of the
signal S which has been delayed by a 90° phase shift, performed by a Hilbert
transformer

where SH is the output of the Hilbert transformer. A useful approximation is


to add a fraction of the derivative to the original signal. This has the effect of
smoothing the envelope compared with simply taking the absolute value, and
also responding to frequency changes (Allen, 1978).
For a triaxial set of sensors to be equally sensitive in all directions, the
trigger algorithm should be performed on the absolute value of the vector sum
of the x, y and z components
Seismic monitoring systems 33

For practical reasons it is often better to trigger on each component separately


while recording all three, which leads to a maximum of 13 variation in
sensitivity with angle of arrival.

2.2.2 Pre-trigger data and end of event

When performing a trigger algorithm in real time, the confirmation of a trigger


is only available once the event has actually begun. In addition, more
confidence can usually be given to the phase picks if some pre-event data are
available for estimation of signal to noise ratios. A temporary store of recent
data is therefore held while performing the trigger algorithm, which is
recorded permanently if the trigger succeeds. The same algorithms used to
determine the onset of an event may be used to determine that it has ended.

2.2.3 Validation

The recorded seismic data are sometimes not suitable for processing, whether
because of an erroneous trigger or some form of corruption. It is therefore
useful to be able to distinguish between such "bad buffers", and" good buffers"
which do contain data suitable for processing. A backpropagation neural
network (Cichocki and Unbehauen, 1993) is used to perform this operation.
The network consists of 200 neurons in the input layer, ten in the hidden layer
and two in the output layer. The squared amplitudes of the recorded signal are
used as input, averaged over 0.5% of the length recorded. A sigmoidal
activation function is used, so the output values should be (>0.5, <0.5) for a
good buffer and «0.5, >0.5) for a bad buffer. The network is trained using
500 buffers which have been visually classified as good or bad, employing a
typical gradient teaching method. The result of the training is two weighting
matrices, one 200 x lOin size, the other lOx 2. These are stored on the
system in operation. A success rate of better than 90% has been observed,
which is almost the performance of a trained operator.

2.3 Digital data communications

In the simplest case one of the data transmission methods described in Section
2.1.5, above, will suffice for immediate and continuous transmission from the
sensor to the central processing site. In practice this is hardly ever the case: the
interference or attenuation becomes too severe or the communications
bandwidth is restricted (usually by a radio link) to the point where the
triggered data must be stored and further transmission to the processing site
34 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

can take place only as and when the communication channel allows; or the
data acquisition and processing functions may be allocated to different
machines for strategic reasons.
At this point we are dealing essentially with computer to computer
communication, which is often discussed in terms of the protocol hierarchy of
the International Organization for Standardization's reference model for Open
Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) shown in Table 2.1 (Tugal and Tugal,
1989). Level 5 and higher are generally regarded as part of the application and
in this case would include message types for the activation of an acquisition
unit and communication of triggers and seismic data. Level 4 and below
perform the actual data transport in an application independent and data
transparent manner. If there is an established infrastructure such as a local or
wide area network (LAN or W AN) then these levels are defined by the
network hardware and operating system software, and care must only be taken
to maximize use of the available resources. However, often the
communications system is dedicated to and considered part of the seismic
system, in which case some details of the low level functions are of interest.

Table 2.1 Protocol hierarchy in the 150-051 reference model

Level Name Scope Examples

physical link connectors, voltages, interface control

2 data link link addressing, error detection, flow control

3 network link network control, multiplexing

4 transport end-to-end message reconstruction

5 session end-to-end login, logout

6 presentation end-to-end ASCII characters

7 application end-to-end file transfer

2.3.1 Maximizing the information rate

When dealing with anti-aliasing under signal conditioning in Section 2.1 above
it became clear that while theoretically a signal need only be sampled at twice
the highest frequency present, in practice this is not achieved for a variety of
reasons. The first method for maximizing the amount of information in a given
number of samples is thus to ensure that the Nyquist bandwidth is being
Seismic monitoring systems 35

utilized as much as possible, by using the sharpest anti-aliasing filter practical.


Since we are aware of the nature of the seismic data and the processing
steps which will be performed on them, further reductions may be made in the
number of samples necessary to represent an event. In Section 2.2.2 it was
suggested that a recording be terminated as soon as the amplitude had fallen
below some multiple of the noise level in an inverted trigger test. Seismic
parameter extraction requires frequencies up to only five times higher than the
dominant frequency, so the higher frequencies may be filtered out and the
sampling rate reduced to conform to the new Nyquist. By analogy with the
automatic gain ranging which enables a system to cope with a wide dynamic
range in amplitude, finding the end of an event and applying adaptive
decimation may be said to yield a wide dynamic range for duration and
frequency content.
The wavelet transform, which uses finite orthogonal functions as opposed
to the infinite sine waves of the Fourier transform, promises a better type of
decimation or lossy data compression, where some high frequency information,
and hence the accuracy of phase picks, may be retained while representing the
signal with far fewer samples than would otherwise be required.
Finally, we may use some lossless data compression scheme such as
Huffman coding (Connor, 1972) to ensure that each sample is represented in
the minimum number of bits possible. While the primary concern here is
making maximum use of scarce communication bandwidth, a useful reduction
in the amount of data storage required also results from the use of these
techniques.

2.3.2 Low level protocols

When the communication system is part of the seismic system, various


principles may be applied to enhance the utility of the communications.
Discrete messages are exchanged between the computers, rather than the
continuous data streams produced by the sensors.
Levels 4 and below of the OSI model are concerned with the transport of
messages from one computer system to another, in this case the data
acquisition unit and the central processing site. Levels 3 and below are link
level protocols, so that if the path covers multiple physical links, then these
levels apply separately to each link while level 4 supplies the end-to-end
transport.
The error detection, correction and flow control functions are performed at
levels 2 and 3, in hardware and software respectively, because the details
depend very much on the link capabilities. For slow or error prone links, the
maximum message size may be restricted so that individual messages have
36 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

more chance of being transmitted correctly and retransmISSIon for error


correction is quicker. Level 4 then reassembles the original messages for the
application. Other than this, the lower levels should be data transparent, i.e. the
content of the messages should not be restricted. Often hardware support is
used to allow link specific error detection and control information to be added
to each message while maintaining data transparency.
For example, an acquisition unit might send data via cable at 1200 bls to a
multiplexer which forwards data from many stations over a radio link at 9600
bls to a second multiplexer with an Ethernet link to the central site. The cable
link, while slow, should be reliable, so a simple checksum might be included
for error checking, and any tirneouts, always the last resort for error detection,
could be long. The radio link might add a significant amount of information
for detecting burst errors. If the radio frequency is shared, polling flow control
could be used, where the central site requests data from each site in tum. The
serial links are point to point, so the low level addressing consists of directing
the data to the correct port. Ethernet, by contrast, is a bussed medium, so each
message has hardware source and destination addresses added.
It is, of course, necessary that the systems at each end of the link agree on
the interpretation of the signals exchanged. Standards which are widely used
in inter-computer communication have been drawn up by the Electronic
Industries Association (EIA), the International Telegraph and Telephone
Consultative Committee (CCITT) of the United Nations International
Telecommunications Union, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE). These standards include the EIA's RS232C and RS422 for
level 1 protocol between data terminal equipment (DTE), usually a computer,
and data communications equipment (DCE), usually a modem. These are
mirrored and extended by the CCITT's V series of standards. IEEE 802 covers
levels 1 and 2 for a wide variety of LANs, and other IEEE standards cover
more recent high speed low level protocols which are often given impetus as
computer to peripheral communication methods.

2.4 Association

The associator must decide which triggers from individual stations correspond
to the same event. For association between two triggers, the difference in times
must be less than or equal to the seismic wave travel time A.tij between the
two stations:

(2.2)
Seismic monitoring systems 37

where T; is the trigger time of the ith station at position (x;,y;,z;) and ~, is the
wave propagation velocity for the phase on which it is assumed the stations
triggered.
Equation (2.2) only describes a test for pairs of triggers, and further rules
are required to find all triggers from an event, especially when spurious
triggers may occur which result in a situation where trigger A associates with
trigger B and trigger B with trigger C, but trigger A does not associate with
trigger C. A popular strategy, especially in systems with direct transmission,
is to open a time window upon receipt of the earliest trigger, with a duration
equal to the longest travel time between any two stations in the network, and
accept any triggers occurring within this window as part of the same event
(Lee and Stewart, 1981). If fewer than some minimum number of triggers are
received within this window, the event and at least its initial trigger are
discarded, and the process repeated for the succeeding trigger. This method is
sometimes referred to as a "network trigger", rather than association, by
analogy with individual station triggers. An event defined in this way may still
contain spurious triggers, and it is then worthwhile to apply equation (2.2)
exhaustively to all pairs to define the largest subset of these triggers which is
mutually consistent, before proceeding with location or further processing
(Lawrence, 1984).
In order to unambiguously separate the triggers caused by sequential events,
there must be no triggers for a period equal to the travel time between the
most widely separated stations under consideration. The associator may use
various heuristics to improve its performance when this criterion is not met,
such as including each station only once in each event, but any sustained
activity which violates this principle will, in the presence of spurious triggers,
result in triggers from different events being associated or triggers from the
same event being separated.
There is thus a relationship between the diameter of a group of stations and
the maximum rate at which events on which they trigger can occur and be
reliably associated. The word "group" is deliberately used in this instance as
it may comprise a subset of the stations in a network. The defining property
is that only members of the group be considered for mutual association. If the
maximum travel time between any pair of stations within the group is Lltmax ,
then events must be separated by at least 2Lltmax so that the last trigger of the
first event is separated by iltmax from the first trigger of the second event. If
we assume a Poisson (random) distribution of events with time, then the
probabilty P of no events occurring during the period 2dtmax is related to the
average rate of occurence of events r by (Mood et ai., 1974):
(2.3)
38 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

if we use a probability of failure F = 1 - P, to express the probability that our


criterion will not be met, take natural logs on both side of equation (2.3), and
use the approximation In(l +x) "" x for small x, then

F= r·2dtmax (2.4)

so

f 1
r=---«---
2d tmax 2d tmax
i.e. for a low probability of interference between events, the average event rate
must be much less than the reciprocal of the minimum separation time. This
problem is compounded by the fact that mining often does not proceed
continuously, but in discrete steps caused by periodic blasts. The event rate
following such a blast greatly exceeds the daily average for a long time
compared with the travel times.
For example, consider a mine network with a longest travel time of 0.5 s
which gathers 1000 events per day. The average time between events over this
period is then 86.4 s. If we make the common assumption that 90% of events
occur in 10% of the time after a blast, the average interval during this period
reduces to 10.4 s, and from equation (2.4) the probability of two events
occurring within the I s minimum spacing is 10%. Considering that each such
overlap could result in two erroneously associated sets of triggers, this network
is already a candidate for introducing groups for association purposes. The true
situation is worse, as the event rate is not constant for two hours after the
blast, but decreasing, and immediately after the blast would be far higher than
the one per 10.4 s rate used above. Also limits on system throughput might
result in many events being lost during this time and not reflected in the 1000
recorded events per day which was the initial assumption.
This analysis assumes that the only information available to the associator
is the arrival time of a single seismic phase. This is generally the case because
the associator (or network trigger) decides whether a station trigger should be
recorded for further processing or discarded. If resources are available for the
temporary storage of, and further parameter extraction from, a potentially
spurious waveform, then maximum amplitude, dominant frequency,
polarization parameters, the arrival of a second phase, or a full location, from
a single station or two or more closely spaced stations, may be used to
improve the associator performance when events occur almost simultaneously
in different parts of the network.
Seismic monitoring systems 39

2.5 Central processing site

The central site must collect all the seismic data and support associatIOn,
seismological processing, interpretation and permanent data storage. It is
convenient, and generally possible in the mining environment, for the stations
to be largely controlled from the central site.
It is probably safe to assume that all these operations will be computer
based. Given the range of computer operating systems available today, it is
still necessary to stress that these functions must all be able to proceed
concurrently, and so the system must be able to perform multiple tasks at
once, whether through use of a single multitasking machine, or multiple
machines communicating via network. If a trend may be discerned, it is
towards the multiple machine approach, as the price/performance ratio of
computer hardware continually improves and the ability of diverse machines
to communicate with one another over networks becomes almost universal.
Change is continuous in the computer environment. The data acquisition
function of the central site is the most critical to maintaining continuous
coverage. In many ways it is the most mature and best defined part, and yet
also one of the most difficult to engineer because of the realtime constraints
and explicit parallelism involved in collecting and evaluating data from
multiple stations at once. Thus in the multiple machine environment it is
attractive to embed this function, i.e. to deploy it on a dedicated machine with
specialized hardware and operating system software of which the user may
remain essentially ignorant, seeing it simply as a seismic data server, which
is more reliable and stable because of its specialized nature. The interactive
processing steps may then be carried out on a multipurpose desktop machine,
accessing the data in a standard format via the network.

2.6 System performance

This chapter has concentrated on individual aspects of the seismic system,


especially where there are physical limits to its performance, and it must be
stressed that the performance of the system as a whole is only as good as its
weakest link. Each functional component - the transducer, signal conditioning,
triggering, data communication, association and central site - has the potential
to distort or discard data to the point where the system's usefulness as a tool
is questionable. It is only by maintaining technical excellence in all phases of
system deployment from design and installation through operation and
maintenance, that the potential results may be achieved.
The quality of the data collected may be assured by frequent calibration of
40 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

all system components, preferably on an automatic basis. The quantity of data


is also important in ensuring that every bit of information broadcast by the
seismic waves about the state of the rock mass is captured.
Seismic system parameters differ with the size of the volume to be covered.
Table 2.2 shows three target network sizes differing by an order of magnitude
in each case, and the changes which are necessary in the specification of the
system.
In the case of the system limited by communications bandwidth there are
three distinct data rates: the burst rate, which is determined by the number of
events that can be stored locally at a sensor site; the sustained rate, which is
the rate at which data from events may be continuously transmitted to the
central site; and the daily or weekly rate, which takes into account periodic
patterns in the seismicity rate caused by mining methods.
The final rate which is important is that at which the data are processed,
interpreted and fed back to the management of the mining operation. No
matter how fast and accurate the system is, it only serves its purpose when it
contributes to the operation of the mine.

Table 2.2 Seismic network parameter variation with size

Regional Local Micro

mmin I to 0 o to -1 -3 to -4

mmax. 4 to 5 4 3

Average volume [km] 30x30x5 3x3x3 0.3xO.3xO.3

Events/day 100 1000 10000

Sensors 1 Hz; 4.5 Hz 4.5 Hz; 28 Hz geo 10 kHz acc


geo

Minimum density [km] 5th station> 2 5 stations < 1 5 stations < 0.3

Useful frequency band [Hz] 0.5 to 300 2 to 1000 3 to 10 000

Comms [kbps] 1.2 9.6 115

Storage [GB] 0.2 2 20

CPU [Mflops] 8 80
Deconvolution, Polarization and
3 Wavelet Transform of Seismic
Signals

Signals recorded by any seismic system usually pass through a number of linear
causal systems (such as different filters) and each of them introduces a certain
amount of distortion in the original signal. Therefore, prior to any processing, it
is very important to recover, at least to some extent, the original signal using all
available information. This will be discussed in Section 3.1 below.
Another very important aspect of signal processing is the polarization. Different
signals have different types of polarization and this difference can be used for
discrimination between various signal types. Body waves, such as P and S waves,
are usually linearly polarized, whilst microseismic noise usually is not. Therefore,
employing various polarization analysis techniques, described in Section 3.2, it is
possible to discern different types of signals. This feature is usually widely
employed in automatic arrival pickers.
The last subject which will be discussed in the current chapter is the wavelet
transform. This recently introduced technique can be used for various purposes -
signal filtering, data compression and time-frequency analysis.

3.1 Deconvolution

The recovery of a segment of the input signal (true ground motion in terms of
displacement, velocity or acceleration) from the related segment of the output
signal of a seismic system is known as the restitution problem in seismology. If
this problem is considered from the point of view of communication theory, it is
the deconvolution problem of a linear causal system. In order to get the true ground
motion it is therefore necessary to construct and apply the inverse digital filter. In
order to remove possible problems of inverse filter instability the time domain
approach rather than the spectral domain is used.

3.1.1 Deconvolution filters for seismic systems

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Compose started at Wed Mar 13 16:15:50 UTC 2013 Broken deps for x86_64 ---------------------------------------------------------- [aeolus-conductor] aeolus-conductor-0.10.6-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [aeolus-configserver] aeolus-configserver-0.5.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [alexandria] alexandria-0.6.9-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [amide] amide-1.0.0-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libvolpack.so.1()(64bit) [archmage] archmage-0.2.4-7.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [chm2pdf] chm2pdf-0.9.1-13.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [clementine] clementine-1.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [condor] condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.x86_64 requires glexec condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.x86_64 requires blahp >= 0:1.16.1 [connman] connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libxtables.so.7 connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 connman-1.5-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libxtables.so.7()(64bit) connman-1.5-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) connman-1.5-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [couchdb] couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libicuuc.so.49()(64bit) couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libicui18n.so.49()(64bit) couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libicudata.so.49()(64bit) [deltacloud-core] deltacloud-core-1.0.5-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [dmlite-plugins-memcache] dmlite-plugins-memcache-0.5.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [dmlite-plugins-s3] dmlite-plugins-s3-0.5.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [dragonegg] dragonegg-3.1-19.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-9.fc19 [emacs-mew] emacs-mew-6.5-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [enblend] enblend-4.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libIlmImf.so.6()(64bit) [epiphany-extensions] epiphany-extensions-3.6.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires epiphany(abi) = 0:3.6 [eruby] eruby-1.0.5-19.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.0 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.0 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [fantasdic] fantasdic-1.0-0.13.beta7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [fawkes] fawkes-guis-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 fawkes-guis-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libgraph.so.5()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-clips-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libclipsmm.so.2 fawkes-plugin-clips-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libclipsmm.so.2()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libgeos-3.3.6.so()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_signals-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) [fcitx-keyboard] fcitx-keyboard-0.1.3-1.fc18.x86_64 requires libicuuc.so.49()(64bit) [fcitx-libpinyin] fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libpinyin.so.2(LIBPINYIN)(64bit) fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libpinyin.so.2()(64bit) [flowcanvas] flowcanvas-0.7.1-8.fc18.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 flowcanvas-0.7.1-8.fc18.x86_64 requires libgraph.so.5()(64bit) [freeDiameter] freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [freeipa] freeipa-server-strict-3.1.2-3.fc19.x86_64 requires krb5-server = 0:1.11 [func] func-0.30-2.fc19.noarch requires certmaster >= 0:0.28 [gcc-python-plugin] gcc-python2-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python2-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.x86_64 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 [gdcm] gdcm-2.0.18-6.fc18.i686 requires libpoppler.so.26 gdcm-2.0.18-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libpoppler.so.26()(64bit) [gedit-valencia] gedit-valencia-0.3.0-11.20120430gite8a0f500555be.fc18.x86_64 requires libvala-0.18.so.0()(64bit) [gnome-applets] 1:gnome-applets-3.5.92-3.fc18.x86_64 requires libgweather-3.so.1()(64bit) [gnome-panel] gnome-panel-3.6.2-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5()(64bit) gnome-panel-devel-3.6.2-6.fc19.i686 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5 gnome-panel-devel-3.6.2-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5()(64bit) [gnome-pie] gnome-pie-0.5.3-3.20120826git1b93e1.fc19.x86_64 requires libbamf3.so.0()(64bit) [gnomint] gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_2_8)(64bit) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [gooddata-cl] gooddata-cl-1.2.56-2.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [graphviz] graphviz-ruby-2.30.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [hiera] hiera-1.0.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [hivex] ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [hyperestraier] ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ice] ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [josm] josm-0-0.40.5697svn.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [kazehakase] kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libcaca] ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libdmtx] ruby-libdmtx-0.7.2-9.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libguestfs] 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [libvmime] libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [marisa] marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [matreshka] matreshka-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-mofext-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-mofext-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-ocl-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-ocl-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-uml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-uml-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-amf-utp-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-utp-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnarl-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnarl-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-sql-core-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-core-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-sql-postgresql-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-postgresql-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-sql-sqlite-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-sqlite-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) matreshka-xml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-xml-0.3.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnat-4.7.so()(64bit) [mcollective] mcollective-common-2.2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [medusa] medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.1)(64bit) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.0.19)(64bit) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS.2.2.0.17)(64bit) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libncp.so.2.3()(64bit) [migemo] migemo-0.40-18.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [mono-tools] mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.x86_64 requires mono(webkit-sharp) = 0:1.1.15.0 mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.x86_64 requires mono(webkit-sharp) [mumble] mumble-1.2.3-11.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) murmur-1.2.3-11.fc19.x86_64 requires libprotobuf.so.7()(64bit) [mygui] mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libCommon.so()(64bit) mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libCommon.so()(64bit) mygui-devel-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-devel-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0()(64bit) mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libCommon.so()(64bit) [nodejs-millstone] nodejs-millstone-0.5.15-1.fc19.noarch requires npm(request) < 0:2.13 [npm] npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) < 0:0.2 npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) >= 0:0.1.0 [nufw] libnuclient-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libsasl2.so.2 libnuclient-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libsasl2.so.2()(64bit) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) nuauth-2.4.3-6.fc18.x86_64 requires libsasl2.so.2()(64bit) [obexftp] ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ooo2gd] ooo2gd-3.0.0-6.fc19.x86_64 requires gdata-java [openbabel] ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [openshift-origin-broker-util] openshift-origin-broker-util-1.5.12-2.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [openvas-client] openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5()(64bit) openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_base.so.5()(64bit) [openvas-manager] openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libopenvas_base.so.5()(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4)(64bit) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libgnutls.so.26()(64bit) [openwsman] openwsman-ruby-2.3.6-3.fc20.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ovirt-engine] ovirt-engine-notification-service-3.1.0-1.fc19.noarch requires classpathx-mail [pcs] pcs-0.9.33-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene] perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene-1.091-17.fc19.noarch requires perl(Bio::Index::AbstractSeq) [perl-Bio-SamTools] perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.x86_64 requires perl(Bio::SeqFeature::Lite) perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.x86_64 requires perl(Bio::PrimarySeq) [perl-Math-Clipper] perl-Math-Clipper-1.17-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libpolyclipping.so.5()(64bit) [php-horde-Horde-Crypt] php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Stream_Filter) >= 0:2.0.0 php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Mime) >= 0:2.0.0 [postgresql-plruby] postgresql-plruby-0.5.3-9.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 postgresql-plruby-0.5.3-9.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [puppet] puppet-3.1.0-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [python-tag] python-tag-0.94.8-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libboost_python.so.1.50.0()(64bit) [python-windmill] python-windmill-1.7-0.4.git4304ee7.fc19.noarch requires python-wsgi-jsonrpc [qdbm] ruby-qdbm-1.8.78-8.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-qdbm-1.8.78-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [redland-bindings] ruby-redland-1.0.14.1-3.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-redland-1.0.14.1-3.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [remctl] remctl-ruby-3.3-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 remctl-ruby-3.3-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [riak] riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_sysmon(x86-64) = 0:1.1.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_pipe(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_pb(x86-64) = 0:1.2.0 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_core(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_control(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-riak_api(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-merge_index(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-lager(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-js(x86-64) = 0:1.2.1 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-eleveldb(x86-64) = 0:1.2.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-cluster_info(x86-64) = 0:1.2.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-bitcask(x86-64) = 0:1.5.2 riak-1.2.1-1.fc19.x86_64 requires erlang-basho_stats(x86-64) = 0:1.0.2 [root] root-ruby-5.34.05-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 root-ruby-5.34.05-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rrdtool] rrdtool-ruby-1.4.7-9.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rrdtool-ruby-1.4.7-9.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-RRDtool] ruby-RRDtool-0.6.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-RRDtool-0.6.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-augeas] ruby-augeas-0.4.1-4.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-augeas-0.4.1-4.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-aws] ruby-aws-0.8.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-bsearch] ruby-bsearch-1.5-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-fam] ruby-fam-0.2.0-14.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-fam-0.2.0-14.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-gnome2] ruby-bonobo2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-bonobo2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-bonoboui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-bonoboui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gconf2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gconf2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnome2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnome2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomecanvas2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomecanvas2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomeprint2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomeprint2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomeprintui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomeprintui2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gnomevfs-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gnomevfs-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-goocanvas-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-goocanvas-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gstreamer-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gstreamer-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gtkglext-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gtkglext-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gtksourceview-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gtksourceview-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-gtksourceview2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-gtksourceview2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-libart2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-libart2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) ruby-libglade2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-libglade2-0.90.4-1.9.fc19.4.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-icon-artist] ruby-icon-artist-0.1.92-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-imagesize] ruby-imagesize-0.1.1-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-libvirt] ruby-libvirt-0.4.0-6.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-libvirt-0.4.0-6.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-mysql] ruby-mysql-2.8.2-8.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-mysql-2.8.2-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-ncurses] ruby-ncurses-1.3.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-ncurses-1.3.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-openid] ruby-openid-2.1.7-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-racc] ruby-racc-1.4.5-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-rhubarb] ruby-rhubarb-0.4.3-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-romkan] ruby-romkan-0.4-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-shadow] ruby-shadow-1.4.1-18.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-shadow-1.4.1-18.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [ruby-spqr] ruby-spqr-0.3.6-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 spqr-gen-0.3.6-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ruby-taglib] ruby-taglib-1.1-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aeolus-cli] rubygem-aeolus-cli-0.5.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aeolus-image] rubygem-aeolus-image-0.5.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-amazon-ec2] rubygem-amazon-ec2-0.9.15-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-apipie-rails] rubygem-apipie-rails-0.0.13-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-archive-tar-minitar] rubygem-archive-tar-minitar-0.5.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-arrayfields] rubygem-arrayfields-4.7.4-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-attributes] rubygem-attributes-5.0.1-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-authlogic] rubygem-authlogic-3.1.3-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-awesome_print] rubygem-awesome_print-1.0.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aws] rubygem-aws-2.7.0-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-aws-sdk] rubygem-aws-sdk-1.8.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-boxgrinder-build] rubygem-boxgrinder-build-0.10.4-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-boxgrinder-core] rubygem-boxgrinder-core-0.3.14-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-bunny] rubygem-bunny-0.7.9-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-capybara] rubygem-capybara-1.1.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-chunky_png] rubygem-chunky_png-1.2.0-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-clouddb] rubygem-clouddb-0.0.1-4.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-cloudfiles] rubygem-cloudfiles-1.5.0.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-cloudservers] rubygem-cloudservers-0.4.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-coffee-rails] rubygem-coffee-rails-3.2.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-color] rubygem-color-1.4.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-colored] rubygem-colored-1.2-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-columnize] rubygem-columnize-0.3.1-7.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-compass] rubygem-compass-0.12.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-cri] rubygem-cri-1.0.1-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-daemon_controller] rubygem-daemon_controller-1.1.1-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-database_cleaner] rubygem-database_cleaner-0.6.6-5.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-deltacloud-client] rubygem-deltacloud-client-1.0.4-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ditz] rubygem-ditz-0.5-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-dnsruby] rubygem-dnsruby-1.53-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-dynamic_form] rubygem-dynamic_form-1.1.4-4.fc17.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-dynect_rest] rubygem-dynect_rest-0.4.3-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-echoe] rubygem-echoe-4.3.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-facade] rubygem-facade-1.0.4-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-factory_girl_rails] rubygem-factory_girl_rails-1.4.0-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ferret] rubygem-ferret-0.11.8.4-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-ferret-0.11.8.4-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-file-tail] rubygem-file-tail-1.0.5-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-fog] rubygem-fog-1.7.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-foreigner] rubygem-foreigner-1.4.0-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-formtastic] rubygem-formtastic-1.2.3-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-gem2rpm] rubygem-gem2rpm-0.8.1-2.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-gemcutter] rubygem-gemcutter-0.3.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-gettext_i18n_rails] rubygem-gettext_i18n_rails-0.9.2-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ghost] rubygem-ghost-0.3.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-git] rubygem-git-1.2.5-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-grit] rubygem-grit-2.4.1-5.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-haml-rails] rubygem-haml-rails-0.3.4-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-hashery] rubygem-hashery-2.0.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-hawler] rubygem-hawler-0.3-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-httparty] rubygem-httparty-0.8.1-2.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-hydra] rubygem-hydra-0.24.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-icalendar] rubygem-icalendar-1.1.6-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-inifile] rubygem-inifile-2.0.2-3.1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ipaddress] rubygem-ipaddress-0.8.0-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-jquery-rails] rubygem-jquery-rails-2.0.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-json] rubygem-json-1.7.5-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-json-1.7.5-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-kgio] rubygem-kgio-2.8.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-kgio-2.8.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-krb5-auth] rubygem-krb5-auth-0.7-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-kwalify] rubygem-kwalify-0.7.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ldap_fluff] rubygem-ldap_fluff-0.1.3-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-linecache19] rubygem-linecache19-0.5.13-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-linecache19-0.5.13-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-linode] rubygem-linode-0.7.7-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-little-plugger] rubygem-little-plugger-1.1.3-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-lockfile] rubygem-lockfile-1.4.3-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-logging] rubygem-logging-1.8.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-main] rubygem-main-4.7.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-map] rubygem-map-5.2.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-markaby] rubygem-markaby-0.5-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-maruku] rubygem-maruku-0.6.0-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-mechanize] rubygem-mechanize-1.0.1-0.4.beta.20110107104205.fc19.2.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-mg] rubygem-mg-0.0.8-6.2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-minitest] rubygem-minitest-4.2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-mongo] rubygem-mongo-1.6.4-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-net-ping] rubygem-net-ping-1.5.3-7.fc19.noarch requires rubygem(net-ldap) < 0:0.3 rubygem-net-ping-1.5.3-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-net-sftp] rubygem-net-sftp-2.0.5-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-net-ssh-multi] rubygem-net-ssh-multi-1.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-newgem] rubygem-newgem-1.5.3-7.fc17.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-oauth] rubygem-oauth-0.4.7-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-openstack] rubygem-openstack-1.0.8-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-openstack-quantum-client] rubygem-openstack-quantum-client-0.1.5-5.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pam] rubygem-pam-1.5.4-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9 rubygem-pam-1.5.4-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-parseconfig] rubygem-parseconfig-1.0.2-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.8.6 [rubygem-passenger] rubygem-passenger-3.0.19-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-passenger-native-libs-3.0.19-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-pathname2] rubygem-pathname2-1.6.2-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pdf-reader] rubygem-pdf-reader-1.1.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pervasives] rubygem-pervasives-1.1.0-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-picnic] rubygem-picnic-0.8.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-plist] rubygem-plist-3.1.0-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-progressbar] rubygem-progressbar-0.11.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-pry] rubygem-pry-0.9.10-2.fc19.noarch requires rubygem(slop) < 0:3.4 rubygem-pry-0.9.10-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-puppet-lint] rubygem-puppet-lint-0.3.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-qpid] rubygem-qpid-0.16.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-qpid-0.16.0-13.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-rack-mount] rubygem-rack-mount-0.7.1-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-raindrops] rubygem-raindrops-0.10.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-raindrops-0.10.0-1.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-rbvmomi] rubygem-rbvmomi-1.2.3-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rdiscount] rubygem-rdiscount-2.0.7-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-rdiscount-2.0.7-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-rdoc] rubygem-rdoc-3.12.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.3.1-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-redcarpet] rubygem-redcarpet-2.1.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-redcarpet-2.1.1-5.fc18.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-regin] rubygem-regin-0.3.8-4.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-restr] rubygem-restr-0.5.0-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-reststop] rubygem-reststop-0.4.0-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rhc] rubygem-rhc-1.2.7-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-right_aws] rubygem-right_aws-2.0.0-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rmail] rubygem-rmail-1.0.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rubigen] rubygem-rubigen-1.5.6-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby-debug-base19] rubygem-ruby-debug-base19-0.11.26-4.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-ruby-debug-base19-0.11.26-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-ruby-debug19] rubygem-ruby-debug19-0.11.6-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby-hmac] rubygem-ruby-hmac-0.4.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby-ole] rubygem-ruby-ole-1.2.11.2-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-ruby2ruby] rubygem-ruby2ruby-2.0.1-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-rufus-scheduler] rubygem-rufus-scheduler-2.0.4-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-selenium-webdriver] rubygem-selenium-webdriver-2.3.2-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simple-rss] rubygem-simple-rss-1.2.3-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simple_form] rubygem-simple_form-2.0.3-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simplecov] rubygem-simplecov-0.7.1-6.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-simplecov-html] rubygem-simplecov-html-0.7.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-sinatra-rabbit] rubygem-sinatra-rabbit-1.1.4-1.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-slim] rubygem-slim-1.2.2-9.fc19.noarch requires rubygem(temple) < 0:0.5 rubygem-slim-1.2.2-9.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-state_machine] rubygem-state_machine-1.1.2-7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-stomp] rubygem-stomp-1.2.2-2.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-sup] rubygem-sup-0.10.2-10.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-syntax] rubygem-syntax-1.0.0-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-systemu] rubygem-systemu-2.5.2-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-test-spec] rubygem-test-spec-0.10.0-6.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-transaction-simple] rubygem-transaction-simple-1.4.0.2-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-trollop] rubygem-trollop-2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-vcr] rubygem-vcr-2.3.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-whiskey_disk] rubygem-whiskey_disk-0.6.24-5.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-wirble] rubygem-wirble-0.1.3-7.2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-xmlparser] rubygem-xmlparser-0.7.2.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 rubygem-xmlparser-0.7.2.1-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [rubygem-xmpp4r] rubygem-xmpp4r-0.5-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-xmpp4r-simple] rubygem-xmpp4r-simple-0.8.8-8.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [rubygem-yard] rubygem-yard-0.8.2.1-1.fc18.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [scala] scala-2.9.2-2.fc19.noarch requires osgi(org.scala-ide.scala.library) [simspark] simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 simspark-0.2.3-5.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [skf] skf-ruby-1.99.1-1.fc19.1.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 skf-ruby-1.99.1-1.fc19.1.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [spacewalk-web] spacewalk-dobby-1.9.22-2.fc19.noarch requires perl(Spacewalk::Setup) [sparkleshare] sparkleshare-1.0.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires mono(webkit-sharp) = 0:1.1.15.0 [sshmenu] sshmenu-3.18-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [stfl] stfl-ruby-0.22-3.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [subversion] subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 subversion-ruby-1.7.8-4.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [tex-musixtex] tex-musixtex-0.114-11.fc18.noarch requires texlive-texmf [tpp] tpp-1.3.1-11.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.8 [uwsgi] uwsgi-plugin-rack-1.2.6-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) uwsgi-plugin-ruby-1.2.6-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [vdsm] vdsm-4.10.3-5.gitb005b54.fc19.x86_64 requires fence-agents [wallaby] ruby-wallaby-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 wallaby-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 wallaby-http-server-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 wallaby-utils-0.16.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [weechat] weechat-0.4.0-3.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [xchat-ruby] xchat-ruby-1.2-15.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 xchat-ruby-1.2-15.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [xmms2] xmms2-ruby-0.8-8.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 xmms2-ruby-0.8-8.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) [zorba] zorba-ruby-2.7.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 zorba-ruby-2.7.0-2.fc19.x86_64 requires libruby.so.1.9()(64bit) Broken deps for i386 ---------------------------------------------------------- [aeolus-conductor] aeolus-conductor-0.10.6-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [aeolus-configserver] aeolus-configserver-0.5.1-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [alexandria] alexandria-0.6.9-4.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [amide] amide-1.0.0-4.fc19.i686 requires libvolpack.so.1 [archmage] archmage-0.2.4-7.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [chm2pdf] chm2pdf-0.9.1-13.fc19.noarch requires python-chm [clementine] clementine-1.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [condor] condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.i686 requires glexec condor-7.9.5-0.1.fc19.i686 requires blahp >= 0:1.16.1 [connman] connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libxtables.so.7 connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) connman-1.5-4.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [couchdb] couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libicuuc.so.49 couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libicui18n.so.49 couchdb-1.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libicudata.so.49 [deltacloud-core] deltacloud-core-1.0.5-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [dmlite-plugins-memcache] dmlite-plugins-memcache-0.5.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [dmlite-plugins-s3] dmlite-plugins-s3-0.5.0-2.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [dragonegg] dragonegg-3.1-19.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-9.fc19 [emacs-mew] emacs-mew-6.5-3.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [enblend] enblend-4.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libIlmImf.so.6 [epiphany-extensions] epiphany-extensions-3.6.0-1.fc19.i686 requires epiphany(abi) = 0:3.6 [eruby] eruby-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.0 eruby-libs-1.0.5-19.fc18.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [fantasdic] fantasdic-1.0-0.13.beta7.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [fawkes] fawkes-guis-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 fawkes-plugin-clips-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libclipsmm.so.2 fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libgeos-3.3.6.so fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-player-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_signals-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_thread-mt.so.1.50.0 fawkes-plugin-tabletop-objects-0.5.0-5.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 [fcitx-keyboard] fcitx-keyboard-0.1.3-1.fc18.i686 requires libicuuc.so.49 [fcitx-libpinyin] fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libpinyin.so.2(LIBPINYIN) fcitx-libpinyin-0.2.1-2.fc19.i686 requires libpinyin.so.2 [flowcanvas] flowcanvas-0.7.1-8.fc18.i686 requires libgraph.so.5 [freeDiameter] freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) freeDiameter-1.1.5-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [freeipa] freeipa-server-strict-3.1.2-3.fc19.i686 requires krb5-server = 0:1.11 [func] func-0.30-2.fc19.noarch requires certmaster >= 0:0.28 [gcc-python-plugin] gcc-python2-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python2-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-debug-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 gcc-python3-plugin-0.11-1.fc19.i686 requires gcc = 0:4.7.2-8.fc19 [gdcm] gdcm-2.0.18-6.fc18.i686 requires libpoppler.so.26 [gedit-valencia] gedit-valencia-0.3.0-11.20120430gite8a0f500555be.fc18.i686 requires libvala-0.18.so.0 [gnome-applets] 1:gnome-applets-3.5.92-3.fc18.i686 requires libgweather-3.so.1 [gnome-panel] gnome-panel-3.6.2-6.fc19.i686 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5 gnome-panel-devel-3.6.2-6.fc19.i686 requires libgnome-desktop-3.so.5 [gnome-pie] gnome-pie-0.5.3-3.20120826git1b93e1.fc19.i686 requires libbamf3.so.0 [gnomint] gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_2_8) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) gnomint-1.2.1-5.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [gooddata-cl] gooddata-cl-1.2.56-2.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [graphviz] graphviz-ruby-2.30.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [hiera] hiera-1.0.0-3.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [hivex] ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hivex-1.3.7-6.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [hyperestraier] ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-hyperestraier-1.4.13-13.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [ice] ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ice-ruby-3.5-0.2.b.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [josm] josm-0-0.40.5697svn.fc19.noarch requires gdata-java [kazehakase] kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 kazehakase-ruby-0.5.8-13.svn3873_trunk.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libcaca] ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-caca-0.99-0.16.beta17.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libdmtx] ruby-libdmtx-0.7.2-9.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libguestfs] 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 1:ruby-libguestfs-1.21.19-1.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [libvmime] libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libvmime-0.9.2-0.4.20110626svn.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [marisa] marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 marisa-ruby-0.2.1-3.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [matreshka] matreshka-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-mofext-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-ocl-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-uml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-amf-utp-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-fastcgi-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnarl-4.7.so matreshka-sql-core-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-postgresql-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-sql-sqlite-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so matreshka-xml-0.3.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libgnat-4.7.so [mcollective] mcollective-common-2.2.0-2.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [medusa] medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.1) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS_2.2.0.19) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3(NCPFS.2.2.0.17) medusa-2.1.1-1.fc19.i686 requires libncp.so.2.3 [migemo] migemo-0.40-18.fc19.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [mono-tools] mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.i686 requires mono(webkit-sharp) = 0:1.1.15.0 mono-tools-2.10-8.fc19.i686 requires mono(webkit-sharp) [mumble] mumble-1.2.3-11.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 murmur-1.2.3-11.fc19.i686 requires libprotobuf.so.7 [mygui] mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-demos-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so mygui-devel-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libboost_system-mt.so.1.50.0 mygui-tools-3.2.0-3.fc19.i686 requires libCommon.so [nodejs-millstone] nodejs-millstone-0.5.15-1.fc19.noarch requires npm(request) < 0:2.13 [npm] npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) < 0:0.2 npm-1.2.14-2.fc20.noarch requires npm(chmodr) >= 0:0.1.0 [nufw] libnuclient-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libsasl2.so.2 libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) libnussl-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 nuauth-2.4.3-6.fc18.i686 requires libsasl2.so.2 [obexftp] ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-obexftp-0.23-12.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [ooo2gd] ooo2gd-3.0.0-6.fc19.i686 requires gdata-java [openbabel] ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 ruby-openbabel-2.3.1-7.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [openshift-origin-broker-util] openshift-origin-broker-util-1.5.12-2.fc20.noarch requires ruby(abi) >= 0:1.9.1 [openvas-client] openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5 openvas-client-3.0.3-6.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_base.so.5 [openvas-manager] openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_omp.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_nasl.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_misc.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_hg.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libopenvas_base.so.5 openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26(GNUTLS_1_4) openvas-manager-3.0.4-1.fc19.i686 requires libgnutls.so.26 [openwsman] openwsman-ruby-2.3.6-3.fc20.i686 requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.9.1 [ovirt-engine] ovirt-engine-notification-service-3.1.0-1.fc19.noarch requires classpathx-mail [pcs] pcs-0.9.33-1.fc19.i686 requires libruby.so.1.9 [perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene] perl-Bio-ASN1-EntrezGene-1.091-17.fc19.noarch requires perl(Bio::Index::AbstractSeq) [perl-Bio-SamTools] perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.i686 requires perl(Bio::SeqFeature::Lite) perl-Bio-SamTools-1.35-2.fc19.i686 requires perl(Bio::PrimarySeq) [perl-Math-Clipper] perl-Math-Clipper-1.17-3.fc19.i686 requires libpolyclipping.so.5 [php-horde-Horde-Crypt] php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Stream_Filter) >= 0:2.0.0 php-horde-Horde-Crypt-2.1.3-1.fc19.noarch requires php-pear(pear.horde.org/Horde_Mime)

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Mendecki - Seismic Monitoring in Mines

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Description:

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with two main objectives in mind: • immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue operations; • prediction of large rockmass instabilities. The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially, be attributed to three factors: • seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited dynamic range; • the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local magnitude; and • the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat loose but imaginative physical interpretation. The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool, quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible results with prediction. A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass, can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the seismic source can be estimated.

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Description:

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with two main objectives in mind: • immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue operations; • prediction of large rockmass instabilities. The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially, be attributed to three factors: • seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited dynamic range; • the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local magnitude; and • the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat loose but imaginative physical interpretation. The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool, quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible results with prediction. A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass, can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and radiated seismic energy, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the seismic source can be estimated.

Copyright:

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0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 votes)
29 views273 pages

Description:

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with two main objectives in mind: • immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue operations; • prediction of large rockmass instabilities. The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has diminished, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially, be attributed to three factors: • seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited dynamic range; • the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local magnitude; and • the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat loose but imaginative physical interpretation. The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool, quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible results with prediction. A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass, can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the seismic source can be estimated.

Copyright:

Available Formats

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Seismic
Monitoring
in Mines
Edited by

Dr A.J. Mendecki
Managing Director and Head of Research at ISS International,
Welkom, South Africa

CHAPMAN & HALL


London· Weinheim. New York· Tokyo· Melbourne· Madras
Published by Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Bouudary Row, Loudon SEI SHN, UK

Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI 8HN, UK

Chapman & Hall GmbH, Pappelallee 3, 69469 Weinheim, Germany

Chapman & Hall USA, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA

Chapman & Hall Japan, ITP-Japan, Kyowa Building, 3F, 2-2-1 Hirakawacho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan

Chapman & Hall Australia, 102 Dodds Street, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), South Melbourne,


Victoria 3205, Australia

Chapman & Hall India, R. Seshadri, 32 Second Main Road, CIT East,
Madras 600 035, India

First edition 1997

© 1997 Chapman & Hall


Softcover reprint ofthe hardcover I st edition 1997

Production control and typesetting by Anne Hordley


ISBN-13: 978-94-010-7187-1 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-1539-8
001: 10.1 007/978-94-009-1539-8

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study,
or criticism or review, as permitted under the UK Copyright Designs and
Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in
writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only
in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright
Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of licences
issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK.
Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be
sent to the publishers at the London address printed on this page.
The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard
to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot
accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions
that may be made.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congess Catalog Card Number: 96-86555

§ Printed on acid-free text paper, manufactured in accordance with


ANSIINISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of paper)
Contents

List of contributors ix
Preface xi
Acknow ledgements Xlll

1. Seismic transducers Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 1
P Mountfort; A J Mendecki

1.1 Requirements imposed by ground motion 1


1.2 Theory of inertial sensor operation Equilibrio Distante Renato Russo ~ Monte Download 6
1.3 Realizable sensor characteristics 10
1.3.1 Geophones 11
1.3.2 Accelerometers 13
1.4 Network considerations 16
1.4.1 Results of sensor evaluation field trials 17
1.5 Sensor orientation 19

2. Seismic monitoring systems 21


P Mountfort; A J Mendecki

2.1 Signal conditioning 23


2.1.1 Calibration signal injection 23
2.1.2 Anti-aliasing filters 24
2.1.3 Reduction in dynamic range 27
2.1.4 Analogue to digital conversion 28
2.1.5 Data transmission 29
2.2 Triggering and validation 31
2.2.1 Event detection 31
2.2.2 Pre-trigger data and end of event 33
2.2.3 Validation 33
2.3 Digital data communications Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 33
2.3.1 Maximising the information rate 34
2.3.2 Low level protocols 35
2.4 Association 36
2.5 Central processing site Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 39
2.6 System Performance 39
vi Contents

3. Deconvolution, polarization and 41


wavelet transform of seismic signals
A H DzhaJarov

3.1 Deconvolution 41
3.1.1 Deconvolution filters for seismic systems DriverFix crack serial keygen 41
3.1.2 Inverse digital filters for second order
Butterworth high cut filters 42
3.1.3 Inverse digital filters of integrators and
differentiators 44
3.1.4 An iterative technique for the
deconvolution of seismograms 48
3.2 Polarisation 49
3.2.1 Three axis principal components method 49
3.2.2 Complex polarization filters 53
3.3 Wavelet transform 57

4. Seismic ray tracing 67


A H DzhaJarov

4.1 Shooting and bending 68


4.2 Point-to-curve Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 69
4.3 Finite difference 73
4.4 Wavefront construction methods 82

5. Location of seismic events 87


A J Mendecki; M Sciocatti

5.1 Location by arrival times and/or


Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) directions or azimuths 87
5.2 Relative location and similarity of waveforms 94
5.3 Joint hypocentre and velocity determination
for clusters of events 97
5.4 Optimal spatial distribution of seismic stations 100
5.4.1 Optimality with respect to location error -
a statistical approach 101
5.4.2 Optimality with respect to location error -
a direct approach 103
5.4.3 Example of planning the spatial configuration
of seismic stations 106
Contents vii

6. Seismic velocity inversion from microseismic data 108


S C Maxwell; R P Young

6.1 Seismic tomography 108


6.2 Arrival-time inversion Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 110
6.3 Application Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 113
6.4 Velocity inversion in a combined seismological Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 117
and geomechanical investigation

7, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Seismic source radiation and 119


moment tensor in the time domain
J Niewiadomski

7.1 Radiation from the seismic source -


far, intermediate and near fields Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 119
7.2 Moment tensor 135
7.2.1 The case of a sysnchronous source and
the delta source time function 137
7.2.2 The case of an asynchronous source and
arbitrary source time function Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 137

8. Spectral analysis and seismic source parameters 144


A J Mendecki; J Niewiadomski

8.1 Fast Fourier transform and multitaper 144


8.2 Source parameters from spectra Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 152

9. Nonlinear dynamics of seismic flow of rock 159


S Radu; M Sciocatti; A J Mendecki

9.1 Phase space 160


9.2 Reconstruction of the phase space
from seismic data 164
9.3 Fractal correlation dimension 167
9.4 Numerical results 169
9.5 Lyapunov exponent and limits of predictability 173
viii Contents

10. Quantitative seismology and rockmass stability 178


A J Mendecki

10.1 Quantitative description of a seismic event 178


10.1.1 Seismic moment, source size and stress drop 179
10.1.2 Seismic energy 184
10.1.3 Apparent stress, energy index and
apparent volume 185
10.2 Quantitative description of seismicity 193
10.2.1 Seismic strain and seismic stress 195
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 10.2.2 Unstable system and seismic softening 198
10.2.3 Seismic viscosity, relaxation time and
HD Tune Pro 5.70 Crack Archives seismic Deborah number 208
10.2.4 Seismic dissipation and seismic diffusion 210
10.2.5 Seismic Schmidt number 213
10.3 Nucleation of instability and time to failure 213

11. Application of quantitative seismology in mines 220


G van Aswegen; A J Mendecki; C Funk

11.1 Introduction 220


11.2 Benchmark case studies 222
11.2.1 Brunswick Mining and Smelting 222
11.2.2 Tanton fault 223
11.2.3 Western Holdings No.6 shaft pillar 226
11.2.4 Postma dyke Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 232
11.2.5 The Trough event 239
11.2.6 811122 Longwall 241

References 246
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Index 259
Contributors

Dr A.H. Dzhafarov
ISS International, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), South Africa

Mr C. Funk
ISS International, South Africa

Dr S.c. Maxwell
Department of Geophysics, Keele University, UK

Dr A.J. Mendecki
ISS International, South Africa

Dr P. Mountfort
ISS International, South Africa

Dr J. Niewiadomski
ISS International, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), South Africa

Dr S. Radu
ISS International, South Africa

Mr M. Sciocatti
ISS International, South Africa

Dr G. van Aswegen
ISS International, South Africa

Prof R.P. Young


Department of Geophysics, Keele University, UK
Preface

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with
two main objectives in mind:

• immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue


operations;
• prediction of large rockmass instabilities.

The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent
development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has
diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially,
be attributed to three factors:

• seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that


provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) of limited
dynamic range;
• the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local
magnitude; and
• the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently
through parameters of some statistical distributions, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), with a somewhat
loose but imaginative physical interpretation.

The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress


in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the
implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool,
quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible
results Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) prediction.
A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass,
can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and
radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the
seismic source can be estimated.
Thus seismicity, being the intermittent momentum flux due to the sudden
motion of discrete lumps of rock, and its associated stress and strain changes
in the rock, can be quantified. This brings seismology into the realms of rock
mechanics and rheology, where changes in stress, strain rate, flow viscosity
and diffusion are fundamental in determining the stability of the deforming
Xll Preface

structures.
However, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), from seismological observation one can only measure that
portion of stress, strain or rheology of the process which is associated with
recorded seismic waves. The wider the frequency and amplitude range, and
the higher the throughput, of the seismic monitoring system, the more reliable
and more relevant the measured values of these parameters become.
The objectives of seismic monitoring in mines then become:

• to verify the parameters and assumptions of mine design while


mining;
• to predict larger instabilities;
• to backanalyse, so that we learn from history.

Seismic monitoring in mines consists of sensors, data acquisition, signal


processing, seismological analysis, quantification of the seismic response of
the rockmass to mining, and finally, interpretation in terms of the potential
for instability. Since each of these stages must be conducted with great care
for meaningful results, this book has been structured accordingly.
The principal objective of the book is to suggest, but not prescribe,
possible solutions to the problems encountered in achieving the above
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) objectives and to show examples of successful applications. No claim is made
for completeness. The emphasis has clearly been placed on parameters
describing seismic sources as opposed to changes in wave velocity or
attenuation to infer the state of the rockmass. Nevertheless, we hope all users
of mine seismic systems will be inspired to gain more insight from their data
and increase the value of their systems as management tools.

Aleksander J, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Mendecki, Editor.


Acknowledgements

The majority of this book describes the results of work performed in two
projects: GAP 017, 'Seismology for rockburst prevention, control and
prediction', and GAP 211, 'Nonlinear seismology'. These were the two major
seismological projects awarded by the Department of Mineral and Energy
Affairs, on behalf of the South African mining industry, on the
recommendation of the Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee
(SIMRAC).
The authors and editor wish to express their thanks for the following
contributions to various chapters (in chapter order):
Chapter 1 is based on a far more detailed report by Dr R.W.E. Green,
retired Professor at the Bernard Price Institute, University of the
Witwatersrand, South Africa, and work performed by him and Mr A. v .Z.
Brink, ISS Pacific. Dr A. McGarr, USGS, Menlo Park, California, reviewed
an early form of the manuscript and offered useful suggestions concerning
ground motions.
Chapter 2 owes much to a far more detailed report by Dr R.W.E. Green,
and many fruitful discussions with him.
Professor A. Hanyga, University of Bergen, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), Norway, provided guidance
and useful discussions for Chapter 3.
Professor K. Aki, Observatorie du Piton de la Foumaise, La Reunion, and
University of Southern California, offered constructive comments on Chapters
7 and 8.
1 Seismic Transducers

The transducer is the key element of any seismic monitoring system. Once the
ground motion is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer, the
rest of the system is simply a problem of calibration and data acquisition.

1.1 Requirements imposed by ground motion

The type of transducer to be used is determined by the ranges of amplitude


and frequency to be measured which, in turn, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), depend on the magnitude range
and distance from the sensor of seismic events occurring in Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) volume of
interest.
The largest events experienced in rockburst prone mines range between
moment magnitude m M=3 and mM=5. The smallest events that are useful in
determining the state of the rock in seismically quiet periods have magnitudes
between m M=-4 and m M=-3 depending on noise levels and other environental
factors. The minimum range of frequencies that must be recorded for
meaningful seismological processing is determined from the expected corner
frequencies of events occurring in the volume to be monitored. The corner
frequency is the predominant frequency on the spectrum of instrument and
attenuation corrected ground velocity; see Fig. 8.8 in Chapter 8 of this book.
To correctly measure the seismic moment we need frequencies down to at
least an octave or five spectral points, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), whichever is lower, below the corner
frequency of the largest event to be analysed. To correctly measure the
radiated seismic energy we need frequencies at least five times above the
corner frequency of the smallest event to be analysed (Mendecki, 1993).
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) To estimate the range of amplitude and frequency of ground motion which
sensors will experience due to seismic events in the above magnitude ranges,
we start with the relation, for a circular fault, between the source radius r,
stress drop l1a and seismic moment M (Keilis-Borok, 1959):

r 3 =7M
-- (1.1)
1611a

By assuming the Brune model for the source (Brune, 1970), we get a corner
frequency from the source radius:

(1.2)
2 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

where K is a constant 2.34 for the Brune model, Vs is the S wave propagation
velocity and fr) is the corner frequency. Vs depends on the rock type, as given
in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Properties of extreme rock types encountered in mining

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Shear modulus 11 S wave velocity


[GPa] v< = Jill p [m/s]
Hard rock 2700 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 37 3700

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Soft rock 1800 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 7.2 2000

104

hard

"'"
soft
vMix 24.0.0.63 Crack With Registration Key Full Version 2021 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 10° 103

N
~

.s~10' Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) g102
Fig. 1.1
Ql
Expected (J) ::J
rr
::J
source radius rand S F- SECURE INTERNET SECURITY 2009 crack serial keygen '6 ~
~
wave corner frequency fo Ql
Q;
c Stress
2 0
as a function of seismic ::J
U
moment for a range of c5l102 ~ 10' drop
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) m
stress drops. The general 5:
(J)
relations are given by
equations (1.1) and (1.3). 100
Moment magnitude m M ,
103 10° 10
equation (1.4), is also
shown. The width of each
band shows the variation
with rock properties as 0.1
shown in Table 1.1. For a ~n-l~_ _- L_ _ _ _L -_ _- L_ _ _ _L -_ _- L____L -__- L____~

given event, frequencies IV -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 4


up to 5fo must be Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Moment magnitude
recorded for accurate
energy determination and
frequencies down to f,/2
10'°
for seismic moment. Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Seismic moment [Nm]
Seismic transducers 3

10
10>
soft
10-'

10'
0.1
10-2
(j)
N-
.s2=' 100 0.01
I ·u
'" 10-
~ 3
0
Qi
> Stress
0

e
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 'Jl "0
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) co C
10-'
Fig. 1.2 The product of E 0)

'E" .>< drop


distance from the source ~ 10-4 ''x""
TechSmith Camtasia Crack 2019.0.8 Build 17484 [Newest] 0.
and the far field peak '"
is.
ground velocity, Rv max ,
'Jl
B '" 10-2
g
and displacement at the Sketch 53 mac Archives ~ I
0
source, D, plotted as a 10-5
function of moment for a
range of stress drops.
The general relations are
given in equations (1.6)
and (1.7). Moment --.=4
magnitude mMequation hard 10
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 2 3 4 5
(1.4), is also shown. The Moment magnitude
width of the lines
represents the variation
due to the range of rock
10'°
types listed in Table 1.1. Seismic moment [Nmj

Substituting equation (1.1) into equation (1.2) we obtain:

f. = KVs ~ 16Lla (l.3)


o 27T 7M

describing comer frequency as a function of moment, stress drop and S wave


velocity. This relation is illustrated in Fig. l.1 for a wide range of stress drops.
While stress drop and moment are independent parameters, in general small
events do not occur at large stress drops, which lowers the high frequency
requirements somewhat. The moment magnitude, m Mis also shown (Hanks
and Kanamori, 1978) where:
2
m M = -logM- 6.1 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) (1.4)
3
4 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

To estimate the amplitude of the ground motion we follow the model of


McGarr (1991):

R vmax = 0.57 3 ·2'7T £,1


0
.M Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) (1.5)
4'7Tp ~

where R is the distance from the source, vmax is the far field peak ground
velocity, p is the rock density and 0.57 is the median value of the S wave
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) radiation pattern. Substituting for 10 from equation (1.3) and retaining K=2.34,
yields:

Rv: 0.0686. ~!::.if M


p v:.
= (1.6)
max

McGarr (1991) uses the definition M =/-L'7Tr2D, where D is the amplitude of


the displacement at the source and 11 is the rigidity or shear modulus, In
equation (1.5) to derive the expression:

D = _8_.1_R---,vm=a=.x (1.7)
Vs

and also shows that the slip velocity

. KVD
D= s (1.8)
'7TI

and

R8max = 0.4 !::'u/ p (1.9)

where 8 max is the amplitude of the far field ground acceleration associated with
the comer frequency. Measured peak acceleration tends to increase with
increasing sensor bandwidth because the acceleration spectrum of an event is
flat for some interval above the comer frequency.
It must be noted that McGarr used an inhomogeneous model of the source
in deriving these relations, with a number of asperities within a larger source
region. In this case, the frequency-amplitude relationships still hold, but the
moment and source radius are those of a single asperity Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) is responsible
for VmaX ' and are less than those of the whole source. Where the source is
homogeneous, or, more probably, the internal structure is not resolved, then
the moment and radius are those of the entire source as implied above.
2000th FireStorm Screensaver 2.0 crack serial keygen Seismic transducers 5

The relations (1.6) and(1.7) are plotted in Fig. 1.2, while Fig. 1.3 illustrates
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) the relationship between ground acceleration and distance from the source for
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) several stress drops from equation (1.9). The line thickness again denotes the
range of rock properties as shown in Table 1.1.
It must be stressed that these models are not very accurate in the mining
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) environment in that attenuation, near field, propagation and site effects have
been ignored. However, we are now in the position, given an event
characterized by moment and stress drop, to estimate the dominant frequency,
peak ground velocity and peak ground acceleration at a given distance from
the source in the far field, as well as the displacement and slip velocity in the
source region. This is sufficient to gauge sensor specifications for suitability.
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) The quantitative description of seismic sources requires that the direction of
2Flyer Screensaver Builder Pro v6.2.2 crack serial keygen ground motion be resolved and all sites should have three orthogonal
Windows 8.1 Product Key Generator 2021 [Cracked] directional sensors (transverse sensitivity < 5 %).

10 1 ~7~ .~~~=r~__~~~~~c.~~~~~~~~~~~
::>::: Stress

Fig. 1.3 The far field drop


peak acceleration at the 10° ~"'~';"""":""";"'-;"";"':+-,-""'!"""':"''''';''''-~~H''~:'''''-:'~~+-'''''111''~~~~
source corner frequency,
8 m_xplotted as a function
of distance from the:§ -1 .
source, R, for a range of .§ 10 ~.-,-""'!. .~.,.-~~r.::"~~""";"'-~+-""'111"~~~~~"k7~~~~
stress drops, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The ~
general relation is given ~
u
i 10

in equation (1.8). The al10-2b-:~~-,-,---,~~~I-c-c-'~~~~~~~"'~~~~f:-,-:-""'k7~~~-,-l


width of the lines-g
represents variations in ~
rock density, p, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), as listed:: -3
in Table 1.1. Attenuation m10 ~-:-:-:-7~-'-'---~~"-+'-:-:-:-7~~~~--,-,-,I-c-c-''''k7~~~-:-+-:-:'''''I'''~~~~
due to transmission a.
through the rock is 0.1
ignored. Conversely, 10-4~:.".
. -:-:-:-7~~~~+~~~~~~~~~~~~+-::'!'!1111".,-,-~~~
higher values may be
registered by wideband
accelerometers, as the 0.01
source spectrum is flat 10-5L:-~_~~~-'-'--~~~~--'-'-'~~-~~~-'-'--~~~~-,-"-,
for a range of 1~ 1~ 1~ 1~
Distance from source [m]
frequencies above the
corner frequency.
6 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

1.2 Theory of inertial sensor operation

Most seismic transducers operate on the principle of measuring the ground


motion relative to that of an inertial mass. The mass is, for practical reasons,
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) suspended by a spring, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), so we end up with a variation of the classical
mass/spring/damper problem, shown schematically in Fig. 104.

. u
c----

Fig. 1.4 A schematic


diagram of an inertial m
sensor, showing the
mass m free to move
unidirectionally within the c
case under the influence
of a spring and damper. ~ Equilibrium position of mass

Applying Newton's second law to the mass


(1.10)
m(ii+ x) = - kx- eX

where:
u ground displacement to be measured
x displacement of the mass relative to the ground and case
m inertial mass
k spring constant
c damping coefficient

By applying the Laplace transform to equation (1.10) (see for example Etkin,
1972), we arrive at the transfer function:

xes) _ -S2
(1.11)
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) u(s) S2 + 2bw n s+ w 2n

where:
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) xes) Laplace transform of x(t)
u(s) Laplace transform of u(t)
s complex frequency variable
ron =21t/nthe natural frequency, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), w~ = kim
b relative damping factor, 2bw n =elm.
Seismic transducers 7

10-4~~~~~~-~~~~~:--~~~~~-~~~~
10-2 10-' 10° 10' 102
Fig. 1.5 Inertial sensor Normalized frequency
transfer function,
equation (1.11), for
several values of the
relative damping a;
Q)
-45

coefficient b as a function
of normalized frequency
i -90f 5

L'r
flf".
The complex function is
illustrated by separate
graphs for amplitude and
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) -180~~~~~~-~~~~~~~====~==~~=-~
phase response, and 10 4 10~ 1~ 1~ 1~
group delay. On the Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Normalized frequency
amplitude response
graph, the upper curve
shows the strong
amplification at f/ t;. b=0.1
The next lower curve
>- 5
shows the slightly '"
~ 1
extended low frequency "-
response over critical e"
(90.5
damping b=1. At b=5 two
separate corner 0.7
frequencies become O~========±=====~~~~~--~~--~~~~
10-2 10-' 10° 10' 102
apparent, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Normalized frequency

°
Since x = for t<O, we may obtain the Fourier domain version of the transfer
function by restricting the independent variable to the imaginary axis, setting
s = iw.
The first point to note is the existence of a natural frequency and a damping
factor. The effect of damping is best illustrated graphically and Fig. 1.5 shows
VIRU KEEPER 2017 crack serial keygen normalized transfer functions for a range of values in b. Lightly damped
sensors (b « 1), with their exaggerated response at ~, can be problematic.
Bandicut 3.5.0 serial key Archives A value of b = 0,7 gives the flattest frequency response.
8 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

By examining the extremes of frequency, we can see the basis for two types
of sensor. When s » (On the transfer function is approximately -1, i.e. the
mass does not move with respect to an inertial frame of reference and the
relative motion of the case and the mass perfectly mirrors the ground motion.
This is the classical seismometer mode of operation. When s « (On the relative
motion of mass and case is very small and proportional to S2. This represents
a double differentiation in the time domain, so the displacement of the mass
relative to the case is proportional to ground acceleration. In physical terms the
motion of the mass and case are almost identical and the extension of the
spring is a measure of the force necessary to accelerate the mass. The
accelerometer operates on this principle.
The sensor impulse response may be obtained by transforming equation
(1.11) back to the time domain. The numerator may be set to 1, so that the
result corresponds to displacement of the mass relative to the case for an
impulse in ground acceleration, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). This is useful because the calibration inputs
on real sensors usually provide the capacity of displacing the equilibrium
position of the mass within the case. To apply the standard transform tables,
Product Key Explorer 4.2.0.0 With Full Crack the zeros of the quadratic denominator of equation (1.11) need to be found:

-bw n ±w n V~
u- - 1

Let n = - bw n and distinguish between


Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) ( 1.12)
w = wn~ for b<l

and

w/= wn~ for b>l

Then, the right-hand side of equation (1.11) may be rewritten as

1
for b<l
(s- n? + w2
1
for b=O
(s - n)2
1
for b> 1
(s- n)2 - W/2

which transform to
Lord of the rings 2 rise of the witch king crack serial keygen Seismic transducers 9

~ e nf sin w t; tent; _1_ e nt sinh w' t


w w'

respectively. The impulse responses for a natural frequency of 1 Hz and a


range of damping factors are plotted in Fig. 1.6.

1~.-------,-------,--------,-------,--------,-------,

Fig. 1.6 Response of an Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) b=0.1


inertial sensor to an
impulse in acceleration.
The same damping e
factors are illustrated as
used for the frequency
response in the previous c
(J)

figure. The curve for E


(J)

b=O.1 has been ~


0.
enhanced with its III
'5
exponential decay -g
envelope marked e, and .~
(ij
amplitudes of successive E
swings for the calculation ~-0.2
of the logarithmic
decrement. The -0.4
difference between
b=O.7, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), which crosses the
-0.6
time axis once and
critical damping b=1.0,
-0.8 L--_ _ _ _ _ _.L-_ _ _ _ _ _- ' -_ _ _ _ _ _---L_ _ _ _ _ _---'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-'---_ _ _ _- - - - '
which does not, can Log In ‹ Crack Pc games rar — WordPress o 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3
clearly be seen. Time[s]

When the damping is less than critical, b <1, and therefore the response is
oscillatory, it is useful to consider the ratio of the amplitudes of two
successive peaks in opposite directions, denoted by a 1 and a 2 in Fig. 1.6. The
so-called logarithmic decrement d is defined as

Inverting for b

b= d
V-rr + ~
10 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

providing a fairly direct method of measuring b independently of (On. In Fig.


1.6, it may also be shown that

where A 1 and A 2 are independent of the signal zero level.

1.3 Realizable sensor characteristics

The range of ground velocities and frequencies that can be measured with
commonly available sensors is illustrated in Fig. 1.7, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The noise level is
illustrated not as noise density as a function of frequency, but as it would be
measured using a long term average (LTA) in the time domain. The frequency
dependence is only due to the sensor frequency response. Dynamic range is
the ratio of the amplitudes of the maximum measurable signal, Amax, and the
noise level, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), Anoise, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) in decibels:

Fig. 1.7 Sensitivity and


0.13)
dynamic range of
sensors commonly used
in mine seismic systems.
The region between the 300 mV/g accelerometer
limits represents the
1.0 Hz geophone
usable range for each
instrument. The 4.5 Hz geophone
geophone's greater
sensitivity up to several
hundred hertz is clearly
shown, as is the loss of 40 Hz geophone
dynamic range due to
displacement clipping
below these Cherry keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock,key data acquisition
system dynamic range of
132 dB with its
quantization noise
matching the expected
ground noise of 10-7 m/s
is illustrated. 10-'O'----~~~'"'"'-~~~.-~~~'"'_~~~.I._~~~.J
10-' Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 10' 102
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Frequency [Hz]
Seismic transducers 11

The level at which an acquisition system with a dynamic range of 132 dB


would clip is shown. Since the geophone is a passive device, the signal
conditioning equipment or the intrinsic ground noise effectively sets the noise
level. A noise floor of 10-7 mls environmental noise as expected in mines is
used in the figure. Geophones exhibit better sensitivity over a relatively narrow
band at the lower frequencies of interest, whereas accelerometers cover a
relatively wide band, excelling in sensitivity at the higher frequencies and
measuring without distortion the large amplitude, low frequency strong ground
motions of nearby large events.

1.3.1 Geophones

Geophones operate in the seismometer mode, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), i.e. the most useful bandwidth
is above the natural frequency. The coil and magnet which are used to detect
the motion of the inertial mass produce an output proportional to velocity. The
unit produces a reasonable amount of power at low impedance for driving
cables. Damping is determined by the load resistance and each type of
instrument specifies the open circuit damping b" and a relation for determining
the current damping, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), be for a given load.
Geophones exhibit a relatively narrow usable bandwidth. Apparently, it is
difficult to construct a suspension for the mass which is relatively weak in the
axial direction, to produce a low J", and very stiff in the radial direction to
suppress any transverse response. Where manufacturers have attempted to
minimize these effects, they generally quote a "clean" or "spurious response
free" bandwidth, !ct. In a brief survey of data sheets, the highest value of Icl lin
found was 38, and some were less than 10. As mentioned in Section 1.1, we
need at least a factor of 10 to be able to measure seismic moment and energy
for an event.
Figure 1.8 (Oh, 1996) shows how geophone sensitivity varies with the angle
of excitation. Transverse resonance modes produce a response almost equal to
axial at large angles for specific frequencies.
Real geophone behaviour near the natural frequency conforms well with
theory. Provided that In and b are known, deconvolution techniques may be
used to extend the useful bandwidth to lower frequencies, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Deconvolution
cannot be applied indiscriminately to small or distant events as the signal
below J" may be buried in noise, since the velocity spectrum of events
decreases with decreasing frequency, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), see Fig. 8.8 in Chapter 8 of this book.
The high frequency behaviour, unfortunately, is not so tractable. The
spurious responses tend to vary from one unit to another and are difficult to
detect on a shake table because of their association with transverse excitation.
12 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

3r-----------------------------~

Fig. 1.8 Variation in


geophone sensitivity with
angle of excitation. The
average sensitivity, as
expected, varies as the
cosine of the excitation
angle (Oo=axial,
90 o=radial), but the
transverse modes can
produce almost the full
response at a certain
frequency even at a
large angle. This figure 0.1

was produced using a


14 Hz geophone. O. 05 L.L.u.L_ _- - - '_ _.L.-J'-'.L.>.'-'-'-_ _---L_ _'---'-'-~

Reproduced from Oh 4 10 100 700


(1996). Frequency [Hz]

We have no choice but to filter out or Ignore frequencies which may be


affected by spurious responses.
Some examples of manufacturers' specifications for commonly used
geophones are reproduced in Table 1.2. The values of maximum velocity at
fn have been calculated from the specified case to coil motion, which has been
reduced on the high frequency geophones to compensate for the high tilt
angles permitted. To estimate the range of event comer frequencies which a
particular sensors covers, we may assume the frequency response is extended
down to /n12 by deconvolution. The range of corner frequencies is then /n to
fe/5. Where i.[ is not specified, h[=25/n is a good conservative choice.
The corresponding range of moments and stress drops may be seen by
drawing the horizontal lines on Fig. 1.1.
Half the case to coil motion may also be compared to the displacement in
the seismic source region given in equation (1.7) and illustrated in Fig. 1.2.
For example, an event with mM = 1 and ~cr = 1 MPa, will have a displacement
of about 1 mm, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), and a corner frequency of about 50 Hz (from Fig. 1.1) which
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) is above the natural frequency of all the geophones in the table. If one of the
miniature geophones is near an event with a larger moment or stress drop, it
will clip.

Miniature geophones High quality mmlature geophones with natural


frequencies from 4.5 Hz up to approximately 100 Hz are inexpensive, reliable
and commonly available thanks to extensive use by the oil exploration
Seismic transducers 13

industry. Their strong point is their sensitivity which means that, when used
in combination with good amplifiers, the ambient ground noise determines the
system noise level of _10- 7 mJs at the quietest sites in mines. These
frequencies (see clean frequencies in Table 1.2) also propagate through the
rock with little attenuation, so the sensor sites may be fairly widely spaced
throughout the mine. Miniature geophone output reflects ground velocity, so
the kinetic energy may be calculated directly, and only one integration is
necessary to obtain displacement for the seismic moment. Geophones are
inexpensive and relatively easy to install in boreholes long enough to reach
intact rock, as long as some care is taken to ensure they are precisely vertical
or horizontal.
A weak point of these geophones is the distortion and clipping introduced
at larger displacements produced by nearby large events. Because the
geophone output reflects ground velocity, the displacement clipping is not
immediately apparent on inspection of the seismograms. The theoretical
dynamic range of these sensors is very large (see Fig. 1.6), but as the large
events produce low frequencies, we are concerned with the dynamic range at
the natural frequency, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), as listed in Table 1.2. The acceleration limit of 50g is
actually a shock acrobat pro 11 crack serial keygen, so not only will the geophones not reproduce these
signals accurately but such high accelerations may lead to permanent damage
or change in characteristics.
Due to the low cost of these units, it is reasonable to extend the bandwidth
coverage by installing more than one triaxial set at one site. For example, the
4.5 Hz and 40 Hz geophones described in Table 1.2 complement each other
well.

Low frequency geophones Geophones with natural frequencies between 0.5


Hz and 2 Hz are manufactured for earthquake monitoring and are an Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) of
magnitude more expensive than miniature geophones. Such instruments are
essential for measuring moments of events with corner frequencies below
4.5 Hz (see Fig. 1.1).

1.3.2 Accelerometers

As described in Section 1.2, accelerometers operate below their natural


frequency and measure the force applied to the inertial mass. In principle, the
frequency response extends right down to zero (DC) and, even Driver Downloader 3.2 Full Version Download this is
not achieved in practice, a broad band is usable. The stiff spring generally
produces no unexpected side effects.
14 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Table 1.2 Manufacturer's specifications for some commonly used geophones

Type L-4C! HS-I-IA1 SM-6B* SM-7B* SM-15B* SM-IIFfI GS-20DMi

Natural frequency 4.5 4.5 8 14 30 40


J" [Hz]

J" tolerance ±5% ±20% ±II% ±6% ±5% ±5% ±5%

Tilt for J" tolerance 5° 5° 5° 20° 25° 180° 90°


(vertical only)

Distortion at 18 mm/s N/S N/S <0.3% <0.2% <0.2% <0.2% <0.2%


12 Hz 12 Hz 14 Hz 30 Hz 40 Hz

Tilt for distortion N/S Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) N/S N/S 15° 25° 180° 90°

Clean frequency if N/S N/S N/S 310 >500 500 >850


[Hz] Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) =38J" >35J" =17J" >21J"

Case to coil motion 6.3 7.6 4 2


(peak to peak) [mm]

Seismic mass m [g] Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 1000 22.7 11.1 II II 9.2 5.6

Max velocity at J" 20 107 56 50 44 42 62


[mmls]
dB referred to 1O-7m1s 106 121 115 114 113 113 116

Coil resistance Re 5500 225 375 375 375 360 270


[0]

Sensitivity (undamped) 276 18.1 28.8 28.8 28.8 30 15.1


[VIm/s]

Open circuit damping 0.28 0.30 0.56 0.31 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 0.18 0.55 0.42
b"
Current damping be l.IRe 254 6000 6000 6000 8310 O.30Re
shunt R, [0] Rc+Rs (Rc+R)t;, (Rc+R)t;, (Rc+R)t;, (Rc+R)t;,
Re+R. Rc+R .

Operating temperature -29 -29 -40 -40 -40 -40 -45


range rOC] 60 70 100 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 100 100 100 100

Shock limit [g] N/S 50 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

Manufacturers: § Mark Products, US, Inc. <][ Oyo Geospace Corporation :j: Sensor Nederland BV.
Seismic transducers 15

The force balance accelerometer uses electromagnetic or ArcGIS Pro Crack Free Download Archives force


to control the movement of the mass, so an analogue of the restoring force is
available in electrical form. Instruments based on mechanical springs generally
measure the strain in the spring. This is small and a variety of methods are
used to measure it. Nevertheless, noise in the sensing process sets the noise
level of the sensors and matching or built-in amplifiers are often part of the
package.
The sensitivity of a given accelerometer to ground velocity or radiated
seismic energy increases with frequency, allowing smaller events to be
detected than by a comparable geophone, assuming that the trigger measures
LTA as broadband noise in the time domain and that the higher frequency
environmental noise is attenuated by the rock. The relative insensitivity at low
frequency reduces the danger of clipping on nearby large, low corner
frequency events. The peak acceleration produced by an event depends on the
dynamic stress drop, see equation (1.9).

Piezoelectric accelerometers Piezoelectric materials produce an electrical


charge in response to mechanical strain. As there is always some electrical
leakage, these instruments do not measure down to DC, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The damping
coefficient b is generally 1% to 2% which results in a sharp resonance peak
at In. However, between these extremes there is a wide bandwidth where
acceleration response is flat (see examples in Table 1.3). An insufficiently
rigid mounting can cause an apparent downward shift of the resonance
frequency into the band of interest.
Output may be provided directly from the piezoelectric element for use with
a separate charge amplifier, but, more conveniently, a PET amplifier is often
included in the sensor package. These units require a constant current supply
and modulate the voltage to produce an output. More than 100 m of cable may
be driven in this way. All those listed in Table 1.3 operate in Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) fashion.
In mine monitoring networks, these accelerometers are usually used to detect
smaller, higher frequency events than may be achieved with geophones. The
units with upper frequency limits of 7000 Hz to 15000 Hz provide a useful
increase in the frequency range and high sensitivity within this range,
generally allowing coverage Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) to mM =-3 (see Fig. 1.1). At higher
frequencies, for coverage down to m M=-4, even the accelerometers become
less sensitive. The 40 kHz sensor listed in Table 1.3 has an rms noise of
0.002 g so the smallest useful signal must have an amplitude of about 0.02 g.
From Fig. 1.3, we can see that the lower stress drop events must be within
10m for successful detection. The lower frequency units, while providing
uniform coverage over a wide band, do not generally offer sufficient advantage
over geophones to justify the added cost.
16 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

WIndows7 Ultimate 64bit ENG crack serial keygen Table 1.3 Manufacturer's specifications for some piezoelectric accelerometers

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Type Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 793L-4' 501 *

Sensitivity [mV/g] 7000 300 100 100 10


Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) ±IO% ±ldB ±5% ±IO%

Frequency range 0.1 - 1000 0.2 - 7000 I - 10 000 0.5 - 15 000 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) - 40000
± 3 dB [Hz]

Mounted resonance /" 2400 16000 18000 25000 65000


[Hz]

Max. transverse 5% 7% 7% 5% Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 5%
Sensitivity

Max. acceleration [g] 0,7 15 48 80 212

Nonlinearity 2% 1% 2% 1% 1%

Noise floor wideband 3 10 250 600 2000


[Ilg rms]

Dynamic range [dB] 107 123 106 102 100

Power supply 2.2 rnA 2-lOmA 1-4mA 2-lOmA 0.5 rnA


15 V 18 - 30 V Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 15 - 30 V 18 - 30 V 12 - 30 V

Shock limit [g] N/S 2500 5000 2500 10000

Manufacturers: § Vibra Metrics, Inc. <J[ Wilcoxon Research, Inc, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). :j: Vibrometer Corp.

Frequencies of 3 kHz and above are generally heavily attenuated by the


rock. This varies from site to site, but even in competent quartzite, source to
sensor distances of more than 300 m cause the higher frequency signal to be
lost.

Force balance accelerometers These instruments replace the mechanical


spring with an electronic feedback circuit. They are generally more expensive
than 1 Hz geophones, but provide broader bandwidth, e.g, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). DC to 100 Hz.
Generally, acceleration and velocity outputs are available.

1.4 Network considerations

High frequency miniature geophones provide reasonable coverage down to


mM=O, as shown by comparing clean frequencies from Table 1.2 with comer
Seismic transducers 17

frequencies in Fig. 1.1, provided that there are five stations within 1 km of
each event. Coverage up to Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) =3 in the same area can be accomplished by
pairing with 4.5 Hz units, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). A dense network is required to compensate for both
the geophones' relative insensitivity and the increasing attenuation of the rock
mass to the dominant frequencies of these events. Care must be taken not to
accept results from stations near enough to large events to suffer low
frequency, large displacement distortion and clipping problems.

Table 1.4 Typical networks with different sensor densities

Lower magnitude
limit
-3 o

Network type Accelerometer Geophone


Geophone
at least at least
5th station> 2 km
5 stations < 300 m 5 stations < I km

Sensor/
anti-aliasing
10 kHz 500 Hz 200 Hz
filter

Apart from large, low stress drop events, full coverage down to mM =- 3 may
be provided by a dense network of accelerometers, which have the high
frequency sensitivity to reliably detect negative magnitude events and the low
frequency insensitivity to measure close, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), large events. The required density for
full coverage is at least five stations within 300 m of any expected source area,
so, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), effectively, a separate network is established around each longwall or other
working area. Even so, several times more stations will probably be required
to cover a given mine with accelerometers than geophones. Table 1.4
illustrates three typical network configurations.

1.4.1 Results of sensor evaluation field trials

In order to better evaluate the performance side of the performance/cost ratio


for different sensors, several geophones and piezoelectric accelerometers were
installed in a single holder, in a borehole at a deep level gold mine in South
Africa.
Three sensors were monitored at a time with one of the geophones always
included as a reference. Two examples illustrate the expected superiority of
the accelerometer at high frequencies.
18 Seismic Monitoring in Mines
MakeUp Pilot 5.13.0 With Full Version Crack '

j ~

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) j i
i I
i i ~

i !'~·i
'! !
1 i,~.f
I' I
i···i Ii f
I :
i i'~i
I . Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) j! [
I !
r--. -----.:co------.:.------.,_:.il : "

a b

Fig, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). 1.9 Acceleration Figure 1.9 shows the spectra of the differentiated geophone output compared
s~ectra. .obtained by to that of an accelerometer. The increase in noise and loss of signal at high
d~fferentlatlng a geo~hone frequencies on the differentiated signal are clearly visible, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Figure 1.10 show s
signal (a) and directly . . .
from an accelerometer the recordmg of a small hIgh frequency event whIch was recorded by an
(b). The increase in noise accelerometer while only noise is visible on the geophone trace. The events
on the geophone derived recorded during the duration of the experiment were small and within several
spectrum at higher hundred metres of the sensor, so there was no opportunity for the geophone
frequencies is clear. Note to demonstrate its low frequency sensitivity, or the accelerometer its strong
that on the accelerometer ground mot'Ion allIes.
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) b'l't'
spectrum, features near
1000 Hz do not appear
on the geophone data. 6e-06

Fig. 1.10 High


frequency event clearly
recorded by an
accelerometer (bottom) -61!- OI6~>+++++++++<+;+++++-t++++++-+++f++<>++++++-I++_+++++++++++++H-+++~-++++++1
but not visible on 6e-06
geophone output (top).
The acceleration data
have been arbitrarily
scaled so that the 150
Hz signal between-O.OB s
and 0.1 s should have
the same amplitude as
on the geophone data, -&!-OI6f.-'-'-'-'-'-'-'=~~~~"-'-'-''_'_'::''~'-'-'-'--'-'::'-:~-'-'-'-''-'7':"-'-'-'-'-'-'~~'-'-'-'-~
where it is barely visible. (mls)
Seismic transducers 19

1.S Sensor orientation

There are two aspects to sensor orientation: firstly, if the lower natural
frequency geophones are not installed precisely vertically or horizontally they
do not function correctly; secondly, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), the true directions of ground motion must
be found for each event to be described quantitatively. For these reasons, it is
advantageous to be able to install sensors accurately with a given orientation,
and to be able to estimate the orientation of sensors once installed.
For installation in a borehole, the sensors are usually mounted on to a
holder or "boat" which is almost as wide as the borehole and much longer than
it is wide, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), so that it closely assumes the orientation of the borehole, which
may be determined by surveying. A keyed rod may be used to rotate the boat
within the borehole during installation to allow orientation about the borehole
as an axis. For a vertical hole the handle of the keyed rod may be aligned with
a survey mark and the boat assumed to be aligned likewise with a few degrees
margin of error. For an off-vertical hole some feedback may be obtained as to
the orientation of the sensors themselves, either by driving the Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) (if they
are geophones) and rotating the boat until a symmetric clipping pattern is
obtained, or by including a mercury switch or other tilt sensitive device into
the boat. Of course, care must be taken to preserve sensor signal polarity
throughout the data acquisition modules.
Once the sensors are operating, any deviation from the assumed orientation
may be calculated by comparing the P wave polarization direction with the
hypocentral direction for artificial sources or natural events whose locations
are known accurately. Given three or more such known locations, it is possible
to determine a rotation matrix A such that Xi = Ay i' where xi is the unit
direction vector from the sensor to the source for the ith event in standard
coordinates determined from the relative source and sensor locations and yi
is the same vector in sensor coordinates determined from the P wave
polarization. The matrix A has nine elements, but can be parametrized in terms
of the three Eulerian angles. Since the order in which rotations occur is
important the angles are defined as follows: first a rotation of ¢ about the z-
axis; then a rotation of () about the new y-axis; and, finally, a rotation of 'V
about the new z-axis. These rotations are illustrated in Fig, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). 1.11; () and ¢
correspond to dip and dip direction respectively. Matrix A can then be
expressed as:

-sin¢ sin 1\1 + cos(} cos¢ cos 1\1 cos¢ sin 1\1 + cos(} sin¢ cos Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) -sin(} cos 1\1
-sin¢ cos 1\1 - cos(} cos¢ sin 1\1 cos¢ cos 1\1 - cos(} sin¢ sin 1\1 sin¢ sin 1\1 (1 .14)
sin(} cos¢ sin(} sin¢ cos(}
20 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

If the direction of one of the sensor axes is known precisely, the unknown
rotation about that axis may be determined from a single event. If, for
e
example, the sensor z-axis is known to be vertical, and 'Jf are 0 and matrix
A simplifies to:

cosrjJ sinrjJ 0
-sinrjJ cosrjJ 0 (1.15)
o o 1

In general, some optimization scheme would be used to determine the best


e,
values of 'Jf and rjJ from many events for each sensor.
The rotation matrix A may then be used to transform the ground motion
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) from sensor coordinates into standard coordinates for each sensor and thus
contribute to determining the source mechanism for each event.

Fig. 1.11 The Eulerian


angles. A rotation in
three dimensions may be
uniquely defined by a I~---.-+--""'===--
rotation cP about K,
followed by a rotation (}
about J' and finally a
rotation \)I about k. The
axes UK might represent
a mine coordinate
system and ijk the
orientation of the three
sensor components.
2 Seismic Monitoring Systems

Seismic sensors are distributed around or throughout the volume of interest.


The monitoring system must accurately record the amplitude and timing of any
significant ground motion over a wide range of amplitudes, frequencies and
durations, and assemble the records at a central point for processing, within a
reasonably short time so that action may be taken in response and at a high
rate for maximum information retrieval.
The seismic data pass through the following stages: monitoring each sensor
continuously to decide when the signal becomes significant (triggering);
ensuring that the signal represents a seismic event (validation); deciding which
records from which sensors represent the same event (association); extracting
source and path parameters from the raw ground motion data for each event
(seismological processing); and inferring from a history ofthese parameters the
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) which are taking place within the volume being monitored
(interpretation). The following chapters of this book are concerned with the
details of the last two stages, so here we only note that they are implemented
as complex, generally interactive, software processes, and attempt to cover all
other aspects of the seismic data acquisition system.
The basic functions and data flow are illustrated in Fig. 2.1. Triggering is
not essential, but widely used to reduce the amount of data, thus three types
of system may be distinguished: those that do not trigger, but record
continuously, where event detection becomes part of the processing stage;
those that record data following a trigger, for which the delay provides pre-
trigger information; and those that store only the time of each trigger. The
most useful mine monitoring systems fall into the second category.
The details of an implementation differ greatly depending on how and when
the data are transmitted to the central site, indicated by the vertical lines on
Fig. 2.1, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). If transmission is continuous and immediate, as indicated by the left-
most line, then relative timing of the signals at the central site is implicit. For
absolute time all data may be time-stamped from a single clock and network
triggering and real time association may be performed, where any combination
of triggers may be used to control the recording of any or all stations.
However, the properties of available transmission media often dictate that
the signal bandwidth be uncoupled from the transmission bandwidth. This
leads to an arrangement, the upper central vertical line in Fig, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). 2.1, where the
signals are time-stamped and recorded locally, and transmitted to the central
site when the transmission channel is available. In this case each station
requires a clock, which must be periodically synchronized with the network
22 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Sensor Site Tran smit Central Site


triggered

Driver booster 6.5 key 2019 crack serial keygen I
data
,-IAssociator
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) I
I

----"-+-_~.,~Store
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) data
y

. ~·.--'--- - ,
'--------i~· jr - Store
. J :iigg, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). ~r .-
----- ~,
.T results
on/off '--------'

Optional"

Transmit Transmit Transport


Hide All IP 2020.01.13 Crack With License Key 2021 Download all data trigger storage
medium

Fig. 2.1 Basic functions


of a seismic system: clock, and bidirectional communication with the central site. The associator
signal conditioning, operates on delayed trigger information and may be able to set data
represented by filtering
and calibration; time- transmission priorities, but cannot control the recording process which must
stamping from a clock; be done locally at each sensor.
storage; and processing. In that this scenario of distributed control and delayed transmission is most
Dashed lines represent widely applicable, the system functions will be discussed in this context, with
control signals. Triggering alternate possibilities noted where necessary.
is optionally used to The question of system organization is but the most awkward aspect of the
reduce the amount of
data. In an extreme case, more general problem of discussing a system in terms which will not soon be
only the trigger time is rendered redundant by technological development. Note that Fig. KeyGenSumo.com | N Catalog illustrates
stored. Usually more than the system functions without specifying analogue to digital conversion, type
one sensor site is of data transmission or even digital data storage. Three areas of interest in
incorporated into a which change is now under way are the relentless annual increase in the power
seismic network. Vertical
lines represent points at of digital computers, the increase in communications bandwidth made possible
which data may be by optical fibre, and the advent of oversampling AID converters with their
transmitted from multiple unprecedented linearity. Where possible, emphasis will be placed on the
sites to a central point for physical principles underlying each step in the data processing sequence, rather
common processing. than the technology.
Those functions to the left Following the signal from the sensor through to the central site, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), we first
of the chosen line are
distributed to sensor sites, require signal conditioning to take care of any special sensor needs, injection
while those to the right of a calibration signal, anti-alias filtering, possible reduction in dynamic range
are shared centrally.
Seismic monitoring systems 23

by amplitude compression or gain ranging, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), and digitization. Any direct data


transmission also logically belongs with this group. Then we consider the
specialized seismic requirements of triggering and record validation. Digital
data communication in the Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) system comes next, followed by
association and data storage and management.

2.1 Signal conditioning

The input to the signal conditioning circuitry must provide for any special
requirements of the sensor, a matching damping resistor for geophones and a
constant current supply for the accelerometers with built-in FET amplifiers
being the most obvious examples. Because this input is connected to the
outside world, a certain amount of robustness is desirable.

2.1.1 Calibration signal injection

To verify that the system is functioning correctly, it is useful to be able to


introduce a known signal as close to the sensor as possible, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The sensors
designed for earthquake monitoring usually accept a calibration signal. In the
case of geophones, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), this drives a coil which applies an additional force to the
mass which must be countered by the spring, effectively causing a
displacement of the equilibrium position. For the force balance accelerometer,
the calibration signal is added to the error signal.
For miniature geophones, the signal may be applied to the sensing terminals.
This interferes with measuring the response, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), but, again, causes a displacement
ofthe mass. The piezoelectric accelerometers with built-in amplifiers generally
do not permit in situ calibration.
If the calibration signal is in the form of a pulse which is long enough for
the sensor to reach equilibrium at its new position, we will see two instances
of the step response of the sensor, one when the pulse is applied and another
when it is removed. Note that the Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) step is differentiated by the
geophone to give a velocity impulse response, whereas the accelerometer
assumes the displacement of the mass is due to acceleration. If the sensor is
underdamped, (b < 1) then the step response will be oscillatory and we may
measure b and in from it. See Chapter 1, Section 1.2 and Fig. 1.6, for the
theory of sensors.
We may determine In independently for a geophone as the frequency at
which a sinusoidal calibration signal is in phase with the geophone output.
However, this is probably too complex an operation to perform in situ.
For piezoelectric accelerometers with built-in amplifiers, and with any
sensor to test for crosstalk between channels in the signal conditioning
24 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

circuitry, it is advisable to be able to inject a broadband signal into one


channel at a time, and measure the response of the electronics and the effect
on the other channels. Typically, a pseudorandom binary sequence would be
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) used (Ljung, 1987), Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), which is easily generated using a shift-register and has a
perfect autocorrelation function. The level of crosstalk is important as it has
the same effect as cross axis sensitivity in the sensor and is also a good
diagnostic tool.

2.1.2 Anti-aliasing filters

Before digitization or other sampling process may be performed on the signal,


the bandwidth must be restricted to less than half the sample frequency to
prevent aliasing, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Since we are generally interested in low frequencies, this is
achieved by a low pass filter.
Any signal present at frequency f above half the sampling frequency will be
aliased, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) corrupt the low frequency data by appearing at frequency

where n is an integer such that

0:5 ~ < fsf2.

In general, we would like to maximize the usable bandwidth for a given


sampling frequency. However, realizable analogue filters which cut off very
sharply in the frequency domain cause phase distortion even in the signals
which are not attenuated.
The characteristics of three different types of filter are plotted in Fig. 2.2.
The transfer functions were taken from Baher (1990). A fifth order filter is
shown in each case and the Chebyshev has a 0.1 dB ripple in the passband.
The abscissa is normalized to the cutoff frequency (t;, = 1) where the signal is
reduced to half power (-3 dB), Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). This is generally considered the usable
bandwidth. To introduce <1 % distortion due to aliasing, we must sample at
double the frequency at which the attenuation reaches 40 dB.

Chebyshev filter The best by this criterion is the Chebyshev characteristic,


where we may set f s = 4 f c. The problem with this approach is illustrated by
the group delay, showing that frequencies near to the cutoff are delayed by
almost a full cycle compared with lower frequencies. This dispersion is a
problem for broadband signals such as seismograms where accurate time
differences must be measured.
Seismic monitoring systems 25

~ 0r------------=====~~
OJ
U)
c
8. -10
U)

~
~ -20
:e
Ci
E -30
VCE Exam Simulator 2.8.4 Crack & Torrent Serial Key «
Fig, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). 2.2 Characteristics -40L-----------~--~~~~----~~~--~~~~~

10-' 10° 10'


of analogue low pass Normalized frequency
filters. All filters are fifth
order and the Chebyshev
has 0.1 dB ripple in the
-90
passband. The frequency Cl
OJ
axis is normalized for :2. Bessel
OJ -180
1 Hz half power band- C>
c
width. While the '" 270
3l-
Butterworth and '"
.c
a.
Chebyshev have better -360
attenuation character-
istics allowing a lower _450L----~--~~~~--'--'--,-----~----=====~23
1~ 1~ 1~
sample rate for a given Normalized frequency
signal bandwidth, the
dispersion, indicated by
the variation of group
delay with frequency, U
makes them unsuitable ~1
MovieMator Video Editor Pro 3.3.2 With Full Crack [Latest] 0>-
when accurate picks '"
0.5t========-
Qi
'0
must be made in the
time domain from broad- ~
(9
band signals such as
Bessel
seismograms. The
transfer functions were OL---~--~~~~~~----~~~~=---~
10-' 10°
taken from Baher (1990), Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Normalized frequency

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Butterworth filter While not as sharp as the Chebyshev, this still exhibits
group delay variations.

Bessel filter We are therefore left with the Bessel filter which is designed for
constant group delay (linear phase) but which requires a sampling rate t, = 8ic.
Because of its gentle cutoff profile, the Bessel also produces little ringing and
overshoot, so that peak amplitudes are also accurate.

FIR filter Another filter with the required characteristic is the symmetric
finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. Very high factors of oversampling
26 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) (-100) may be used Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) means that the analogue anti-alias filter may be
first order. The low pass FIR filter is applied to the oversampled signal
followed by a reduction in sampling rate through decimation, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The
characteristics of a 64 point FIR filter are plotted in Fig. 2.3, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). It was designed
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) using a program incorporating the Parks and McClellan optimizing algorithm
(McClellan et al. 1973), Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The frequency axis is normalized to the sample rate.
The cutoff frequency is above 0.2 fs and 40 dB attenuation is achieved before
0.25 j, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) the sample rate may be halved after filtering, leaving a signal which
utilizes 80% of the available bandwidth.

0.5.---.,----.--.---,-------r--.---,

0.4
$
8. 0.3
<IJ
l!! 0.2
$
1 0 .1

or-----------'./
Jogos de 3D Fighter de Graça para Baixar -0.1 L.-_ _-'-_ _--"-_ _---'L.-_'---'--_ _---L_ _ _.J.---'
10 20 30 40 50 60
Time [samples]

~ O~---------------~
$c:
cFosSpeed serial key Archives 8. -10
Fig. 2.3 Characteristics ~
~-20
of a 64 point finite :2
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) C.
impulse response (FIR) ~-30
digital low pass filter. The
frequency axis is -40L.---~--~~~~~~~---~~~-~--'

normalized to the sample 1~ 1~


Normalized frequency
rate. The filter was
designed to allow halving
of the sampling rate, so
reaches the required ~ 50
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) :!2.
40 dB attenuation at 0.25 $c:
's'The passband extends ~ O~----------------__,
to 0.2 's' utilizing 80% of l!!
the possible bandwidth ~
after decimation by a 6: -50
factor of two. The group
delay is a constant 32
10- 1
samples. Normalized frequency
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Seismic monitoring systems 27

2.1.3 Reduction in dynamic range

The signal from the sensor has a very wide dynamic range - the ratio of the
maximum signal to the quiescent noise level. Maintaining this dynamic range
through the signal conditioning circuitry is difficult as electronic components
add noise and limit the maximum amplitude. However, the sensor signal has
limited accuracy because of the distortions in the transduction process.
Whereas noise for a given circuit combination is fixed, the error due to
distortion is proportional to the signal amplitude. If we assume we can resolve
successive levels of output signal separated by the noise amplitude, then, when
the signal becomes large enough for the distortion to exceed the noise, we
have many redundant levels which could all represent the same signal
differently affected by the distortion. At these signal amplitudes meaningful
levels are separated by the ratio 1 + lin, where the distortion is expressed as
1 part in n. For a dynamic range D, we Phpstorm 2019.3.1 crack Archives the relation

1 )(N-nJ
D= n ( 1 + ~ (2.1 )

where N is the total number of significant signal levels. The relation between
input signal level and output level number is illustrated in Fig, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). 2.4. Taking
logs and rearranging yields an expression for N:

N= n+ 10gD-Iogn

log ( 1 +~)
For example, a dynamic range of 106 (120 dB) with a distortion factor of 0.1 %
(1 part in 1000) yields 7912 distinct levels which may be represented in 13
bits instead of the 20 bits required to represent 106 .
A circuit with the partly linear, partly logarithmic transfer function implied
by equation (2.1) is almost impossible to construct and maintain with the
required accuracy. Multiple linear circuits with different gains may be used to
achieve the same effect. As the signal increases, so a lower gain circuit is
selected. This process is called automatic gain ranging, and is illustrated by
Fig. 2.4. The switchover criterion is that at least n levels must be
distinguishable at the lower gain.
For the above example suppose that 16 000 levels are distinguishable at
each gain (14 bits). Then a maximum gain of 64 is required to reach the 106
total dynamic range, the next lower gain could be 8, and followed by a final
28 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

45,--.----,----,----,---,----,----,----,---,----,
Fig. 2.4 Quantization
levels in the presence of
40
noise and distortion.
Ideally, the levels are
linearly spaced for small 35
levels where noise
predominates, and 30
exponentially spaced at 1iE
higher levels where ~ 25
distortion produces the
greatest uncertainty. The
l 20
5a.
graph was calculated for "5
a dynamic range D = 100 o
15
(40 dB) and distortion of
10% so that the steps
10
are clearly visible. The
piecewise linear transfer
function given by
selecting one of multiple
linear gains is also
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
shown. Input signal level [multiple of noise amplitude)

gain of 1, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Sixteen thousand counts at a gain of 64 corresponds to 2000 at a


gain of 8, and similarly for gains 8 and 1, so we easily maintain our maximum
distortion criterion.

2.104 Analogue to digital conversion

AID converters may be broadly classified into four types: integrating,


successive approximation, flash and sigma-delta, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). In general, integrating
converters are too slow for seismic applications, but their high accuracy has
been inherited by sigma-delta converters.
Successive approximation converters approach the solution one bit at a time.
from the most significant bit, subtracting the current approximation from the
input signal before determining the next bit. Flash converters take the parallel
approach, having a comparator for each possible input level and encoding tht~
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) result for output.
Subranging converters are appearing which may be regarded as successive
approximation converters which determine more than one bit at a time or
pipe lined flash converters.
Sigma-delta (or delta-sigma) converters use noise-shaping, oversampling and
digital filtering techniques to provide high accuracy and relatively high speed.
Far Cry 5 Hours of Darkness - CODEX Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Seismic monitoring systems 29

The sigma-delta modulator uses an integrator and comparator to produce a


high rate bit stream which, when averaged by a digital filter and decimated,
produces a very accurate representation of the signal. The accuracy is
attributed to the stability of the integrator and the use of a single comparator.
The technique is still Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), with high order multibit modulators and a wide
variety of digital filters appearing recently.
At present, 12 or 14 bit successive approximation or subranging converters
combined with the gain ranging dynamic range reduction option, described
above, provide a cost effective and flexible solution. One converter may be
shared between several channels or gain ranges by means of an analogue
multiplexer. Synchronous sampling of all channels is necessary for polarization
measurements on triaxial sensors or beam forming on arrays. Where an NO
converter is shared, this may be achieved by digital interpolation or using a
track and hold amplifier per signal after dynamic range reduction.
Sigma-delta converters offer a wider dynamic range, but at present (Analog
Devices, 1994) the limit for filter cutoff frequencies of 30 Hz and greater
appears to be about 18.5 bits (111 dB) even from devices which produce 24
bit output, EZ CD Audio Converter 9.4.0.1 Full Version requiring some amplitude compression or two gain ranges per
sensor. Some devices have very sharp filters so that more than 90% of the
Nyquist frequency is available for use, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). In general, multiplexing a single
converter between channels or gain ranges defeats the noise reducing
properties of the filter and more than one converter is often included in a
single package.

AID specification The accuracy of a converter may be expressed in the static


case as a nonlinearity error or in dynamic terms as the ratio of signal to total
harmonic distortion plus noise. Usually, these specifications will be better, i.e.
smaller, than the distortion figure of the sensor. The important specification is
then the dynamic range, which is the ratio of maximum possible signal to
noise in the absence of signal. The noise may be specified as a voltage, a
histogram of output values for a constant input or as the floor of a fast Fourier
transform (FFf) plot.

2.1.5 Data transmission

The signal produced by the sensor typically has a noise power level of the
order of 10- 14 W. A high quality screened twisted pair cable has crosstalk
attenuation of about 120 dB/km, so the proximity of a cable carrying 1 kWof
power for even 100 m would induce 10- 10 W of interference into the signal
cable, increasing the noise level and severely limiting the dynamic range.
Simply amplifying the signal improves the situation somewhat, but an
30 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

amplifier's dynamic range is inversely proportional to its gain. Thus this direct
baseband method of data transmission is only useful over short distances and
far from any sources of interference.
Reducing the dynamic range (see Section 2.1.3 above) requires either
compression hardware or multiple signal cables carrying the same signal at
different gains.
Under less benign conditions some type of modulation is required. The rale
at which a given communication channel can carry information is given by the
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Hartley-Shannon law (Connor, 1972):

R= Blog 2 (1 + SIN)

where B is the bandwidth, S is the maximum signal power and N is the noise
power introduced in the channel. R is the data rate expressed in bits per
second. In this case the required rate is fixed by the sensor, so the law
basically states that we may trade increased bandwidth for poorer signal to
noise ratio.
One alternative is frequency modulation, where the sensor signal amplitude
is used to vary the frequency of a carrier signal. This broadens the bandwidth
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) of the signal which, as expected, makes it more tolerant to noise and also
shifts it away from the frequency of mains power which is the chief source of
interference and may now be filtered out without altering the signal. However,
the modulation and demodulation circuits introduce their own distortions and
nOIse.
Frequency modulation has the practical advantage that the carrier signal is
always present, so faults which cause a loss of signal may be automatically
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) detected. Frequency division multiplexing is also possible, where signals with
different carrier frequencies are transmitted over a single cable.
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) The next step in improving data transmission is quantization (Taub and
Schilling, 1971). If the transmitted signal can assume only certain discrete
values which are separated by more than the amplitude of the noise, then it
may be recovered exactly at the receiver by restoring it to the nearest
permitted value. This is of vital importance when transmitting over sufficiently
long distances to require many repeaters which would otherwise amplify any
induced noise with the signal, but is also useful when the transmission medium
is nonlinear.
In the extreme case the signal is encoded as a sequence of binary digits
(bits) so only two possible levels need to be distinguished by the receiver. This
naturally requires the maximum bandwidth. Once the data are encoded in
binary form, an arbitrary number of bits may be grouped together, depending
on how many levels may be distinguished in the prevailing noise conditions.
Seismic monitoring systems 31

and sent as one symbol, allowing a tradeoff between bandwidth and signal to
noise ratio. Hence we distinguish between the baud rate, which is the number
of symbols per second and limited to less than double the bandwidth, and the
data rate, which is the number of bits per second.
When dealing with a Gaussian noise distribution, for example, there is a
finite probability of encountering an arbitrarily large error, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), so some symbols
will be misinterpreted. Thus distortion of the signal has been replaced by an
error rate. By adding some redundant bits, errors may be detected at the
receiver, and adding still more makes correction possible.
Since the signal will eventually be digitized for processing on a computer,
digitizing as close to the sensor as possible and using digital data transmission
offers the optimal solution.

2.2 Triggering and validation

Generally automatic detection of the presence of a seismic signal is desirable.


When this detection takes place in real time and is used to initiate further
action from the system such as recording and association, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), it is referred to as
triggering.
For low frequencies and distant, long duration events, continuous recording
may be justified, but in the mining environment where the relatively high
frequencies of interest necessitate a correspondingly high sampling rate and the
nearby events produce ground motion of short duration, triggering is necessary
to reduce the amount of data recorded and to initiate the process which
culminates in producing a report. In situations which might defeat a simple
trigger algorithm, and especially where further processing must proceed
automatically because of the volume of data, it is useful to have a further
validation phase which verifies that the entire segment of recorded data
conforms to a single processable seismic event.

2.2.1 Event detection

In the mining environment the prime concern has historically been the
quantification of damaging events, which naturally have a very high signal to
noise ratio. With the shift in emphasis to ever more sensitive networks in the
search for precursive activity, no shortage of events with good signal to noise
ratio has been experienced, hence the processing routines are still designed to
function under these circumstances, and the triggering algorithms need only
look for a sudden increase in amplitude.
32 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Fixed threshold The simplest trigger is simply a fixed threshold and a trigger
is declared if a single sample exceeds this value. This does not work well
where the noise is environmental, as the level tends to change with mining
activity.

STAILTA ratio The noise level may be represented by a long term average
(LTA) of some estimate of the instantaneous signal amplitude. This is then
google earth pro 3.0.6 crack serial keygen compared with a short term average (STA) of the amplitude, the trigger
criterion being

STA/LTA >Rt

where Rt is the trigger ratio. There are several parameters which characterize
this algorithm. The period over which the LTA is taken represents a cutoff
Arquivos PSVita between the shorter period signal and the longer period noise envelope
variations, the period of the STA could be seen as the minimum duration of
a valid event, and the trigger ratio is the minimum signal to noise ratio for a
valid recording.
Many sources of interference are impulsive in nature, e.g. lightning,
switching transients in power lines, single bit digital errors. Although of very
short duration, these can give rise to very large amplitudes, which may, even
when averaged over the STA period, be sufficient to push the STA over the
threshold, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). One common variation on this algorithm is thus to use the median,
rather than the mean, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), of samples within the STA window.
The signal envelope E may be calculated by combining with a copy of the
signal S which has been delayed by a 90° phase shift, performed by a Hilbert
transformer

where SH is the output of the Hilbert transformer. A useful approximation is


to add a fraction of the derivative to the original signal. This has the effect of
smoothing the envelope compared with simply taking the absolute value, and
also responding to frequency changes (Allen, 1978).
For a triaxial set of sensors to be equally sensitive in all directions, the
trigger algorithm should be performed on the absolute value of the vector sum
of the x, y and z components
Seismic monitoring systems 33

For practical reasons it is often better to trigger on each component separately


while recording all three, which leads to a maximum of 13 variation in
sensitivity with angle of arrival.

2.2.2 Pre-trigger data and end of event

When performing a trigger algorithm in real time, the confirmation of a trigger


is only available once the event has actually begun. In addition, more
confidence can usually be given to the phase picks if some pre-event data are
available for estimation of signal to noise ratios. A temporary store of recent
data is therefore held while performing the trigger algorithm, which is
recorded permanently if the trigger succeeds. The same algorithms used to
determine the onset of an event may be used to determine that it has ended.

2.2.3 Validation

The recorded seismic data are sometimes not suitable for processing, whether
because of an erroneous trigger or some form of corruption. It is therefore
useful to be able to distinguish between such "bad buffers", and" good buffers"
which do contain data suitable for processing. A backpropagation neural
network (Cichocki and Unbehauen, 1993) is used to perform this operation.
The network consists of 200 neurons in the input layer, ten in the hidden layer
and two in the output layer. The squared amplitudes of the recorded signal are
used as input, averaged over 0.5% of the length recorded. A sigmoidal
activation function is used, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), so the output values should be (>0.5, <0.5) for a
good buffer and «0.5, >0.5) for a bad buffer. The network is trained using
500 buffers which have been visually classified as good or bad, employing a
typical gradient teaching method. The result of the training is two weighting
matrices, one 200 x lOin size, the other lOx 2. These are stored on the
system in operation. A success rate of better than 90% has been observed,
which is almost the performance Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) a trained operator.

2.3 Digital data communications

In the simplest case one of the data transmission methods described in Section
2.1.5, above, will suffice for immediate and continuous transmission from the
sensor to the central processing site. In practice this is hardly ever the case: the
interference or attenuation becomes too severe or the communications
bandwidth is restricted (usually by a radio link) to the point where the
triggered data must be stored and further transmission to the processing site
34 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) can take place only as and when the communication channel allows; or the
data acquisition and processing functions may be allocated to different
machines for strategic reasons.
At this point we are dealing essentially with computer to computer
communication, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), which is often discussed in terms of the protocol hierarchy of
the International Organization for Standardization's reference model for Open
Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) shown in Table 2.1 (Tugal and Tugal,
1989). Level 5 and higher are generally regarded as part of the application and
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) in this case would include message types for the activation of an acquisition
unit and communication of triggers and seismic data. Level 4 and below
perform the actual data transport in an application independent and data
transparent manner. If there is an established infrastructure such as a local or
wide area network (LAN or W AN) then these levels are defined by the
network hardware and operating system software, and care must only be taken
to maximize use of the available resources. However, often the
communications system is dedicated to and considered part of the seismic
system, in which case some details of the low level functions are of interest.

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Table 2.1 Protocol hierarchy in the 150-051 reference model

Level Name Scope Examples

physical link connectors, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), interface control

2 data link link addressing, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), error detection, flow control

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 3 network link network control, multiplexing

Microsoft Office 2019 crack serial keygen 4 transport end-to-end message reconstruction

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 5 session end-to-end login, logout

6 presentation end-to-end ASCII characters

7 application end-to-end file transfer

2.3.1 Maximizing the information rate

When dealing with anti-aliasing under signal conditioning in Section 2.1 above
it became clear that while theoretically a signal need only be sampled at twice
the highest frequency present, in practice this is not achieved for a variety of
reasons. The first method for maximizing the amount of information in a given
number of samples is thus to ensure that the Nyquist bandwidth is being
Seismic monitoring systems 35

utilized as much as possible, by using the sharpest anti-aliasing filter practical.


Since we are aware of the nature of the seismic data and the processing
steps which will be performed on them, further reductions may be made in the
number of samples necessary to represent an event. In Section 2.2.2 it was
suggested that a recording be terminated as soon as the amplitude had fallen
below some multiple of the noise level in an inverted trigger test. Seismic
parameter extraction requires frequencies up to only five times higher than the
dominant frequency, so the higher frequencies may be filtered out and Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) rate reduced to conform to the new Nyquist. By analogy with the
automatic gain ranging which enables a system to cope with a wide dynamic
range in amplitude, finding the end of an event and applying adaptive
decimation may be said to yield a wide dynamic range for duration and
frequency content.
The wavelet transform, which uses finite orthogonal functions as opposed
to the infinite sine waves of the Fourier transform, promises a better type of
decimation or lossy data compression, where some high frequency information,
and hence the accuracy of phase picks, may be retained while representing the
signal with far fewer samples than would otherwise be required.
Finally, we may use some lossless data compression scheme such as
Huffman coding (Connor, 1972) to ensure that each sample is represented in
the minimum number of bits possible. While the primary concern here is
making maximum use of scarce communication bandwidth, a useful reduction
in the amount of data storage required also results from the use of these
techniques.

2.3.2 Low level protocols

When the communication system is part Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) the seismic system, various


principles may be applied to enhance the utility of the communications.
Discrete messages are exchanged between the computers, rather than the
continuous data streams produced by the sensors.
Levels 4 and below of the OSI model are concerned with the transport of
messages from one computer system to another, in this case the data
acquisition unit and the central processing site. Levels 3 and below are link
level protocols, so that if the path covers multiple physical links, then these
levels apply separately to each link while level 4 supplies the end-to-end
transport.
The error detection, correction and flow control functions are performed at
levels 2 and 3, in hardware and software respectively, because the details
depend very much on the link capabilities. For slow or error prone links, the
maximum message size may be restricted so that individual messages have
36 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

more chance of being transmitted correctly and retransmISSIon for error


correction is quicker. Level 4 then reassembles the original messages for the
application. Other than this, the lower levels should be data transparent, i.e. the
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) content of the messages should not be restricted, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). Often hardware support is
used to allow link specific error detection and control information to be added
to each message while maintaining data transparency.
For example, an acquisition unit might send data via cable at 1200 bls to a
multiplexer which forwards data from many stations over a radio link at 9600
bls to a second multiplexer with an Ethernet link to the central site. The cable
link, while slow, should be reliable, so a simple checksum might be included
for error checking, and any tirneouts, always the last resort for error detection,
could be long. The radio link might add a significant amount of information
for detecting burst errors. If the radio frequency is shared, polling flow control
could be used, where the central site requests data from each Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) in tum. The
Light Image Resizer 6.0.7.0 Crack With Key [Latest] Download serial links are point to point, so the low level addressing consists of directing
the data to the correct port. Ethernet, by contrast, is a bussed medium, so each
message has hardware source and destination addresses added.
It is, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), of course, necessary that the systems at each end of the link agree on
the interpretation of the signals exchanged. Standards which are widely used
in inter-computer communication have been drawn up by the Electronic
Industries Association (EIA), the International Telegraph and Telephone
Consultative Committee (CCITT) of the United Nations International
Telecommunications Union, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE). These standards include the EIA's RS232C and RS422 for
level 1 protocol between data terminal equipment (DTE), usually a computer,
and data communications equipment (DCE), usually a modem. These are
mirrored and extended by the CCITT's V series of standards. IEEE 802 covers
levels 1 and 2 for a wide variety of LANs, and other IEEE standards cover
more recent high speed low level protocols which are often given impetus as
computer to peripheral communication methods.

2.4 Association

The associator must decide which triggers from individual stations correspond
to the same event. For association between two triggers, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), the difference in times
must be less than or equal to the seismic wave travel time A.tij between the
two stations:

(2.2)
Seismic monitoring systems 37

where T; is the trigger time of the ith station at position (x;,y;,z;) and ~, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), is the
wave propagation velocity for the phase on which it is assumed the stations
triggered.
Equation (2.2) only describes a test for pairs of triggers, and further rules
are required to find all triggers from an event, especially when spurious
triggers may occur which result in a situation where trigger A associates with
trigger B and trigger B with trigger C, but trigger A does not associate with
trigger C, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). A popular strategy, especially in systems with direct transmission,
is to open a time window upon receipt of the earliest trigger, with a duration
equal to the longest travel time between any two stations in the network, and
accept any triggers occurring within this window as part of the same event
(Lee and Stewart, 1981), Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). If fewer than some minimum number of triggers are
received within this window, the event and at least its initial trigger are
discarded, and the process repeated for the succeeding trigger. This method is
sometimes referred to as a "network trigger", rather than association, by
analogy with individual station triggers. An event defined in this way may still
contain spurious triggers, and it is then worthwhile to apply equation (2.2)
exhaustively to all pairs to define the largest subset of these triggers which is
mutually consistent, before proceeding with location or further processing
(Lawrence, 1984).
In order to unambiguously separate the triggers caused by sequential events,
there must be no triggers for a period equal to the travel time between the
most widely separated stations under consideration. The associator may use
various heuristics to improve its performance when this criterion is not met,
such as including each station only once in each event, but any sustained
activity which violates this principle will, in the presence of spurious triggers,
result in triggers from different events being associated or triggers from the
same event being separated.
There is thus a relationship between the diameter of a group of stations and
the maximum rate at which events on which they trigger can occur and be
reliably associated. The word "group" is deliberately used in this instance as
it may comprise a subset of the stations in a network, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The defining property
is that only members of the group be considered for mutual association, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). If the
maximum travel time between any pair of stations within the group is Lltmax ,
then events must be separated by at least 2Lltmax so that the last trigger of the
first event is separated by iltmax from the first trigger of the second event. If
we assume a Poisson (random) distribution of events with time, then the
probabilty P of no events occurring during the period 2dtmax is related to the
average rate of occurence of events r by (Mood et ai., 1974):
(2.3)
38 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

if we use a probability of failure F = 1 - P, to express the probability that our


criterion will not be met, take natural logs on both side of equation (2.3), and
use the approximation In(l +x) "" x for small x, then

F= r·2dtmax (2.4)

so

f 1
r=---«---
2d tmax 2d tmax
i.e. for a low probability of interference between events, the average event rate
must be much less than the reciprocal of the minimum separation time. This
problem is compounded by the fact that mining often does not proceed
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) continuously, but in discrete steps caused by periodic blasts. The event rate
following such a blast greatly exceeds the daily average for a long time
compared with the travel times.
For example, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), consider a mine network with a longest travel time of 0.5 s
which gathers 1000 events per day. The Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) time between events over this
period is then 86.4 s. If Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) make the common assumption that 90% of events
occur in 10% of the time after a blast, the average interval during this period
reduces to 10.4 s, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), and from equation (2.4) the probability of two events
occurring within the I s minimum spacing is 10%. Considering that each such
overlap could result in two erroneously associated sets of triggers, this network
is already a candidate for introducing groups for association purposes. The true
situation is worse, as the event rate is not constant for two hours after the
blast, but decreasing, and immediately after the blast would be far higher than
the one per 10.4 s rate used above. Also limits on system throughput might
result in many events being lost during this time and not reflected in the 1000
recorded events per day which was the initial assumption.
This analysis assumes that the only information available to the associator
is the arrival time of a single seismic phase, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). This is generally the case because
the associator (or network trigger) decides whether a station trigger should be
recorded for further processing or discarded. If resources are available for the
temporary storage of, and further parameter extraction from, a potentially
spurious waveform, then maximum amplitude, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), dominant frequency,
polarization parameters, the arrival of a second phase, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), or a full location, from
a single station or two or more closely spaced stations, may be used to
improve the associator performance when events occur almost simultaneously
in different parts of the network.
Seismic monitoring systems 39

2.5 Central processing site

The central site must collect all the seismic data and support associatIOn,
seismological processing, interpretation and permanent data storage. It is
convenient, and generally possible in the mining environment, for the stations
to be largely controlled from the central site.
It is probably safe to assume that all these operations will be computer
based. Given the range of computer operating systems available today, it is
still necessary to stress that these functions must all be able to proceed
concurrently, and so the system must be able to perform multiple tasks at
once, whether through use of a single multitasking machine, or multiple
machines communicating via network. If a trend may be discerned, it is
towards Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) multiple machine approach, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), as the price/performance ratio of
computer hardware continually improves and the ability of diverse machines
to communicate with one another over networks becomes almost universal.
Change is continuous in the computer environment. The data acquisition
function of the central site is the most critical SpyHunter 5.10.7.226 Crack & License Key maintaining continuous
coverage. In many ways it is the most mature and best defined part, and yet
also one of the most difficult to engineer because of the realtime constraints
and explicit parallelism involved in collecting and evaluating data from
multiple stations at once. Thus in the multiple machine environment it is
attractive to embed this function, i.e. to deploy it on a dedicated machine with
specialized hardware and operating system software of which the user may
remain essentially ignorant, seeing it simply as a seismic data server, which
is more reliable and stable because of its specialized nature, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). The interactive
processing steps may then be carried out on a multipurpose desktop machine,
accessing the data in a standard format via the network.

2.6 System performance

This chapter has concentrated on individual aspects of the seismic system,


especially where there are physical limits to its performance, and it must be
stressed that the performance of the system as a whole is only as good as its
weakest link. Each functional component - the transducer, signal conditioning,
triggering, data communication, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021), association and central site - has the potential
to distort or discard data to the point where the system's usefulness as a tool
is questionable. It is only by maintaining technical excellence in all phases of
system deployment from design and installation through operation and
maintenance, that the potential results may be achieved.
The quality of the data collected may be assured by frequent calibration of
40 Seismic Monitoring in Mines

all system components, preferably on an automatic basis. The quantity of data


is also important in ensuring that every bit of information broadcast by the
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) seismic waves about the state of the rock mass is captured.
Seismic system parameters differ with the size of the volume to be covered.
Table 2.2 shows three target network sizes differing by an order of magnitude
in each case, and the changes which are necessary in the specification of the
system.
In the case of the Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) limited by communications bandwidth there are
three distinct data rates: the burst rate, which is determined by the number of
events that can be stored locally at a sensor site; the sustained rate, which is
the rate at which data from events may be continuously transmitted to the
central site; and the daily or weekly rate, which takes into account periodic
patterns in the seismicity rate caused by mining methods.
The final rate which is important is that at which the data are processed,
interpreted and fed back to the management of the mining operation. No
matter how fast and accurate the system is, it only serves its purpose when it
contributes to the operation of the mine.

Table 2.2 Seismic network parameter variation with size

Regional Local Micro

mmin I to 0 o to -1 -3 to -4

mmax. 4 to 5 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 4 3

Average volume [km] 30x30x5 3x3x3 0.3xO.3xO.3

Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) Events/day 100 1000 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 10000

Sensors 1 Hz; 4.5 Hz 4.5 Hz; 28 Hz geo 10 kHz acc


geo

Minimum density [km] 5th station> 2 5 stations < 1 5 stations < 0.3

Useful frequency band [Hz] 0.5 to 300 2 to 1000 3 to 10 000

Comms [kbps] 1.2 9.6 115

Storage [GB] 0.2 2 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) 20

CPU [Mflops] PDF Splitter and Merger 4.0 crack serial keygen 8 80
Deconvolution, Polarization and
3 Wavelet Transform of Seismic
Signals

Signals recorded by any seismic system usually pass through a number of linear
causal systems (such as different filters) and each of them introduces a certain
amount of distortion in the original signal. Therefore, prior to any processing, it
is very important to recover, at least to some extent, the original signal using all
available information, Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021). This will be discussed in Section 3.1 below.
Another very important aspect of signal processing is the polarization. Different
signals have different types of polarization and this difference can be used for
discrimination between various signal types. Body waves, such as P and S waves,
are usually linearly polarized, whilst microseismic noise usually is not. Therefore,
employing various polarization analysis Voxengo Elephant 4 crack serial keygen, described in Section 3.2, it is
possible to discern different types of signals. This feature is usually widely
employed in automatic arrival pickers.
The last subject which will be discussed in the current chapter is the wavelet
transform. This recently introduced technique can be used for various purposes -
signal filtering, data compression and time-frequency analysis.

3.1 Deconvolution

The recovery of a segment of the input signal (true ground motion in terms of
displacement, velocity or acceleration) from the related segment of the output
signal of a seismic system is known as the restitution problem in seismology. If
this problem is considered from the point of view of communication theory, it is
the deconvolution problem of a linear causal system. In order to get the true ground
motion it is therefore necessary to construct and apply the inverse digital filter. In
Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) order to remove possible problems of inverse filter instability the time domain
approach rather than the spectral domain is used.

3.1.1 Deconvolution filters for seismic systems

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Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Keygen 2021 Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) एक आवेदन पत्र है, विशेष रूप से डिजाइन करने के लिए शिक्षकों की मदद कर सर्किट का अध्ययन और अधिक सुखद और कुशल है ।

यह एक उपकरण है कि प्रदर्शित करता है की तुलना में एक अधिक उपयोगकर्ता के अनुकूल इंटरफेस और बनाने के लिए अनुमति देता सर्किट से बस खींचने घटकों से उपलब्ध पुस्तकालय में काम के क्षेत्र में और फिर उन्हें जोड़ने के तारों के साथ है ।

यह आपको मौका प्रदान करता है का उपयोग करने के लिए घटक श्रेणियों से इस तरह के 'के रूप में इनपुट नियंत्रण', 'आउटपुट नियंत्रण', 'तर्क गेट्स' और 'फ्लिप-फ्लॉप'. आवेदन बनाया गया है का उपयोग करने के लिए वेक्टर तत्वों तो हर एकल आइटम आप जोड़ परियोजना के लिए महान लग रही है और केवल योगदान देता है करने के लिए एक और भी बेहतर परिणाम.

सब कुछ है कि जोड़ा गया है, इस परियोजना के लिए ले जाया जा सकता है, कहीं भी नकल या नष्ट कर दिया, तो, की जरूरत नहीं दक्षिणावर्त या वामावर्त घुमाया और बनाने के लिए इस्तेमाल किया एकीकृत सर्किट । के बीच कनेक्शन के घटकों से बना रहे हैं एक साधारण क्लिक के साथ पिन पर और नष्ट किया जा सकता है बस के रूप में आसानी से ।

आवेदन और सभी शामिल है कि इमारत के सर्किट बनाया गया है करने के लिए हो सकता है के रूप में सरल और व्यापक रूप में संभव है, की अनुमति के छात्र पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने और समझने की कि यह कैसे समाप्त होता है काम करने के बजाय कि यह कैसे लग रहा है.

एक बार अपने सर्किट बनाया गया है, Logicly सक्षम बनाता है आप के लिए इसे बाहर का परीक्षण चल रहा है एक अनुकरण है । आभासी संकेत प्रचारित किया जाता है के साथ जुड़े घटकों और अगर सर्किट में शामिल घड़ियां, वे शुरू करने के लिए कांपना. चीजें आसान बनाने के लिए समझने के लिए जब कुछ गलत हो जाता है, Logicly रंग का उपयोग करता है दिखाने के लिए जब पिन परिवर्तन राज्य या घटना में है कि एक कनेक्शन जोड़ा गया है या हटा दिया.

यह प्रदर्शन के लिए रंग का संकेत में उच्च या कम राज्य है, के रूप में अच्छी तरह के रूप में जब Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021) अज्ञात है । आप यह भी एक रंग है जो आपको बताता है कि संकेत है में उच्च प्रतिबाधा राज्य है । रंग है कि आवेदन का उपयोग करता डिफ़ॉल्ट रूप से बदला जा सकता है अपने स्वाद के अनुसार.

समापन में, यदि आप देख रहे हैं के लिए एक व्यावहारिक और मजेदार का उपयोग करने के लिए आवेदन सहायता कर सकते हैं कि आप में कैसे समझा सर्किट का निर्माण कर रहे हैं और काम कर सकते हैं, आप निश्चित रूप से प्रयास Logicly.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

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Logicly 1.13.0 Crack With Serial Number Full Version (2021)

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